Most Norwegian-controlled enterprises are in Europe
External economy
ufats, Norwegian subsidiaries abroad, industry breakdown (e.g. manufacturing, building and construction, transport...), turnover, employment, breakdown by country.Foreign assets and liabilities , External economy
Norwegian businesses abroad.

Norwegian subsidiaries abroad


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Key figures

4 513

norwegian-controlled enterprises abroad

Norwegian-controlled enterprises abroad
EnterprisesTurnover (NOK million)Employed persons
All countries4 5131 279 956280 275
Europe3 144734 689164 762
Africa11049 2364 358
Asia636178 78454 993
North and Central America413218 89932 128
South America13581 77520 130
Oceania7516 5723 904

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Table 1 
Norwegian-controlled enterprises abroad, by industrial sector (SN2007)

Norwegian-controlled enterprises abroad, by industrial sector (SN2007)
EnterprisesTurnover (NOK million)Employed personsEnterprisesTurnover (NOK million)Employed persons
All industries4 5011 220 461285 2194 5131 279 956280 275
Agriculture, forestry and fishing4122 2524 9714725 3165 902
Mining and quarrying110231 3057 973106188 3835 507
Manufacturing1 144498 433119 6951 126564 926115 674
Electricity and gas, water supply, sewerage, waste779 1351 39110811 2221 812
Construction10617 3074 69710118 6434 565
Wholesale and retail trade472141 19823 173494155 72524 707
Transportation and storage48761 47825 35049058 44625 105
Accommodation and food service activities15410 1837 9811237 8287 190
Information and communication407121 62547 215462131 02146 250
Financial and insurance activities30341 1587 79727338 5629 357
Real estate activities50114 4782 79345118 5282 910
Professional, scientific and technical activities54541 82321 40753449 31520 845
Administrative and support service activities1177 1217 0571378 3466 453
Other industries372 9663 719613 6963 998

Table 2 
Norwegian-controlled enterprises abroad, geographical breakdown

Norwegian-controlled enterprises abroad, geographical breakdown
EnterprisesTurnover (NOK million)Employed personsEnterprisesTurnover (NOK million)Employed persons
1ASEAN: Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam.
2Offshore financial centres: Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, Netherlands Antilles (up to 2010 data), Aruba (from 2011 data), Barbados, Bahrain, Bermuda, Bahamas, Belize, Cook Islands, Curaçao (from 2011 data), Dominica, Grenada, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Hong Kong, Isle of Man, Jersey, Jamaica (up to 2010 data), St Kitts and Nevis, Cayman Islands, Lebanon, Saint Lucia, Liechtenstein, Liberia, Marshall Islands, Mauritius (from 2011 data), Montserrat, Maldives (up to 2010 data), Nauru, Niue, Panama, Philippines, Seychelles (from 2011 data), Singapore, Turks and Caicos Islands, Sint Maarten (Dutch part) (from 2011 data), St Vincent and the Grenadines, Virgin Islands (British), Virgin Islands (U.S.), Vanuatu, Samoa.
3Brazil: Detailed data of Brazil are only available from year 2013.
All countries4 5011 220 461285 2194 5131 279 956280 275
Europe3 208692 992169 2653 144734 689164 762
Africa10856 2774 32211049 2364 358
Asia609164 80856 696636178 78454 993
North and Central America378214 72431 231413218 89932 128
South America13478 42520 71613581 77520 130
Oceania6413 2342 9897516 5723 904
Selected aggregates
EU3 055630 812161 3432 979663 149159 187
Europe except EU and Nordic countries13660 6457 67514870 6685 279
Nordic countries1 470342 39375 0521 427344 77173 253
ASEAN126492 93121 052264105 61119 653
Offshore financial centers222048 5656 87321750 1415 942
Selected countries
Sweden1 000189 92753 091941192 18650 703
Denmark302123 76914 710306121 22215 395
Germany29368 80213 72722573 59412 582
United Kingdom22656 46514 61125560 46815 320
United States267175 35021 976294180 38022 991
Brazil38069 70017 4318369 86916 862

About the statistics

The statistics give an overview of Norwegian enterprises abroad, which are controlled, either directly or indirectly, over 50 per cent. The variables included are number of enterprises, employment and turnover, broken down by industry and country.


Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Norwegian-controlled enterprise

A Norwegian-controlled enterprise is defined as an enterprise that is controlled by an enterprise or other economic unit in Norway through an ownership share of over 50 per cent.


According to Standard Industrial Classification (SIC2007), an enterprise is defines as the smallest combination og legal entity that produces goods or services. In FATS statistics, a legal entity is an enterprise. Legal entities are limited liability companies, partnerships and sole enterprises. Only economically active enterprises, with turnover or employment, are included in the population.


Employment is defined as the sum of the owners and wage-earners working in the enterprise. Persons with more than one job, may be counted as employed in several industries. Employment numbers show the average number employed during the year.


Turnover is defined as the enterprise's operating revenues minus public subsidies and profit from the sale of fixed assets. Taxes and duties are included, but VAT is not.

Standard classifications

The industrial classification is in accordance with the Norwegian Standard Industrial Classification (SIC 2007) which is based on the EU industry standard (NACE Rev. 2) and the UN (ISIC Rev. 3).

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Norwegian subsidiaries abroad
Topic: External economy

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Responsible division

Division for Financial Markets Statistics

Regional level

National level. Ownership abroad is divided into countries and country groups.

Frequency and timeliness

The statistics are published annually, within 20 months after the reference year.

International reporting

The data will be reported to the EU statistics agency Eurostat and OECD , in line with the binding EEA Agreement and other international agreements.


Raw data and revised microdata are stored according to Statistics Norway's standard for archiving files (Datadok). Microdata are stored for the same periods as the published data on the Statistics Norway's website. Statistics' rules for disclosure of data are applicable for research purposes.


Background and purpose

The purpose is to provide a total overview of the Norwegian-controlled enterprises’ economic activity abroad, i.e. foreign affiliates abroad. The statistics are internationally known as Foreign Affiliates Statistics. A simplified name is outward FATS.

In Norway, data for outward FATS was collected for the first time in 2008.

Users and applications

Figures for the Norwegian-controlled enterprises' activities abroad are used in economic research to measure the degree of globalization, and in international trade negotiations. Users are authorities, businesses, embassies, the media and educational and research institutions, among others. There is also extensive international reporting on data for foreign affiliates abroad, particularly to Eurostat and OECD.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.

Coherence with other statistics

With regard to ownership abroad, the statistics on Norwegian direct investment abroad (FDI) are related to the outward FATS statistics. The holdings of FDI describe claims of payments in the form of Norwegian-owned capital and other capital tied to direct investment. However, the direct investment statistics say little about how Norwegian ownership interests abroad affect other aspects of the economies where the investment takes place. The FATS are useful in being able to describe this effect, and are a natural continuation of Statistics Norway's existing statistics on globalisation.

Statistics on foreign-controlled enterprises in Norway (inward FATS) show equivalent relations where foreigners control Norwegian enterprises. The statistics follow the same international requirements as outward FATS.

Legal authority

Statistics Norway's data collection from the reporters is based on the Statistics Act § 2-2 and § 3-2.

EEA reference

European Parliament and Council Regulation (EEC) No 716/2007 of 20 June 2007 concerning Community statistics on the structure and activity of foreign-controlled enterprises (FATS-Regulation). The statistics are prepared in line with recommendations from Eurostat, embodied in the "Recommendations manual on the production of Foreign Affiliates Statistics"(Doc. Eurostat/C4/FATS/LO/SEP06/5 (2006)).



The statistics cover, in principle, all Norwegian-controlled enterprises abroad, i.e. subsidiaries in foreign countries that are controlled either directly or indirectly by an enterprise in Norway. See section definitions for a closer definition of "Norwegian-controlled". Only economically active enterprises are included in the population. The statistics include all Norwegian-controlled institutional sectors. Non-financial corporations are, in this context, the most important sector.

The statistics are based on a cut-off sampling survey. The sampling survey covers the largest Norwegian enterprises with activity abroad. In addition, a sample of smaller enterprises is drawn. The size of the sampling survey has increased since the first year (2008), but all the largest enterprises have been included the whole time.

Data sources and sampling

The statistics are based on Statistics Norway's own collection of reports on investment abroad, which is a joint collection with Norwegian direct investment abroad (outward FDI). The reports provide information about the foreign enterprises, including what the Norwegian enterprise owns, accounting information on investment and revenue, and information on turnover and employment. In addition, information is used from the annual report submitted to the Register of Company Accounts in Brønnøysund, information from the media, Internet etc. to map the changes in investment abroad. The sources are also used to map the ultimate owner country (the country where the enterprise in the ownership chain that is not controlled by another enterprise is located).

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Statistics on the activity of Norwegian-controlled enterprises abroad are based on Statistics Norway's collection of information on investment abroad. To ensure a high degree of relevance, emphasis is placed on covering large units in the population as measured by reported size. This limits the number of units and minimizes data collection costs.

The data collected is to a large extent compared to information with figures for the previous year and the annual accounts submitted to the Register of Company Accounts in Brønnøysund.

With regard to the Norwegian-controlled enterprises that are included in the survey, ownership is checked by reviewing the data with information from annual accounts and the enterprises' websites etc. on the enterprises' ultimate country of ownership. Only enterprises with Norway as ultimate owner country (Norwegian-controlled enterprises) are included in this statistic.

No methods have been established yet to inflate the number of enterprises, turnover and employment abroad to population level.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant


Figures are not published if fewer than three enterprises are the basis for a cell in the table. Having less than three enterprises creates the risk of identification. This also applies to more than three enterprises if one respondent is so dominating that, it in practice, it can be identified.

Comparability over time and space

The size of the sampling survey has increased since the first year (2008), but all the largest enterprises have been included the whole time.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

The quality of the statistics is related to the quality of the register of enterprises for data collection. It is also related to the quality of data reported. Respondents can sometimes make errors when completing forms, and Statistics Norway's processing of the data during registration can lead to errors. Errors in this connection can include using the wrong scale, e.g. NOK instead of NOK 1 000, as well as incorrect evaluations.

It is difficult to capture all relevant units at the end of each reporting period.

Statistics on foreign affiliates abroad are based on Statistics Norway's own data collection. A fine is imposed on non-reporting units in accordance with the Statistics Act. An entity may fail to uphold the reporting requirement, but all the important entities are included in the statistics.

Currently there are no calculations to measure the sampling error for the survey. The sampling error is the difference between the sample’s reported numbers and the numbers that would exist if the whole population was surveyed. To reduce this problem, we try to make sure that the largest enterprises are included in the sample.


Not relevant