295911
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295911
statistikk
2017-06-27T08:00:00.000Z
Labour market and earnings;Social conditions, welfare and crime
en
arbmiljo, Working environment, survey on living conditions, working conditions, physical working environment (for example noise, work position, indoor climate), ergonomics, psychosocial work environment (for example well-being, conflicts, threats), bullying, organisational work environment (for example work load, working arrangements, employee participation), work-related health problems, accidents at workLiving conditions , Working environment, sickness absence, strikes and lockouts, Labour market and earnings, Social conditions, welfare and crime
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Working environment, survey on living conditions

Updated

Next update

Key figures

12 %

of employed persons are at risk of losing their job

Working environment among employed persons 18-66 years. Per cent
199620062016
Relations to the workplace
Has temporary employment, proportion of employees121210
Does not have written employment contract, proportion of employees1773
In risk of losing job121112
Often or always feels motivated and engaged in own work..8985
Psycosocial working environment
Experience bad relationship between employees and management, often or time to time, employees343731
Exposed to hassle or teasing by superiors, a couple of times a month or more..12
Exposed to violence at workplace, last 12 months....4
Exposed to unwanted sexual attention, remarks etc., a couple of times a month or more344
Physical working environment
Exposed to poor indoor climate most of the time..2821
Exposed to skin-irritating substances most of the time889
Exposed to dust, gas or steam most of the time1484
Exposed to loud noise most of the time855
Ergonomical working environment
Lifts at least 20 kg at least 5 times a day171310
Works sitting down, most of the time59
Works with repeated or monotonous movements most of the time353835
Works with keyboard or mouse....72
Work related health problems
Pain in neck, shoulders or upper back, due to work141110
Headache or migraine, due to work643
Feel mentally weary when they return home from work, weekly291419
Sickness absence lasting more than 14 days, last 12 months141815
Job demands, role conflict and expectations
Has too much to do, often or always45
Demands on jobs interfere with home life and family life, often or always14
Reads and replies work related e-mail outside working hours, daily21

See more tables on this subject

Table 1 
Selected indicators for physical working environment. Per cent

Selected indicators for physical working environment. Per cent
2016
Both sexesMalesFemales
Fysical and chemical work enviroment
Exposed to poor indoor climate most of the time211528
Exposed to skin-irritant substances most of the time9612
Exposed to poor working light most of the time343
Exposed to loud noise most of the time573
 
Ergonomic work enviroment
Lifting in uncomfortable positions most of the time555
Work standing up most of the time444148
Work sitting down most of the time596256
Work with repeated or monotonous movements most of the time353436
Lift at least 20 kg 5 times a day or more10146
Work with keyboard or mouse727075
 
Work related health problems
Pain in neck, shoulders or upper back, due to work10713
Pain in lower back, due to work546
Pain in arms, wrists or hands, due to work444
Pain in hips, legs, knees or feet, due to work435
Headache or migraine, due to work325
Physically worn out at home after work, weekly333037
Mentally drained at home after work, weekly191622
Sickness absence lasting more than 14 days, last 12 months151318
Sickness absence was due to health problems caused by work556
At work despite being sick 4 times or more last year131215
 
Work related accidents
High risk of accidents at work351
Involved in accidents at work, last 12 months121

Table 2 
Selected indicators for organizational and psycosocial working environment. Per cent

Selected indicators for organizational and psycosocial working environment. Per cent
2016
Both sexesMalesFemales
Accession to workplace and various working conditions
Temporary employment, share of employees10913
No written employment contract, share of employees343
Looking for a new job667
At risk of losing job121312
Work in company where staff cuts within last 3 years have had major impact on working day, share of employees999
Not received necessary training in new technology, share of employees999
Work in enterprise with a safety representative, share of employees818182
Member of trade union or employee organisation, share of employees554961
Often or always feel motivated and engaged in own work858585
Satisfied with the job899089
Few opportunities for professional development, share of employees161518
 
Psychosocial working environment
Experience bad relationship between employees and management, often or time to time, employees312736
Experience bad relationship between employees, often or time to time, employees231927
Involved in uncomfortable conflicts with superiors at workplace, often or sometimes888
Involved in uncomfortable conflicts with colleagues at workplace, often or sometimes879
Exposed to violence at workplace, last 12 months426
Exposed to threat of violence at workplace that was so serious you were afraid, last 12 months425
Exposed to harrassment or teasing by colleagues, a few times a month or more222
Exposed to harrassment or teasing by superiors, a few times a month or more212
Exposed to unwanted sexual attention, remarks etc., a few times a month or more427
 
Job demands, control, role conflikt and expectations in the job
Too much to do, often or always454347
Work demands interfere with home life and family life, often or always141413
Can influence decisions that are important for own work, to a great extent495741
Repetitive work tasks most of the time424342
Mistakes can put own or other people's lives or health at risk, most of the time222519

Table 3 
Physical and chemical work environment. Per cent

Physical and chemical work environment. Per cent
199620062016
Exposed to very high temperatures most of the time642
Exposed to very low temperatures most of the time888
Exposed to poor indoor climate most of the time..2821
Exposed to dust, gas or steam most of the time1484
Exposed to skin-irritating substances most of the time889
Exposed to water on skin several times an hour, most of the time..1612
Exposed to biological materials most of the time....8
Exposed to inadequate lighting most of the time843
Exposed to passive smoking most of the time731
Exposed to loud noise most of the time855
Exposed to vibrations most of the time845
 
Number of employed respondents....7 765
Number of respondents in work2 1359 9618 220

Table 4 
Ergonomic working environment conditions. Per cent

Ergonomic working environment conditions. Per cent
199620062016
Works so hard that you breathe heavily most of the time..77
Must squat or kneel down most of the time1087
Standing up or walking most of the time5754.
Must lift in uncomfortable positions most of the time975
Works standing up, most of the time....44
Works sitting down, most of the time....59
Works with arms lifted most of the time1086
Works bent forward without resting on hands or arms most of the time1045
Works with head bent forward most of the time....10
Works in other positions that place a permanent strain on the back13...
Works with repeated or monotonous movements most of the time353835
Works sitting down, 2 hours or more without possibility to stand up and stretch ones legs103.
Lifts at least 20 kg at least 5 times a day171310
Works with keyboard or mouse....72
Works in front of computer monitor....77
 
Number of employed respondents....7 765
Number of respondents in work2 1359 9618 220

Table 5 
Relation to the workplace and various working conditions. Per cent

Relation to the workplace and various working conditions. Per cent
199620062016
Has temporary employment, proportion of employees121210
Does not have written employment contract, proportion of employees1773
Average time of employment, employees896
Has fixed salary, employees917773
Not satisfied with salary23...
Is looking for other work..66
In risk of losing job121112
Have been transferred to another job at enterprise against own will, proportion of employees....3
Is in risk of getting transferred to another job at the enterprise, employees..65
Works in enterprise where staff cuts with big impact on everyday work has been implementet during past three years....9
Works in enterprise where restructuring with big impact on everyday work has been implementet during past three years....12
Employer gives little or no information about important decisions, changes and future plans in enterprise....17
Has within last 12 months had to learn how to use new technology or new administrative systems....55
Has not received necessary training regarding new technology....9
Works in enterprise with a safety representative, employees....81
WWorks in enterprise with a working environment committee, employees....56
Works in enterprise with a trade union or employee organisation, employees....73
Member of trade union or employee organisation....55
Has access to occupational health service, proportion of employees596059
Has been in touch with the occupational health service in the last 12 months, proportion of employees302420
Can freely contact the company health services without consulting the line manager, employees....45
Often or always feels motivated and engaged in own work..8985
Feels high degree of belonging to the company or firm one works in..9280
Is satisfied with the job898989
Has few opportunities to use education and work experience, employees13108
Has few opportunities for professional development, employees302116
Has few opportunities to participate in further education, employees3731.
Feels there are too many demands to master new tasks27...
 
Number of employed respondents1 9429 3127 765
Number of respondents in work2 1359 9618 220

Table 6 
Psychosocial work environment. Prosent

Psychosocial work environment. Prosent
199620062016
Seldom or never gets support and help in your work from the nearest boss, employees..1312
Seldom or never gets support and help in your work from colleagues, employees..65
Seldom or never gets feedback from superiors on job performance, employees..2726
Seldom or never gets feedback from colleagues on job performance, employees..22.
Not taken into account if you come with views of the working conditions, employees..1215
Displeasure from superiors if critical views on the working conditions are expressed, employees..3232
Displeasure from colleagues if critical views on the working conditions are expressed, employees..2323
Agree to 'I get the respect and appreciation I deserve in relation to my job efforts and accomplis¿....84
The employees are rarely or never treated in a fair and impartial way, employees..911
Work achievements seldom or never appreciated by nearest superior, employees..78
Description of closest superior as treating employees with support and respect fits less well or badly, employees..98
Experience bad relationship between employees and management, often or time to time, employees343731
Experience bad relationship between employees, often or time to time, employees212723
Experience a poor relation between employees and customers/clients/pupils often or from time to tim¿15..19
Involved in uncomfortable conflicts with superiors at workplace, often or from time to time....8
Involved in uncomfortable conflicts with colleagues at workplace, often or from time to time....8
Exposed to violence or threat of violence, a couple of times in months or more55.
Exposed to violence at workplace, last 12 months....4
Number of times exposed to violence, average.....
Exposed to threat of violence on workplace, which was so serious that you were afraid, last 12 months....4
Number of times exposed to threat of violence, average.....
Exposed to hassle or teasing by colleagues, a couple of times a month or more212
Exposed to hassle or teasing by superiors, a couple of times a month or more..12
Exposed to unwanted sexual attention, remarks etc., a couple of times a month or more344
 
Number of employed respondents1 9429 3127 765
Number of respondents in work2 1359 9618 220

Table 7 
Occupational health problems, occupational accidents and sick leave. Per cent

Occupational health problems, occupational accidents and sick leave. Per cent
199620062016
Pain in neck, shoulders or upper back, due to work141110
Pain in lower back, due to work965
Pain in arms, wrists or hands, due to work454
Pain in hips, legs, knees or feet, due to work654
Headache or migraine, due to work643
Troubled by anxiety, due to work121
Troubled by depression or feeling down, due to work211
Chest tightness, wheezing, due to work110
Eczema or allergic rash, due to work111
Itchy eyes, redness or runny eyes, due to work..11
Reduced hearing or tinnitus, because of work..11
Feels physically worn out when they return home from work, weekly..3233
Has trouble sleeping due to work..11.
Feel mentally weary when they return home from work, weekly291419
Sickness absence lasting more than 14 days, last 12 months141815
Number of sickness absence periods lasting more than 14 days, average212
Sickness absence was due to health problems caused by work..75
Been at work even though sick 4 times or more last year..2213
High risk of accidents at work763
High risk of strain injuries2221.
High risk of other health problems96.
Has been involved in accidents at work, last 12 months3..1
Number of days away from work because of work accidents, average1..0
 
Number of employed respondents1 9429 3127 765
Number of respondents in work2 1359 9618 220

Table 8 
Job demands, role Conflict and expectations at work. Prosent

Job demands, role Conflict and expectations at work. Prosent
20132016
No time to do the work properly1817
Need to work in a high pace, often or always5959
Has too much to do, often or always4645
Have so much to do that one need to drop lunch break, daily77
Need to work face to face or have telephone contact with clients and customers, half of the time or more5657
Need to hide negative feelings toward clients and customers, to a great extent139
Must relate to strong feelings among customers and clients, to a great extent1718
Must do tasks without sufficient training, daily22
Work requires that one learns new knowledge and skills, often or always3539
Demands on jobs interfere with home life and family life, often or always1314
Contacted by someone from work outside the working hours with inquiries linked to the work, daily55
Reads and replies work related e-mail outside working hours, daily1821
Keeps oneself posted on work related electronic information outside working hours, daily1619
Can decide when to take breaks from work, most of the time, employees7577
Can determine own job tasks, to a great extent3032
Can organise own work, to a great extent6363
Can influence decisions that are important for own work, to a great extent4849
Can determine work pace, to a great extent5453
Has repetitive work tasks most of the time3942
Mistakes can put own or other people's lives or health at risk, most of the time2122
Is unclear what is expected in ones job, often or always67
Gets tasks without adequate aids and resources to finish them, often or always99
Need to do things one believes should have been done differently, often or always1113
Receives conflicting requests from two or more people, often elller always88
 
Number of employed respondents7 8197 765
Number of respondents in work8 2838 220

Table 9 
Selected indicators for work related health problems. Per cent

Selected indicators for work related health problems. Per cent
2016
Both sexesMalesFemales
Pain in neck, shoulders or upper back, due to work10713
Pain in lower back, due to work546
Pain in arms, wrists or hands, due to work444
Pain in hips, legs, knees or feet, due to work435
Headache or migraine, due to work325
Physically worn out at home after work, weekly333037
Mentally drained at home after work, weekly191622
Sickness absence lasting more than 14 days, last 12 months151318
Sickness absence was due to health problems caused by work556
At work despite being sick 4 times or more last year131215
High risk of accidents at work351
Involved in accidents at work, last 12 months121

About the statistics

The survey on working environment includes employed persons. The survey covers the physical, chemical, ergonomic and psychosocial work environment, attachment to the workplace, work related health problems, sickness absence and opportunities for self-determination at the workplace.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Physical work environment

Covers exposure to various physical working conditions. Presents the figures for those who are exposed to various conditions most of the time , ie the employees responded that he / she is exposed to various conditions almost all the time. Approx 3/4 of the time or half the time.

Exposed to poor indoor climate : people who are exposed to poor indoor air quality in the form of drafts, dry air, poor ventilation and others forms of poor indoor climate.


Exposed to skin irritating substances : people who in their daily work, who has:

  • skin contact with oils, lubricants or cutting fluids, or
  • with detergents, disinfectants, solvents or degreasers

Exposed to dust, gas or steam : people who in their daily work can clearly observe in the air or smell:

  • dust, smoke, gases or vapors
  • dust or fumes from metals (eg. welding fumes, lead, chromium, nickel, zinc, aluminum, copper or tin dust)
  • mineral dust (eg. from stone, quartz, cement, asbestos or mineral wool)
  • organic dust (eg. from textiles, wood, flour, cloth or animal)
  • gas / vapor (eg. ammonia, hydrochloric acid, chlorine, nitrous oxides, formaldehyde, called water vapor or solvents?

Exposure to biological materials : people who in their daily work is in contact with body fluids, ie blood, saliva, feces or urine.

Ergonomical working environment
Various issues related to movement or static postures, stressful jobs, heavy lifting etc.

Relations to work place and various working conditions
Different questions covering employment conditions, job security, restructuring and reorganization of work and its impact on the individual, satisfaction with job opportunities and health and safety issues.

Work related health complaints, work accidents and sick leave
Work related health complaints : questions about different types of health problems last month, and if the health problem is due to current job (previous job for those not working)

Long-term sick leave : persons that in the past 12 months have had continuous absence of more than 14 days

Help and feedback, cooperation, appreciation, violence and harassment

Questions covering different psychosocial factors at work.

Exposed to Violence : we ask whether the person have been the victim of workplace violence that led to visible marks or bodily injury and violence in the workplace that led to visible marks or bodily injury during the last 12 months. We then ask how many times they have been exposed to these two types of violence during the period.

Number of times exposed to violence, average: Average among employed people who have been exposed to violence

Exposed to threat of violence : we ask whether the person have been subjected to threats that were so severe that they were afraid during the last 12 months. We then ask how many times they have been exposed to this during the period.

Number of times exposed to treat of violence, average: Average among employed people who have been exposed to threat of violence

Exposed to hassle or teasing: we ask if the person are exposed to bullying or nasty teasing of fellow workers once or more times a week, once or several times a month or never. We then ask person is subjected to bullying or nasty teasing of superior once or more times a week, once or several times a month or never.

Exposed to unwanted sexual attention, remarks, etc.: we ask if the person are exposed to unwanted sexual attention, comments, etc. in their workplace, once or more times a week, once or several times a month or never.

Job demands, control, role conflict and expectations in the job

The questions cover different psychosocial factors at work, such as client contact, requirements in terms of speed, ability to maintain control over various aspects of their own work, role conflict and expectations in the job.

Standard classifications

Age

Persons are grouped by age at year-end for the completion of the main part of the interview.

Occupation

 In 2011 there was also implemented a new Norwegian standard classification of occupations . (STYRK-08). This is based on the International Standard Classification of Occupations 2008 - ISCO-08. The standard is adjusted in the publishing of results from the level of living survey on working environment 2013.  These adjustments are described below.

1-digit classification:
1 = Managers
2+35 = Professinals
3 = Technicians and associate professionals
4 = Clerical support workers
5 = Service and sales workers 
6 = Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers
7 = Craft and trades workers
8 = Plant and machine operators, and assemblers
9 = Elementary occupations
0+3351+3355+54 = Protective services workers, police, armed forces and unspecified

2-digit classification:
11-14 = Managers
21 = Science and engineering professionals
22 = Health professionals
222 = Nursing and midwifery professionals
23 = Teaching professionals
24 = Business and administration professionals
25+35 = ICT professionals and ICT technicians
26 = Legal, social and cultural professionals
31 = Science and engineering associate professionals 
32 = Health associate professionals
33 = Business and administration associate professionals
34 = Legal, social, cultural and related associate professionals
41+44 = General and keyboard clerks and other clerical support workers
42 = Customer services clerks
43 = Numerical and material recording clerks
51 = Personal service wokers
52 = Sales workers 
53 = Personal care workers 
61-62 =  Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers
71 = Building and related trades workers, excluding electricians
72 = Metal, machinery and related trades workers
74 = lectrical and electronics trades workers
73+75 = Handicraft, food processing and other craft related trades workers
81-82 = Stationary plant and machine operators and assemblers
83 = Drivers and mobile plant operators
91 = Cleaners and helpers
92-96 = Labourers in agriculture, mining etc
01-03+3351+3355+54 = Protective services workers, police, armed forces etc
00 = Unspecified or unidentifiable occupations

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Working environment, survey on living conditions
Topic: Labour market and earnings

Next release

Responsible division

Division for Social Welfare Statistics

Regional level

National.

Frequency and timeliness

The survey on working conditions and working environment is carried out every 3 years (last in 2016). The theme is no longer a part of the general Survey og Living Conditions EU-SILC which is conducted annually, with rotating themed sections. The topic health care and social contact are also separated from the Living Conditions survey EU-SILC, and carried out every five years (last in 2015).

International reporting

Not relevant

Microdata

Data files with results from the interviews and statistical files with coded variables, linked information and weights are stored. Anonymised files are also available for researchers through the Norwegian Social Science Data Archives .

Background

Background and purpose

There are two main purposes of living surveys aim to satisfy. They will firstly make it possible to shed light on the main aspects of living conditions and inequalities in living conditions. Secondly, the study of living conditions make it possible to follow the living conditions development, both the level of living conditions and inequalities.

The Survey of Living Conditions EU-SILC will, together with the surveys of working conditions and health care and social contact, over a 3-year period cover the major areas of living conditions.

From 1973 to 1995 there was carried out six general surveys. The studies shed light on economics, housing condition, leisure, social networks, health, education, employment and working conditions.

In 1996 a coordinated system of surveys was introduced. The system consisted of annual surveys with a set of rotating topics and an annual panel survey. Work environment was the theme in 1996, 2000, 2003, 2006 and 2009. Housing, leisure activities and victims of crime was the theme in 1997, 2001, 2004 and 2007. Health care and social relations was the theme in 1998, 2002, 2005 and 2008. The annual panel survey covered some important main topic.

In 2011 a new system of survey of living conditions was introduced. A key objective of the new system was better coordination with international requirements connected to EU-SILC. The new system in high degree covers earlier topics, in addition to new themes to illuminate political participation, social networks and economic and social problems.

The regular living conditions survey by Statistics Norway consists, from 2011, of the annual Survey of Living Conditions EU-SILC, a survey of working environment that is carried out every three years (last in 2016), and a survey of health that is carried out approximately every fiveyears (last in 2015). The Survey of Living Conditions EU-SILC has a fixed core of questions which mainly covers household, housing, finances, health and work. Each year a topic section with varying themes are asked as well, and these are to be repeated every three years. The topics are: Leisure and outdoor activities, organization activity, political participation and social network (the first time in 2011). Exploration of housing conditions as well as offences and fear of crime (the first time in 2012). Sports activities and cultural activities (the first time in 2013).

In addition to the regular surveys of living conditions Statistics Norway, commissioned from outside, conduct individual surveys among selected groups.

Users and applications

The main users are government ministries, directorates, and research communities in the areas of working environment, health care, housing, leisure and local environment and living conditions in general.

Apart from this the statistics serve as a basis for information to the media and others interested in the condition and development in the living conditions.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 08:00 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.

Coherence with other statistics

The concept of living conditions covers a very wide range of topics and statistics on living conditions is therefore associated with many other statistics.

Information on housing is also available in the Population and Housing Censuses. These allow for a significantly more detailed geographical breakdown. The survey of housing conditions in 2001 also obtained some information from the Population and Housing Census in 2001. The Survey of Consumer Expenditures also collects information on housing. It provides, among other things, a more complete overview of most kinds of housing expenditures.

Information on employment is collected from several sources. The Labour Force Survey is an important source and provide some information that supplements the information in the study of living conditions, eg. training in the workplace, weekend work, working arrangements and disability relation to the labor market. Some records like the employee/employer registry, sick leave registry etc. are also relevant. The information in these registers can also be utilized in the survey of living conditions.

The topic leisure activities does not contain information about cultural activities. These can be obtained from the Cultural and Media Use Surveys Statistics Norway conducts and from different cultural statistics.

To some degree the SLC gives input to the Statistics on Natural Resources and the Environment.

Legal authority

Voluntary survey

EEA reference

Not relevant

Production

Population

The living condition survey on working conditions earlier included persons at the age 16-66 years, and as from 2006 persons aged 18-66 years. Employed short-term immigrants are not covered by the statistics.

Other living condition surveys covers the population aged 16 years and over not living in institutions.

Employed short-term immigrants

Data sources and sampling

Data sources are interview data from the annual representative sample surveys and various attached registry information.

Tha main sample for the SLC about working conditions is 5000 persons. Usually this has been supplied with an additional sample. as from 2006 the sample is 20-21 000 persons. In addition to having cross-sectional properties the survey will be a panel, so that the same people will be contacted again the next time the SLC about working conditions is conducted.

The sample is drawn according to the procedures for random selection.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Data collection is mainly done by telephone (Computer Assisted Telephone Interview CATI) and in some cases the interviewer visits the interviewee (Computer Assisted Personal Interview CAPI). Data collection for the Survey of Living Conditions EU-SILC occurs mainly from in the autumn in the year of interview.

The interview takes place using a computer-based questionnaire. The questionnaire includes various controls to prevent incorrect answers or registration errors during the interview. In some cases, the interviewer receives warnings for the registered response. In other cases, there is a limit on values that can not be exceeded. Moreover, it verifies that only valid codes are recorded.

In surveys where industry and occupation are collected, these are encoded by Statistics Norway.

The sample consists of people. Analysis unit is primarily person, but in some cases household. Using the household as the unit of analysis requires the use of weights.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant

Confidentiality

Not relevant

Comparability over time and space

The SLC on work environment is based partly on the earlier surveys on working environment in 1989 and 1993. Some time series can thus be traced back to 1989. In recent years, major revisions were made in 2006 and 2009. In some areas time series are therefore short.  In 2008 the new  Norwegian Standard Industrial Classification (SIC2007) implemented in Statistics Norway. The standard is based on EUs NACE rev.2. In 2011 there was also implemented a new Norwegian standard classification of occupations . (STYRK-08). This is based on the International Standard Classification of Occupations 2008 - ISCO-08.  

The SLC on outdoor activities, organization activity, political participation and social network is partly based on earlier surveys. Outdoors and organizational activity was the subject of investigations in 1997, 2001, 2004 and 2007, while the themes political participation and social network are new. Some time series of organizational activity and outdoor recreation can be traced back to the general living conditions surveys in 1980-1995.

The SLC on housing conditions is partly based on earlier surveys on housing conditions. The first was conducted in 1967, followed by similar surveys in 1973, 1981, 1988 and 1995. Some time series can also be traced back to the general living conditions surveys in 1980-1995.

The SLC on victimization are based on the general living conditions surveys. The first time this included questions about victimization was in 1983.

The SLC on health is partly based on health surveys. The first was conducted in 1968, followed by surveys in 1975, 1985 and 1995. Some time series can also be traced back to the general surveys on living conditions in 1980-1995.

The SLC on care and social contacts are based primarily on the general living conditions surveys and multiple time series can be traced back to 1980.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

The gross sample is drawn in order to reflect the whole population, however, because non-response differs unequally in the different categories used, the net sample will not be fully representative. This bias will vary for different groups and variables in question. In order to adjust for some of the biases that the net sample in relation to the gross sample, figures in the tables are weighted. The following variables are included in the weighting for non-response: Gender, age, education and family size.

The uncertainty of the findings based only a part of the population is often called sampling variance. Standard deviation is a measure of this uncertainty. The size of standard deviation depends, among other factors, on the number of observation in the sample, and on the distribution of the current variable in the whole population.

Statistic Norway has not made exact calculations to compute standard deviation for the findings. However, in table 1, the approximate size of standard deviation is given for observed percentages.

To illustrate the uncertainty associated with a percentage, we can use an interval to give the level of the true value of an estimated quantity (the value obtained if making observation on the whole population instead of observation based on a part of the population). Such intervals are called confidence intervals if constructed in a special way. In this connection one can use the following method: let M be the estimated quantity, and S the estimate of standard deviation of M. The confidence interval will be an interval with limits (M - 2*S) and (M + 2*S).

This method will give, with approximately 95 per cent probability, an interval containing the true value.

The following example illustrates the use of table 1 for finding confidence intervals: The estimate of standard deviation of 70 percent is 3.2 when the estimate is based on 300 observations. The confidence interval for the true value has limits 70 ± 2*3.2, which means the interval, is from 63.6 to 76.4 per cent.

Table 1. Standard deviation in per cent

Number of observations

Per cent

 

5(95)

10(90)

15(85)

20(80)

25(75)

30(70)

35(65)

40(60)

45(55)

50(50)

50

3.8

5.2

6.2

6.9

7.5

7.9

8.3

8.5

8.6

8.7

75

3.1

4.2

5.1

5.7

6.1

6.5

6.8

6.9

7

7.1

100

2.7

3.7

4.4

4.9

5.3

5.6

5.8

6

6.1

6.1

150

2.2

3

3.6

4

4.3

4.6

4.8

4.9

5

5

200

1.9

2.6

3.1

3.5

3.8

4

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.3

250

1.7

2.3

2.8

3.1

3.4

3.6

3.7

3.8

3.9

3.9

300

1.5

2.1

2.5

2.8

3.1

3.2

3.4

3.5

3.5

3.5

400

1.3

1.8

2.2

2.5

2.7

2.8

2.9

3

3.1

3.1

600

1.1

1.5

1.8

2

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.5

2.5

800

0.9

1.3

1.6

1.7

1.9

2

2.1

2.1

2.2

2.2

1 000

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

1.9

1.9

1.9

1 500

0.7

1

1.1

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.5

1.6

1.6

1.6

2 000

0.6

0.8

1

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.4

1.4

2 500

0.5

0.7

0.9

1

1.1

1.1

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

3 000

0.4

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.9

1

1

1

1

4 000

0.4

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.8

0.9

0.9

1

1

1

Revision

Not relevant

Contact

Fact sheet