269245
/en/natur-og-miljo/statistikker/agassn/aar-endelige
269245
New calculation method pushes up emissions
statistikk
2016-12-13T08:00:00.000Z
Nature and the environment
en
agassn, Emissions of acidifying gases and ozone precursors, air pollution, acidifying gases (for example NOX, SO2, NH3), emissions by source (for example oil and gas production, road traffic, air traffic), emissions by industry (for example energy sector, manufacturing, primary industries)Pollution and climate, Nature and the environment
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Statistics on the emission of acidifying gases and ozone precursors from 1990 (1980) onwards, covering NOX, SO2, NH3, NMVOC and CO, and with detailed classifications.

Emissions of acidifying gases and ozone precursors

Updated

Next update

Key figures

- 3.7 %

lower emissions of nitrogen oxides in 2015 compared with 2014

Emissions of NOX, SO2, NH3, NMVOCs and CO. 1 000 tonnes1
2015Change in per cent
Since 19902014 - 2015
1Does not include international sea and air traffic.
Nitrogen oxides (NOX)153-23.4-3.7
Sulphur dioxide (SO2)16-68.7-0.9
Ammonia (NH3)2712.30.5
Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)157-48.0-1.0
Carbon monoxide (CO)385-53.41.5

See more tables on this subject

Table 1 
Emissions to air of NOX, SO2, NH3, NMVOCs and CO. 1 000 tonnes

Emissions to air of NOX, SO2, NH3, NMVOCs and CO. 1 000 tonnes1
Sulphur dioxide (SO2)Nitrogen oxides (NOX)Ammonia (NH3)Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)Carbon monoxide (CO)
1Does not include ocean transport and international air transport.
199052.3199.923.7301.7825.8
200027.2211.625.3390.9626.7
201118.8185.726.0144.9436.0
201217.3179.826.4144.4429.0
201316.8168.826.4148.7399.1
201416.5159.026.6158.7379.2
201516.4153.226.7157.0384.9

Table 2 
Emissions to air of SO2, NOX, NH3, NMVOCs and CO, by source. 1 000 tonnes

Emissions to air of SO2, NOX, NH3, NMVOCs and CO, by source. 1 000 tonnes1
2015
Sulphur dioxide (SO2)Nitrogen oxides (NOX)Ammonia (NH3)Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)Carbon monoxide (CO)
1Does not include ocean transport and international air transport.
All sources16.4153.226.7157.0384.9
Oil and gas extraction - stationary combustion0.747.5..2.611.3
Oil and gas extraction - process emissions0.00.00.045.60.0
Manufacturing industries and mining - stationary combustion1.54.70.01.49.2
Manufacturing industries and mining - process emissions10.412.30.711.8154.7
Energy supply1.82.0..2.08.1
Heating in other industries0.30.90.10.24.7
Heating in households0.31.20.17.092.8
Passenger cars0.012.50.84.630.1
Light duty vehicles0.05.00.00.43.1
Heavy duty vehicles0.012.40.00.44.0
Motorcycles and mopeds0.00.20.01.77.5
Railways0.00.70.00.10.2
Domestic aviation0.15.7..1.76.1
Costal navigation1.131.4..1.74.3
Motorized equipment etc.0.09.30.012.548.6
Agriculture - enteric fermentation and manure0.03.021.310.00.0
Agriculture - fertilizer and other0.04.33.20.70.0
Landfill gas0.00.00.00.80.0
Road, tyre and brake wear and abrasion of railway contact wires0.00.00.00.00.0
Products containing fluorinated gases, solvents etc.0.00.00.047.60.3
Other0.00.00.44.30.0

Table 3 
Emissions to air of SO2, NOX, NH3, NMVOCs and CO, by source. 1 000 tonnes

Emissions to air of SO2, NOX, NH3, NMVOCs and CO, by source. 1 000 tonnes1
2014
Sulphur dioxide (SO2)Nitrogen oxides (NOX)Ammonia (NH3)Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)Carbon monoxide (CO)
1Does not include ocean transport and international air transport.
All sources16.5159.026.6158.7379.2
Oil and gas extraction - stationary combustion0.849.5..2.911.3
Oil and gas extraction - process emissions0.00.00.048.80.0
Manufacturing industries and mining - stationary combustion1.25.00.01.49.0
Manufacturing industries and mining - process emissions10.412.10.611.6149.6
Energy supply1.82.0..1.96.8
Heating in other industries0.30.90.10.24.3
Heating in households0.31.10.16.589.3
Passenger cars0.013.00.95.233.7
Light duty vehicles0.05.20.00.43.5
Heavy duty vehicles0.014.50.00.54.5
Motorcycles and mopeds0.00.10.01.77.5
Railways0.00.60.00.10.2
Domestic aviation0.15.8..1.76.2
Costal navigation1.632.3..1.64.2
Motorized equipment etc.0.09.60.012.548.6
Agriculture - enteric fermentation and manure0.03.021.310.30.0
Agriculture - fertilizer and other0.04.23.20.70.0
Landfill gas0.00.00.00.80.0
Road, tyre and brake wear and abrasion of railway contact wires0.00.00.00.00.0
Products containing fluorinated gases, solvents etc.0.00.00.045.70.4
Other0.00.00.44.30.0

Table 4 
Emissions to air of SO2, NOX, NH3, NMVOCs and CO, by source. 1 000 tonnes

Emissions to air of SO2, NOX, NH3, NMVOCs and CO, by source. 1 000 tonnes1
1990
Sulphur dioxide (SO2)Nitrogen oxides (NOX)Ammonia (NH3)Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)Carbon monoxide (CO)
1Does not include ocean transport and international air transport.
All sources52.3199.923.7301.7825.8
Oil and gas extraction - stationary combustion0.425.5..1.25.9
Oil and gas extraction - process emissions0.00.00.0120.70.0
Manufacturing industries and mining - stationary combustion6.710.4..1.37.1
Manufacturing industries and mining - process emissions30.414.70.616.1167.0
Energy supply1.11.3..0.40.6
Heating in other industries1.71.91.00.427.6
Heating in households1.32.00.17.3152.4
Passenger cars1.135.40.253.8347.6
Light duty vehicles0.45.00.04.944.8
Heavy duty vehicles1.824.30.02.15.7
Motorcycles and mopeds0.00.10.02.16.8
Railways0.11.40.00.10.3
Domestic aviation0.13.4..1.04.3
Coastal navigation6.254.3..2.45.0
Motorized equipment etc.1.113.10.013.850.0
Agriculture - enteric fermentation and manure0.02.718.610.30.0
Agriculture - fertilizer and other0.04.43.20.80.0
Landfill gas0.00.00.01.20.0
Road, tyre and brake wear and abrasion of railway contact wires0.00.00.00.00.0
Products containing fluorinated gases, solvents etc.0.00.00.051.90.7
Other0.00.00.110.10.0

Table 5 
Emissions to air of SO2, NOX, NH3, NMVOCs and CO, by industry. Tonnes

Emissions to air of SO2, NOX, NH3, NMVOCs and CO, by industry. Tonnes
2015
Sulphur dioxide (SO2)Nitrogen oxides (NOX)Ammonia (NH3)Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)Carbon monoxide (CO)
All industries and households20 549226 84026 678160 933399 399
 
Emissions from international air and ocean transport4 17973 578.3 92114 501
International air transport - Norwegian airlines26213 644.69310 600
International ocean transport - Norwegian operated ships3 91759 934.3 2283 901
 
Other industries and households16 370153 26226 678157 012384 898
Agriculture and forestry369 24324 56211 2594 843
Fiske og fangst41612 084..6235 600
Aquaculture61093127120
Mining and quarrying15284712 493397
Oil and gas extraction71847 473..49 10311 174
Service activities incidental to oil and gas572 701..1 027437
Food products, beverages and tobacco products8551913 661251
Textiles, wearing apparel, leather111034
Wood and wood products, except furniture, paper and paper products31486601 1664 761
Printing and reproduction of recorded media0601794
Refined petroleum products, chemicals and chemical products, pharmaceutical products5 61310 48161710 09711 149
Rubber and plastic products, non-metallic mineral products1 7771 9141521 2441 447
Basic metals3 9373 74631 382146 465
Fabricated metal products, machinery and equipment510301 16051
Building of ships and boats and other transport equipment492049421
Furniture and other manufacturing2901 77975
Repair and installation of machinery and equipment151068723
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply1 8362 10004 8978 116
Water supply, sewerage and waste management952343935118
Construction332 883224 9372 566
Wholesale and retail trade, repair of mot.veh.588064011 4371 714
Accommodation and food service activities12765120228
Post and telecommunications0450427
Information and communication, except telecommuncations135739258
Financial and insurance activities5100315
Real estate activities2680421
Other service activities403403731 1761 015
Transport via pipelines...9.
Other transport72742 594497 20414 642
Education1652157365
Human health and social work activities308011 268153
Public administration and defence591 93613151 212
Households32911 65983638 107167 622

Table 6 
Emissions to air of SO2, NOX, NH3, NMVOCs and CO, by industry. Tonnes

Emissions to air of SO2, NOX, NH3, NMVOCs and CO, by industry. Tonnes
2014
Sulphur dioxide (SO2)Nitrogen oxides (NOX)Ammonia (NH3)Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)Carbon monoxide (CO)
All industries and households23 840234 45626 555162 589393 028
 
Emissions from international air and ocean transport7 31375 465.3 93313 870
International air transport - Norwegian airlines22512 742.6479 899
International ocean transport - Norwegian operated ships7 08862 723.3 2863 970
 
Other industries and households16 527158 99126 555158 656379 158
Agriculture and forestry309 24924 55013 7044 438
Fiske og fangst70913 159..8895 731
Aquaculture41073134120
Mining and quarrying1641 0331939452
Oil and gas extraction72246 035..52 03010 633
Service activities incidental to oil and gas774 042..1 688695
Food products, beverages and tobacco products8045403 591295
Textiles, wearing apparel, leather0110114
Wood and wood products, except furniture, paper and paper products35687701 2934 706
Printing and reproduction of recorded media0601444
Refined petroleum products, chemicals and chemical products, pharmaceutical products5 15610 3595279 52411 063
Rubber and plastic products, non-metallic mineral products1 4612 0341151 2341 480
Basic metals4 3373 81451 794141 159
Fabricated metal products, machinery and equipment5109097251
Building of ships and boats and other transport equipment4148060227
Furniture and other manufacturing31102 00698
Repair and installation of machinery and equipment175023438
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply1 8082 10102 4616 887
Water supply, sewerage and waste management1072193947120
Construction262 968236 5502 571
Wholesale and retail trade, repair of mot.veh.479044210 9621 821
Accommodation and food service activities10806121236
Post and telecommunications063321134
Information and communication, except telecommuncations042741274
Financial and insurance activities51721172
Real estate activities2740523
Other service activities403812902 0001 118
Transport via pipelines.....
Other transport96546 191476 98515 284
Education1656165374
Human health and social work activities301004680291
Public administration and defence592 15413421 303
Households30412 11492436 674167 658

Table 7 
Emissions to air of SO2, NOX, NH3, NMVOCs and CO, by industry. Tonnes

Emissions to air of SO2, NOX, NH3, NMVOCs and CO, by industry. Tonnes
1990
Sulphur dioxide (SO2)Nitrogen oxides (NOX)Ammonia (NH3)Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)Carbon monoxide (CO)
All industries and households142 415442 59623 746312 004840 480
 
Emissions from international air and ocean transport90 100242 707.10 25914 658
International air transport - Norwegian airlines582 265.1091 547
International ocean transport - Norwegian operated ships90 042240 441.10 15013 111
 
Other industries and households52 315199 88923 746301 745825 822
Agriculture and forestry95112 15222 76615 41633 828
Fiske og fangst1 90122 545..8106 413
Aquaculture...92.
Mining and quarrying1 0811 14001 274490
Oil and gas extraction1 11629 5510122 9935 336
Service activities incidental to oil and gas1893 283..689861
Food products, beverages and tobacco products1 3591 49413 6641 363
Textiles, wearing apparel, leather101751245287
Wood and wood products, except furniture, paper and paper products3 4872 72202 4638 610
Printing and reproduction of recorded media73401 051175
Refined petroleum products, chemicals and chemical products, pharmaceutical products11 7388 24546615 83540 544
Rubber and plastic products, non-metallic mineral products1 8354 080961 725547
Basic metals17 40510 51592 069124 842
Fabricated metal products, machinery and equipment17734801 079663
Building of ships and boats and other transport equipment9825904 527253
Furniture and other manufacturing235402 101205
Repair and installation of machinery and equipment.....
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply1 1121 56307601 404
Water supply, sewerage and waste management3817601 724944
Construction4965 62129 5983 469
Wholesale and retail trade, repair of mot.veh.4222 842512 08711 155
Accommodation and food service activities531420177617
Post and telecommunications892 448103 51523 502
Information and communication, except telecommuncations1956049325
Financial and insurance activities5394941 4259 547
Real estate activities32..52
Other service activities2491 8471325 04615 500
Transport via pipelines.....
Other transport5 37650 2881113 54320 290
Education9923914171 815
Human health and social work activities26894731 5318 302
Public administration and defence2563 06416903 167
Households2 31533 20822674 935501 567

About the statistics

Emissions of acidifying gases and ozone precursors of anthropogenic origin. They include nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs) and carbon monoxide (CO).

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

The national emission model includes four dimensions

Pollutants: The different gases/substances covered by the emission model

Technical emission sources: Stoves, ships, vehicles, flares, biological and industrial processes

Industry: Standard Industrial Classification (in Europe, called NACE)

Commodity: Different energy commodities; solid fuels (for example coal and coke), liquid fuels (diesel oil, petrol, kerosene, heavy oil etc.), gases (natural gas, landfill gas etc.), biofuel (for instance fuel wood, wood waste, pellets) and waste (hazardous waste and other waste).

Acid equivalents: Emission of acidifying substances weighed together. The following factors (Potential Acid Equivalents) are used to calculate the acid equivalents:

NO X * 1/46

SO 2 * 1/32

NH 3 * 1/17

The international agreements deal with the specific gases, not the total acid equivalents.

 

Other pollutants: NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds) and carbon monoxide (CO).

 

Standard classifications

Published tables:

Emission by source

Emission by industry (NACE)

NAMEA (NACE according to Quarterly National Accounts)

Tables used in reports to UNECE/Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollutants.

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Emissions of acidifying gases and ozone precursors
Topic: Nature and the environment

Next release

Responsible division

Division for Energy and Environmental Statistics

Regional level

National figures.

Frequency and timeliness

Annual figures. The figures are published in two versions; in May, preliminary figures for the last year are published. In December a revised and more detailed version of the same figures are published. At th same time, revised figures for all years back to 1990 are also published. The whole time series is recalculated annually as new information becomes available.

International reporting

Annual reports to ECE (Economic Commission for Europe): Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP).

Microdata

Not relevant.

Background

Background and purpose

The purpose of the statistics is to present the total emissions from Norwegian territory, distributed by sources, industries, energy goods and counties. The statistics also show the achievement with regard to the fulfilment of international environmental obligations and national emission targets. In addition, the statistics give information to media, schools, other institutions or organizations, and the general public.

The first emission inventory was made in 1983, containing emissions of SO2 and NOX. Since then, emissions of NMVOC, NH3 and CO have also been included.

The statistics are to a great extent developed in order to cover the demands in the reporting to the protocols under the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. The Norwegian Environment Agency, on behalf of the Ministry of Climate and Environment, is responsible for this reporting.

The emissions from air traffic reported under the Gothenburg protocol are slightly different from the emissions published by Statistics Norway (SSB). The emission statistics includes all emissions from domestic flights, whereas the figures reported to the protocol only include emissions from take-off and landing. For NOX, this means that the reported figures are about 1 per cent lower than what is published by SSB in the emission statistics. For the other gases the differences are lower than 1 per cent.

The statistics can also present figures on emissions from Norwegian economic activity, as defined in the national accounts. These figures include Norwegian international transport (air and sea), and are used in the environmental accounts (NAMEA) and reporting to Eurostat. As the delimitation is different, the emission figures for Norwegian territory and Norwegian economic activity will also differ.

The emission statistics are mainly based on calculations. The emission model is continuously being developed, as research on emissions to air regularly is evaluated. New emission factors are taken into use, errors in the calculations are corrected, and other improvements in the emission model are implemented. These changes lead to new, revised and more consistent time series each year, and results that are published earlier are not longer valid.

The regular compilation of the statistics is financed by Statistics Norway, but development, improvements and special demands are to a great extent financed by the Norwegian Environment Agency.

Users and applications

The emission inventory and its basic statistics are mainly used for five different purposes:

1. International reporting

2. As a tool for public administration and the authorities

3. Research and education/teaching

4. Market, resource and environmental mapping

5. General information

International reporting is an important use of the official statistics. Figures from the emission inventory are being used by the Ministry of Climate and Environment and the Norwegian Environment Agency in reports to CLRTAP. These figures state whether Norway has reached its targets or not. Also Eurostat, OECD and others are given access to the figures.

The emission inventory is used by the authorities in environmental information documents, such as Regjeringens miljøvernpolitikk og rikets miljøtilstand (The Government's environmental policy and the state of the environment in Norway), which is published every second year, and also in different SDIs: Sustainable Development Indicators.

Statistics Norway also makes use of the emission inventory, both in order to make forecasts/prognoses and as a basis for economic analyses. The project NOREEA (Norwegian Economic and Environmetal Accounts) including NAMEA (National Accounts Matrix including Environmental Accounts) shows the connection between economic and environmental development.

Different public and private institutions use the statistics in studies connected to emission technology, pollution, health and economy.

The emission inventory is an important source of information for newspapers, other news media, environmental organisations and other non-governmental organisations.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.

Coherence with other statistics

The statistics are produced in a flexible model format which gives the opportunity to adjust to different national (e.g. sector grouping) and international standards for emission data. Important international standards include Nomenclature for Reporting (NFR) for reporting to the LRTAP convention. At the same time, the statistics form a basis for analyses, both in Statistics Norway and other institutions.

The delimitation of which emissions to be counted as Norwegian, is slightly different in the Gothenburg Protocol than in Statistics Norway’s ordinary emission statistics. The difference regards aviation, where the emission statistics cover all emissions from domestic aviation, while the Gothenburg Protocol cover landing and take-off only, but includes international flights by both Norwegian and foreign companies. The emissions tend to become slightly lower (about 1 per cent for NOx, slightly less difference for the other gases) according to the Gothenburg Protocol than in Statistics Norway’s statistics. All figures in the statistics are according to Statistics Norway’s ordinary emission statistics, except in the text wherever an explicit reference to the Gothenburg Protocol is made.

Legal authority

Not relevant. (No particular data collection.)

EEA reference

Not relevant.

Production

Population

The statistics include emissions from Norwegian territory and present emission surveys for a number of different pollutants:

Acidifying pollutants:

Nitrogen oxides (NO X ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and ammonia (NH 3 ).

Other pollutants: NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds) and carbon monoxide (CO).

The emission figures are furthermore distributed between emission sources (e.g. process emissions in manufacturing, heating in households) or by industry(e.g. metal production, construction).

Data sources and sampling

 National emissions to air are mainly estimated from existing statistics on activity level and emission factors (emission per unit activity). Emissions from large industrial plants are based on data from the plants' own reports to the Norwegian Environment Agency. No particular measurements or other kinds of special data collection take place in connection with the preparation of national emission statistics. The regional figures are made by breaking down the national figures.

A detailed description of the data sources for the national air emission surveys is presented in Informative Inventory Report, IIR (2017).

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Statistics Norway does only to a small extent collect data specifically for the emission inventory. The goal for data collection for the emissions inventory is that these statistics shall be based on already existing registers and statistics. However, it may be necessary to make some adjustments for this special purpose.

Data reported directly to the Norwegian Environment Agency (emission data from point sources, data from large industrial plants) are quality checked by the Norwegian Environment Agency. In addition, a consistency check is done by Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway is responsible for quality control of the activity data and emission figures from the model. No particular controls are performed on data from Statistics Norway's own primary statistics used in the emission calculations, as it is presupposed that the data already have been quality controlled.

The controls used in connection with the emission calculations can be divided into two parts:

1. Revision/quality control of input data, for example information about emissions per industrial plant from the Norwegian Environment Agency.

2. Revision/quality control of the emission figures (output from the model).

1. Revision/quality control of input data The possibility to check the input data varies, depending on the collection methods and who collects the data. The controls will mainly be:

*To compare data with figures reported from the same unit earlier

*To collect missing data

*To contact industrial plants regarding obvious errors or by asking questions about the reported figures

*Lack of data in time series can be interpolated or filled in by use of estimates. The primary statistics in SSB are submitted to fixed revision routines. There is no additional control of primary data.

2. Revision/quality control of the emission figures (output from the model) The national figures must be controlled source by source, by comparing with figures from previous years or figures for the same year calculated one year ago. Breaks in the series must be explained.

For comparisons between different calculations for the same year, the target is that all changes should be explained as change in data or method. For comparisons between different years, the target is to explain all large changes in the time series.

In the revised version of the model, the main part of the quality control will be to check the input data.

Every third year, there is an international examination (review) of the emission inventory. The examination is a centralised review performed by a group of experts. The Norwegian emission inventory was reviewed in 2013.

The emission inventory is mainly based on calculations. Only a few industrial plants continuously measure their emissions. Some plants have periodic measurements that are scaled up to annual levels. For other plants and other sources than manufacturing industries, the emission figures are calculations, often of the type:

Emission = Activity data * emission factor

Activity data can be for example tonnes of fuel oil used by an industry, while the emission factor expresses the emission of a component in proportion to the activity (for example tonnes of SO 2 /tonne fuel oil). The emission factors are usually based on measured values, national or international.

The estimation methods are described in detail in IIR (2017).

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant

Confidentiality

The general rule for publication is that data cannot be released unless they contain information from at least three or more participants (i.e. industrial enterprises etc). This rule can be waived if permission from the parties involved is granted. Such data can be published if they are already made available for the public elsewhere.

Comparability over time and space

One of the main goals with the emission inventories is to follow the development in the emissions over a period of time. In order to make this possible, recalculations are done for all years to obtain consistent time series when new factors or better methods are taken into account.

International definitions, in addition to guidelines to calculation and reporting of emission data lead to comparable emission inventories in the different countries.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

The emission figures are based on many different data sources. These sources may contain data from different registers or data reported from industrial plants. The model uses factors from various analyses. The results from the model will therefore reflect the uncertainties in the source material and the calculation methods that are used.

The statistics are based both on administrative sources, complete surveys and sample surveys. Calculation of sample variance, skewness or non-response for the emission figures is not relevant.

The statistics are based both on administrative sources, complete surveys and sample surveys. Calculation of sample variance, skewness or non-response for the emission figures is not relevant.

On a national level the pollutants have been ranked according to uncertainty in Informative Inventory Report, IIR (2017) as follows:

SO2 < NOX < NH3 ≈ NMVOC

In Rypdal and Zhang (2001) , the uncertainties in emissions of long-range air pollutants are quantified.

Revision

In December each year the emission statistics published in May is revised. Data back to 1990 is also revised if new information about emission factors, activity data or calculation methodology is available.

Contact