269247
/en/natur-og-miljo/statistikker/milgiftn/aar
269247
Small changes in emissions of hazardous substances
statistikk
2016-12-13T08:00:00.000Z
Nature and the environment
en
milgiftn, Emissions to air of hazardous substances and particulate matter, air pollution, hazardous substances (for example lead, copper, mercury), particulate matter, emissions by industry (for example energy sector, manufacturing, primary industries)Pollution and climate, Nature and the environment
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Statistics on the emission of hazardous substances and particulate matter from 1990 onwards, covering lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), dioxins, PAH-4 and particulate matter (total PM, PM10 and PM2.5) and with detailed classifications.

Emissions to air of hazardous substances and particulate matter

Updated

Next update

Key figures

1.1 %

increase in emissions of particulates in 2015 compared with 2014

Emissions to air of heavy metals, particulate matter, PAH-4 and dioxins1
2015Change in per cent
2014 - 20151990 - 2015
1Does not include ocean transport and international air transport.
Lead (kg)7 24423.1-96.2
Cadmium (kg)46712.0-68.9
Mercury (kg)242-9.7-83.0
Arsenic (kg)1 55725.9-54.8
Chromium (kg)3 092-4.0-72.5
Copper (kg)28 100-1.317.2
Particulates - PM10 (tonnes)37 1411.1-28.7
PAH-4 (kg)6 3531.0-68.1
Dioxins (g)170.5-85.6

See more tables on this subject

Table 1 
Emissions to air of PAHs, heavy metals and dioxins, by source. kg. Dioxins in g

Emissions to air of PAHs, heavy metals and dioxins, by source. kg. Dioxins in g12
1990199520002005201320142015
1Does not include international sea and air traffic.
2PAHs: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
PAH-4, total19 88715 10914 82717 2596 6676 2926 353
Aluminium - process emissions14 1819 4699 11312 8903 3813 0343 008
Combustion in households, mainly fuelwood use2 7032 8382 9492 3321 3831 2101 120
Road traffic - combustion7968006748561 1671 2001 228
Road traffic - tyre and brake wear161167187214253251251
Other sources2 0471 8351 904968482597745
 
Lead, total188 26624 85310 1248 6825 7015 8877 244
Metal industry -process emissions4 6814 7724 0463 6851 3811 0871 638
Aviation2 3111 5371 7671 5858001 1332 094
Road traffic - tyre and brake wear1 1061 1621 2891 4781 7121 6971 693
Road traffic - combustion167 97012 118157198267274281
Manufacturing and mining - stationary combustion682877699590777836834
Other sources11 5174 3862 1651 147765860705
 
Mercury, total1 426773654577318268242
Manufacturing and mining - stationary combustion86867078363031
Road traffic - combustion16161616131313
Energy supply, included waste incineration98483713191715
Use of products284753850191812
Metal industry -process emissions615283265176534241
Other sources327265229244178149130
 
Kadmium, total1 5031 223924703479417467
Wood processing - stationary combustion121138121123542021
Combustion in households, mainly fuelwood use10610911913310994100
Metal industry -process emissions546470267177544170
Other sources731507417271261263276
 
Copper, total23 98622 86423 72525 86128 54828 48028 100
Road traffic - tyre and brake wear9 65810 12711 23912 88514 98214 85214 813
Road traffic - combustion4 1344 3754 5175 1665 6075 6825 729
Use of products - wires for electric trains904940990990990990990
Metal industry -process emissions5 9663 8053 6833 2283 0822 9722 628
Manufacturing and mining - stationary combustion1 1611 5381 3551 4451 6001 6001 623
Other sources2 1642 0791 9422 1482 2872 3852 316
 
Chromium, total11 26211 3558 7513 1012 9953 2203 092
Metal industry -process emissions8 4938 3976 229377320333246
Chemical industries - process emissions474526315142365726
Manufacturing and mining - stationary combustion1 2131 6621 4231 4431 7061 8251 837
Road traffic - tyre and brake wear42485159585857
Road traffic - combustion122129133152165168169
Other sources919593600928709780757
 
Arsenic, total3 4463 2892 8911 9261 3621 2371 557
Manufacturing and mining - stationary combustion418438350350204151155
Combustion in households, mainly fuelwood use193190203221179154164
Chemical industries - process emissions66670475121741
Metal industry -process emissions1 7071 6111 238942533511820
Other sources462345349392438417417
 
Dioxins, total120643021211717
Mining, except coal mines - process emissions5137.....
Energy supply, included waste incineration13321111
Combustion in households, mainly fuelwood use6678656
Metal industry -process emissions33773423
Other sources171014101098

Table 2 
Emissions to air of particulate matter, by source. 1 000 tonnes

Emissions to air of particulate matter, by source. 1 000 tonnes1
199020142015
Partic-ulates - TSP2Partic-ulates - PM10Partic-ulates - PM2.5Partic-ulates - TSP2Partic-ulates - PM10Partic-ulates - PM2.5Partic-ulates - TSP2Partic-ulates - PM10Partic-ulates - PM2.5
1Does not include ocean transport and international air transport.
2Total suspended particles.
All sources68.252.141.453.136.727.553.137.128.1
Oil and gas extraction - stationary combustion1.61.51.31.81.71.61.61.61.5
Oil and gas extraction - process emissions0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0
Manufacturing industries and mining - stationary combustion1.91.71.61.41.31.21.51.31.3
Manufacturing industries and mining - process emissions15.512.48.29.56.63.39.46.43.2
Energy supply0.50.30.21.11.00.91.41.21.1
Heating in other industries2.52.42.20.60.50.50.60.60.5
Heating in households22.321.821.115.915.615.116.816.516.0
Passenger cars0.30.30.30.40.40.30.30.30.3
Light duty vehicles0.50.50.50.30.30.30.30.30.2
Heavy duty vehicles1.01.01.00.20.20.20.20.20.2
Motorcycles and mopeds0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0
Railways0.10.10.10.10.10.00.10.10.1
Domestic aviation0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0
Costal navigation2.12.12.01.61.61.51.41.41.4
Motorized equipment etc.1.41.41.30.70.70.70.70.70.7
Agriculture - enteric fermentation and manure2.31.40.43.02.30.52.92.20.5
Agriculture - fertilizer and other0.70.70.00.50.50.00.50.50.0
Landfill gas0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0
Road, tyre and brake wear and abrasion of railway contact wires10.52.60.68.81.90.68.71.80.6
Products containing fluorinated gases, solvents etc.0.20.20.20.10.10.10.10.10.1
Other4.81.50.46.82.00.46.31.80.3

Table 3 
Emissions to air of heavy metals, by industry. kg

Emissions to air of heavy metals, by industry. kg
2015
LeadCadmiumMercuryArsenicChromiumCopper
All industries and households7 5515013561 7333 34728 271
 
Emissions from international air and ocean transport30633113176254171
International air transport - Norwegian airlines671029484848
International ocean transport - Norwegian operated ships2392485128206123
 
Other industries and households7 2454682431 5573 09328 100
Agriculture and forestry19447912219
Fiske og fangst33316171322
Aquaculture100005
Mining and quarrying71034111
Oil and gas extraction37132339129106
Service activities incidental to oil and gas502222
Food products, beverages and tobacco products6124530
Textiles, wearing apparel, leather000001
Wood and wood products, except furniture, paper and paper products152401366342371
Printing and reproduction of recorded media000000
Refined petroleum products, chemicals and chemical products, pharmaceutical products49944141578941 015
Rubber and plastic products, non-metallic mineral products4891224471545500
Basic metals1 48572302813302 604
Fabricated metal products, machinery and equipment1001111
Building of ships and boats and other transport equipment100026
Furniture and other manufacturing000112
Repair and installation of machinery and equipment000007
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply5143158283178
Water supply, sewerage and waste management1257410266232
Construction24421414376
Wholesale and retail trade, repair of mot.veh.115376151
Accommodation and food service activities1011113
Post and telecommunications000007
Information and communication, except telecommuncations0000013
Financial and insurance activities000001
Real estate activities1000010
Other service activities5123367
Transport via pipelines......
Other transport2 31737331341334 320
Education2224310
Human health and social work activities212225
Public administration and defence8458824
Households1 9621313924028917 683

Table 4 
Emissions to air of PAHs and dioxins, by industry

Emissions to air of PAHs and dioxins, by industry
2015
PAH-4 (kg)Dioxins (mg)
All industries and households6 35322 644
 
Emissions from international air and ocean transport545 438
International air transport - Norwegian airlines057
International ocean transport - Norwegian operated ships05 382
 
Other industries and households6 29917 206
Agriculture and forestry11750
Fiske og fangst01 317
Aquaculture09
Mining and quarrying639
Oil and gas extraction01 699
Service activities incidental to oil and gas1247
Food products, beverages and tobacco products416
Textiles, wearing apparel, leather00
Wood and wood products, except furniture, paper and paper products2428
Printing and reproduction of recorded media00
Refined petroleum products, chemicals and chemical products, pharmaceutical products276612
Rubber and plastic products, non-metallic mineral products31238
Basic metals3 2032 430
Fabricated metal products, machinery and equipment12
Building of ships and boats and other transport equipment05
Furniture and other manufacturing05
Repair and installation of machinery and equipment11
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply3818
Water supply, sewerage and waste management3138
Construction2938
Wholesale and retail trade, repair of mot.veh.2714
Accommodation and food service activities22
Post and telecommunications20
Information and communication, except telecommuncations11
Financial and insurance activities00
Real estate activities21
Other service activities107
Transport via pipelines..
Other transport7651 545
Education021
Human health and social work activities09
Public administration and defence1158
Households1 8657 356

Table 5 
Emissions to air of particulate matter. Tonnes

Emissions to air of particulate matter. Tonnes
2015
Particulates - TSP1Particulates - PM10Particulates - PM2,5
1Total suspended particles.
All industries and households55 79039 80430 630
 
Emissions from international air and ocean transport2 6582 6582 530
International air transport - Norwegian airlines939393
International ocean transport - Norwegian operated ships2 5662 5662 437
 
Other industries and households53 13237 14628 100
Agriculture and forestry3 9243 1841 003
Fiske og fangst564564536
Aquaculture444
Mining and quarrying5 5232 720293
Oil and gas extraction1 4961 4881 458
Service activities incidental to oil and gas203186145
Food products, beverages and tobacco products474034
Textiles, wearing apparel, leather100
Wood and wood products, except furniture, paper and paper products823554517
Printing and reproduction of recorded media000
Refined petroleum products, chemicals and chemical products, pharmaceutical products2 3142 1612 048
Rubber and plastic products, non-metallic mineral products223178117
Basic metals2 1642 0991 443
Fabricated metal products, machinery and equipment643
Building of ships and boats and other transport equipment1064
Furniture and other manufacturing131212
Repair and installation of machinery and equipment511
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply1 4031 2461 149
Water supply, sewerage and waste management655741
Construction6 3761 847315
Wholesale and retail trade, repair of mot.veh.55118249
Accommodation and food service activities433
Post and telecommunications56184
Information and communication, except telecommuncations111
Financial and insurance activities111
Real estate activities222
Other service activities151210
Transport via pipelines...
Other transport2 9571 8661 408
Education585353
Human health and social work activities242119
Public administration and defence137131129
Households24 15418 49717 293

About the statistics

Emissions of hazardous substances and particulate matter of anthropogenic origin. They include lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), particulates (TSP, PM2,5 and PM10) PAH-4 and dioxins.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

The national emission model includes four dimensions:

Pollutants: The different gases/substances covered by the emission model

Technical emission sources: Stoves, ships, vehicles, flares, biological and industrial processes

Industry: Standard Industrial Classification (in Europe, called NACE)

Commodity: Different energy commodities; solid fuels (for example coal and coke), liquid fuels (diesel oil, petrol, kerosene, heavy oil etc.), gases (natural gas, landfill gas etc.), biofuel (for instance fuel wood, wood waste, pellets) and waste (hazardous waste and other waste). 

Heavy metals:

Lead (Pb)

Cadmium (Cd)

Mercury (Hg)

Cupper (Cu)

Chromium (Cr)

Other chemical elements:

Arsenic (As) 

Particulate matter:

TSP (Total Suspended Particles)

PM 10 (particles measuring less than 10 μm in diameter)

PM 2.5 (particles measuring less than 2.5 μm in diameter) 

POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants):

PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons)

Dioxins 

Standard classifications

Published tables:

Emission by source

Emission by industry (NACE)

NAMEA (NACE according to Quarterly National Accounts)

Tables used in reports to UNECE/Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollutants.

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Emissions to air of hazardous substances and particulate matter
Topic: Nature and the environment

Next release

Responsible division

Division for Energy and Environmental Statistics

Regional level

National figures.

Frequency and timeliness

Annually in December year n, detailed national figures for year n-1 distributed by source are published. Revised figures for all the years back to 1990 are also published. The whole time series is recalculated annually as new information become available.

International reporting

Annual reports to ECE (Economic Commission for Europe): Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP).

Microdata

Not relevant.

Background

Background and purpose

The purpose of the statistics is to present the total emissions from Norwegian territory, distributed by sources, industries, energy goods and counties. The statistics also show the goal achievement with regard to the fulfilment of international environmental obligations and national emission targets. In addition, the statistics give information to media, schools, other institutions or organizations, and the general public.

The first emission inventory was made in 1983, containing emissions of SO2 and NOX. After year 2000, emissions of heavy metals and POPs and particulate matter were also included. All the calculations have been revised since the first time. The national emissions have time series going back to 1990. All figures have been revised from the first calculations.

The statistics are to a great extent developed in order to cover the demands in the reporting to the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. The Norwegian Environment Agency, on behalf of the Ministry of Climate and Environment, is responsible for this reporting. These emission figures cover only Norwegian territory, including domestic air and sea traffic. For fishing and road traffic, all emissions originating from fuel sales in Norway are defined as Norwegian emissions.

The statistics can also present figures on emissions from Norwegian economic activity, as defined in the national accounts. These figures include Norwegian international transport (air and sea), and are used in the environmental accounts (NAMEA) and reporting to Eurostat. As the delimitation is different, the emission figures for Norwegian territory and Norwegian economic activity will also differ.

The emission statistics are mainly based on calculations. The emission model is continuously being developed, as research on emissions to air regularly is evaluated. New emission factors are taken into use, errors in the calculations are discovered and corrected, and other improvements in the emission model are implemented. These changes lead to new, revised and more consistent time series each year, and results that are published earlier are not longer valid.

The regular compilation of the statistics is financed by Statistics Norway, but development, improvements and special demands are to a great extent financed by the Norwegian Environment Agency.

Users and applications

The emission inventory and its basic statistics are mainly used for five different purposes:

1. International reporting

2. As a tool for public administration and the authorities

3. Research and education/teaching

4. Market, resource and environmental mapping

5. General information

International reporting is an important use of the official statistics. Figures from the emission inventory are being used by the Ministry of Climate and Environment and the Norwegian Environment Agency in reports to CLRTAP. These figures state whether Norway has reached its targets or not. Also Eurostat, OECD and others are given access to the figures.

The emission inventory is used by the authorities in environmental information documents, such as Regjeringens miljøvernpolitikk og rikets miljøtilstand (The Government's environmental policy and the state of the environment in Norway), which is published every second year, and also in different SDIs: Sustainable Development Indicators.

Statistics Norway also makes use of the emission inventory, both in order to make forecasts/prognoses and as a basis for economic analyses. The project NOREEA (Norwegian Economic and Environmetal Accounts) including NAMEA (National Accounts Matrix including Environmental Accounts) shows the connection between economic and environmental development.

Different public and private institutions use the statistics in studies connected to emission technology, pollution, health and economy.

The emission inventory is an important source of information for newspapers, other news media, environmental organisations and other non-governmental organisations.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.

Coherence with other statistics

The statistics are produced in a flexible model format which gives the opportunity to adjust to different national and international standards for emission data (e.g. sector grouping). Important international standards include Nomenclature for Reporting (NFR) for reporting to the LRTAP convention. At the same time, the statistics form a basis for analyses, both in Statistics Norway and other institutions.

Legal authority

Not relevant. (No particular data collection.)

EEA reference

Not relevant.

Production

Population

The statistics include emissions from Norwegian territory and present emission surveys for a number of different pollutants:

Heavy metals and POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants): PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons), dioxins, mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), arsene (As) and chromium (Cr).

Other pollutants: Particulate matter (TSP, PM 10 and PM 2.5 ).

The emission figures are furthermore distributed between emission sources (e.g. manufacturing, households, agriculture) and by industry (e.g. metal production, construction).

Data sources and sampling

A detailed description of the data sources for the national air emission surveys is presented in Informative Inventory Report, IIR (2017). National emissions to air are mainly estimated from existing statistics on activity level and emission factors (emission per unit activity). Emissions from large industrial plants are based on data from the plants' own reports to the Norwegian Environment Agency. No particular measurements or other kinds of special data collection take place in connection with the preparation of national emission statistics.

See Collection of data, revisions and estimations.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Statistics Norway does only to a small extent collect data specifically for the emission inventory. The goal for data collection for the emissions inventory is that these statistics shall be based on already existing registers and statistics. However, it may be necessary to make some adjustments for this special purpose.

Data reported directly to the Norwegian Environment Agency (emission data from point sources, data from large industrial plants) are quality checked by the Norwegian Environment Agency. In addition, a consistency check is done by Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway is responsible for quality control of the activity data and emission figures from the model. No particular controls are performed on data from Statistics Norway's own primary statistics used in the emission calculations, as it is presupposed that the data already have been quality controlled.

The controls used in connection with the emission calculations can be divided into two parts:

1. Quality control and editing of input data, for example information about emissions per industrial plant from the Norwegian Environment Agency.

2. Quality control and editing of the emission figures (output from the model).

1. Quality control and editing of input data

The possibility to check the input data varies, depending on the collection methods and who collects the data. The controls will mainly be:

*To compare data with figures reported from the same unit earlier

*To collect missing data

*To contact industrial plants regarding obvious errors or by asking questions about the reported figures

*Lack of data in time series can be interpolated or filled in by use of estimates. The primary statistics in SSB are submitted to fixed quality control and editing routines. There is no additional control of primary data.

2. Quality control and editing of the emission figures (output from the model)

The national figures must be controlled source by source, by comparing with figures from previous years or figures for the same year calculated one year ago. Breaks in the series must be explained.

For comparisons between different calculations for the same year, the target is that all changes should be explained as change in data or method. For comparisons between different years, the target is to explain all large changes in the time series.

In the revised version of the model, the main part of the quality control will be to check the input data.

Every third year, there is an international examination (review) of the emission inventory. The examination is a centralised review performed by a group of experts. The Norwegian emission inventory was reviewed in 2013.

The emission inventory is mainly based on calculations. Only a few industrial plants continuously measure their emissions. Some plants have periodic measurements that are scaled up to annual levels. For other plants and other sources than manufacturing industries, the emission figures are calculations, often of the type:

Emission = Activity data * emission factor

Activity data can be for example tonnes of fuel oil used by an industry, while the emission factor expresses the emission of a component in proportion to the activity (for example tonnes of SO 2 /tonne fuel oil). The emission factors are usually based on measured values, national or international.

The estimation methods are described in detail in Informative Inventory Report, IIR (2017).

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant

Confidentiality

The general rule for publication is that data cannot be released unless they contain information from at least three or more participants (i.e. industrial enterprises etc). This rule can be waived if permission from the parties involved is granted. Such data can be published if they are already made available for the public elsewhere.

Comparability over time and space

One of the main goals with the emission inventories is to follow the development in the emissions over a period of time. In order to make this possible, recalculations are done for all years to obtain consistent time series when new factors or better methods are taken into account.

International definitions, in addition to guidelines to calculation and reporting of emission data lead to comparable emission inventories in the different countries.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

The emission figures are based on many different data sources. These sources may contain data from different registers or data reported from industrial plants. The model uses factors from various analyses. The results from the model will therefore reflect the uncertainties in the source material and the calculation methods that are used.

The statistics are based both on administrative sources, complete surveys and sample surveys. Calculation of sample variance, skewness or non-response for the emission figures is not relevant.

The statistics are based both on administrative sources, complete surveys and sample surveys. Calculation of sample variance, skewness or non-response for the emission figures is not relevant.

Revision

At the same time as emission figures for a new year are published in December each year, data back to 1990 are also revised if new information about emission factors, activity data or calculation methodology is available.

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