Prices and price indices;Income and consumption
kpi, Consumer price index, CPI, inflation, price trends, price increases, CPI-ATE, price index adjustment, deflation, deflator, product groups (for example food, housing, transport), service groups (for example telecom services, hotels and restaurants)Consumer prices , Consumption, Prices and price indices, Income and consumption

Consumer price index


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Key figures

1,9 %

year-to-year change CPI June 2017

Consumer Price Index (2015=100)
IndexMonthly change (per cent)12-month rate (per cent)
June 2017May 2017 - June 2017June 2016 - June 2017
CPI All-item index105.80.41.9
Food and non-alcoholic beverages104.01.20.9
Alcoholic beverages and tobacco105.40.02.1
Clothing and footwear106.2-1.20.3
Housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels106.8-0.42.5
Furnishings, household equipment and routine maintenance103.3-2.2-2.2
Recreation and culture108.00.93.3
Restaurants and hotels107.30.63.9
Miscellaneous goods and services104.20.32.3
CPI-ATE All-item index105.10.51.6
CPI by delivery sector
Consumer goods105.8-0.11.3
Services where labor dominates105.80.33.4

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Table 1 
Consumer Price Index, historical indices from 1924 (2015=100)

Consumer Price Index, historical indices from 1924 (2015=100)1
1Earlier indices are available in table 08184 in the StatBank
2Average of all monthly indices

Table 2 
The consumer price index adjusted for tax changes and excluding energy products, by ECOICOP. Monthly and 12 months changes

The consumer price index adjusted for tax changes and excluding energy products, by ECOICOP. Monthly and 12 months changes
Monthly change (per cent)12-month rate (per cent)
May 2016 - June 2016May 2017 - June 2017May 2016 - May 2017June 2016 - June 2017
CPI-ATE All-item index0.
CPI-ATE Food and non-alcoholic beverages1.
CPI-ATE Alcoholic beverages and tobacco0.
CPI-ATE Clothing and footwear0.4-
CPI-ATE Housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels0.
CPI-ATE Furnishings, household equipment and routine maintenance-0.5-2.2-0.5-2.2
CPI-ATE Health-0.5-
CPI-ATE Transport-0.62.2-1.11.6
CPI-ATE Communications1.
CPI-ATE Recreation and culture1.
CPI-ATE Education0.
CPI-ATE Restaurants and hotels0.
CPI-ATE Miscellaneous goods and services0.

Table 3 
The consumer price index adjusted for tax changes and excluding energy products, by delivery sector. Monthly and 12 months changes

The consumer price index adjusted for tax changes and excluding energy products, by delivery sector. Monthly and 12 months changes
Monthly change (per cent)12-month rate (per cent)
May 2016 - June 2016May 2017 - June 2017May 2016 - May 2017June 2016 - June 2017
CPI-ATE All-item index0.
CPI-ATE Consumer goods0.
CPI-ATE Norwegian consumer goods0.
CPI-ATE Norwegian goods excluding energy products0.
CPI-ATE Norwegian agricultural products0.
CPI-ATE Norwegian goods excluding argricultural and energy products0.
CPI-ATE Imported consumer goods0.2-
CPI-ATE Imported agricultural products3.01.21.3-0.5
CPI-ATE Imported goods excluding agricultural products0.0-
CPI-ATE Services0.
CPI-ATE Rent0.
CPI-ATE Services excluding rent0.
CPI-ATE Services where labor dominates0.
CPI-ATE Services with other important price components0.

Table 4 
Weights Consumer Price Index

Weights Consumer Price Index
Consumer Price Index (weights)
June 20161June 20171
1The weights are updated in January, and kept constant throughout the rest of the year.
Food and non-alcoholic beverages130.5129.7
Bread and cereals14.114.0
Fish and seafood6.66.6
Milk, cheese and eggs19.119.0
Oils and fats1.91.9
Sugar, jam, honey, chocolate and confectionery16.416.2
Food products n.e.c.13.213.2
Non-alcoholic beverages15.815.7
Coffee, tea and cocoa4.44.5
Mineral waters, soft drinks, fruit and vegetable juices11.411.3
Alcoholic beverages and tobacco41.741.2
Alcoholic beverages25.024.1
Clothing and footwear51.752.0
Housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels229.8227.6
Actual rentals for housing45.645.7
Imputed rentals for housing133.0132.0
Maintenance and repair of the dwelling1.51.5
Water supply and miscellaneous services relating to the dwelling14.314.5
Electricity, gas and other fuels35.334.0
Furnishings, household equipment and routine maintenance66.667.3
Furniture and furnishings, carpets and other floor coverings25.124.7
Household textiles7.67.7
Household appliances9.79.9
Glassware, tableware and household utensils7.47.5
Tools and equipment for house and garden9.810.7
Goods and services for routine household maintenance7.06.8
Medical products, appliances and equipment14.214.4
Out-patient services16.917.3
Purchase of vehicles59.460.7
Operation of personal transport equipment66.964.2
Transport services32.633.9
Postal services0.80.7
Telephone equipment3.93.7
Telephone services20.318.6
Recreation and culture112.9115.2
Audio-visual, photographic and information processing equipment17.717.0
Other major durables for recreation and culture6.87.6
Other recreational items and equipment, gardens and pets19.920.2
Recreational and cultural services35.437.9
Newspapers, books and stationery17.217.3
Package holidays15.915.2
Restaurants and hotels56.657.7
Restaurant services51.252.6
Accommodation services5.35.2
Miscellaneous goods and services89.389.4
Personal care127.027.3
Personal effects n.e.c.14.74.6
Social protection119.419.5
Financial services n.e.c.113.913.5
Other services n.e.c.17.27.5

About the statistics

The CPI describes the development in consumer prices for goods and services purchased by private households in Norway, and is a common measure of inflation. The CPI adjusted for tax changes and excluding energy products (CPI-ATE) is a measurement of the underlying growth in consumer prices.


Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Price refers to actual retail price of goods and services offered to households. This means prices including indirect taxes, fees and subsidies. Discount and sale prices are registered.

Price reference month defines the time of reference for new weights, updated sample and base prices used for calcultaion in the following year.

Budget shares are proportional to the consumption of a certain good and consumption in total in households. Expenditure shares are obtained from the consumtion in houshold in National Accounts.

A Laspeyre price index is a price index where the base-period weights remain fixed. A chained Laspeyres price index is an index linked by Laspeyres indices with different sets of weights. New sets of weights are incorporated into the index every year. A Paasche price index also uses fixed weights but, unlike the Laspeyre price index, the weights are from actual current period. A pure Paasche price index is not used in the CPI

A Fisher price index is a geometric mean of a Laspeyre and Paasche price index. The Fisher price index is used in the CPI for the index of motor vehicles and indices of alcoholic beverages sold through the State wine and liquor monopoly.

ECOICOP (European Classification of individual consumption by purpose) is a consumer classification developed by UN and EUROSTAT. The classification criteria is the end purpose of the consumption.

Imputed price is a price estimated for a missing price based on other price observations of the same products.

CPI-AE (CPI excluding energy products) is an indicator where the price material and the weight of the energy products are taken out. Other computations are identical with the computation process of the CPI.

CPI-AT (CPI adjusted for tax changes) is an indicator where the weights and the calculations are identical to the CPI. The CPI-AT is also based on actual, observed prices, but those are adjusted for real changes in taxes. The CPI-AT takes into account the following taxes:

1. Value added tax

2. Alcohol tax

3. Tobacco tax

4. Petrol tax

5. Diesel tax

6. Electricity tax

7. Taxes on mineral products

8. Chocolate tax

9. Tax on non-alcoholic beverages

10. Sugar tax

11. Tax on disposable beverage packing

12. Aviation tax - Terminal and security charge

13. Purchase tax on vehicles, weight tax

14. Purchase tax on vehicles, piston displacement tax

15. Purchase tax on vehicles, motor effect tax

CPI-ATE (CPI adjusted for tax changes and excluding energy products) is an indicator that is built upon the main components of CPI-AE and CPI-AT.

Seasonal goods are products that are only or to a small extent available at certain times of the year. Examples are fruit, vegetables and certain clothing products. Observed prices are used in season while out of season the prices are estimated.

Standard classifications

Two classifications are in use when calculating and later publishing the CPI, ECOICOP and classification by delivery sector are used. For further information about the classification: ECOICOP 

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Consumer price index
Topic: Prices and price indices

Next release

Responsible division

Division for Price Statistics

Regional level

National level only

Frequency and timeliness

Published the 10th of the month, around 1.4 weeks after the current month.

International reporting

Harmonized Indices of Consumer Prices for Norway are reportedly monthly to EUROSTAT.


Data at micro level, information about sample units, population, and catalogues are stored in Oracle databases.


Background and purpose

The CPI measures the actual changes in the prices for household goods and services including charges and fees. Established in 1960 and replaced the Cost of Living Index, which had been published since 1914. In 1999 the process of revision and the methods of calculations were modernised and improved, and the classification of consumption was changed to Classification of individual consumption by purpose (COICOP). In 2005 the sub-index for food and non-alcoholic beverages was improved, which resulted in a sub-index exclusively based on the use of electronic scanner data. From 2011 National Account data are the main weigh source and replaced the Household Budget Survey which had been used since 1960. The price reference month is changed from July to December. From 2016 the classification of consumption was extended and are now named ECOICOP (European Classification of Individual Consumption by Purpose). In addition the classification of indices grouped by delivery sector is revised.

Users and applications

The CPI has its most advanced users in the public sector (ministries, the Central Bank of Norway) and in the financial sector. Labour organisations and employers' federations are other important users. The CPI is widely used to index payments such as different contracts. Within Statistics Norway the CPI is an important input to the National Accounts . It is also used as a deflator for the index of Retail Sales. Primary data is also used in analysis and research within Statistics Norway.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given inthe Statistics Release Calendar. For more information, go to: equality priciples


Coherence with other statistics

Some data are collected from the Construction Cost Index for Residential Buildings, the price indices for business activities (car rental, other transport services and legal activities) and from the Wage Statistics . The CPI is an important input to the National Accounts. It is also used as a deflator for the index of Retail Sales.

Legal authority

The Statistics Act of June 16, 1989 number 54 , §§2-2 and 2-3.

EEA reference

With exeption of the computation of the owner-occupied housing follow the CPI the same legislation as the Harmonized Indices of Consumer Prices (HICP). More about EUROSTATS regulations: Legislation related to the HICP




The population is defined as all goods and services offered to households in Norway. Prices and expenditure shares of a sample of products and services are being measured. Expenditure shares (weights) are based on data obtained from the National accounts, while prices are collected each month from a representative sample of retail and service outlets. This sample is selected from all outlets in Statistics Norway's Business Register defined as the industries 45, 47, 55, 56, 77, 95 and 96 (SIC07 -The Standard Industrial Classification). In addition, prices are collected with unequal frequency from different outlets or parties (including households) mainly on services within the industries 35, 49, 50, 51, 53, 60, 61, 65, 66, 69, 77, 79, 85, 86, 88, 90, 91 and 93. Household samples are selected from the "Central Population Register".

Data sources and sampling

The CPI is based on the following sources: Electronic questionnaires, electronic data from firms and dwellings, turnover information from Statistics Norway's Business Register, commodity trade statistics, and budget shares from the household budget survey.

A sample of about 650 goods and services is selected. In addition, scanner data of around 14 000 goods are used for the calculation of sub-index for food and non-alcoholic beverages.

Representative goods and services in the sample are selected based on information from the annual household budget survey and branch information. The sample of goods and services is basically kept constant, but is regularly updated when new important products enter the market while outdated products are removed. Prices are collected from a sample of outlets, households and municipalities. The outlets comprise a panel sample where one sixth of the outlets are replaced each year. The sample amounts to about 2 200 firms. The sample of households for the survey of rents amounts to 2 500 tenants based on the Rental market survey. The outlets/firms are selected from Statistics Norway's Business Register in proportion to the firms turnover i.e. large firms have a bigger probability of being chosen. The selection is made after stratifying the population by industry and region. The probability to be selected is proportional to the size of the turnover. The sample does not overlap the sample of the Index of Retail Sales .

The sampling plan for the food and non-alkoholic beverages index is based on the population in the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises (CRE) defined as the industries in 47.11 and 47.12. The draft population consists of companies belonging to the major supermarket chains and their associated kiosk chains, provided that they can deliver scanner data. An annual routine is established to avoid bias in the draft population. Parts of the sample are replaced each year to ensure a representative sample. The sample is drawn after proportional allocation by revenue stratified by chain profile, and in each stratum the companies are drawn randomly without replacement.

Another sampling methodology is used for sub-surveys directed towards municipalities.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

The main part of the prices are collected by means of electronical questionnaires, which are sent to the outlets the 10th of each month, and returned to Statistics Norway the first working day after the 15th. Statistics Norway also receives electronic scanner data from grocery firms, farmacies and petrol stations monthly. Car prices and price information on alcoholic beverages are received electronically. Tariffs on electricity are collected from the Internet. Rentals for tenants are collected by means of electronic questionnaires andCATI- Computer Assisted Telephone Interview - directly from households.

An outlet uses an average 90 minutes to fill out the questionnaires throughout the year, which means that the sample of outlets uses in total about 3 300 hours or less than 520 days of work each year.

Individual firms fill out the questionnaires and firms who fail to send in the forms are sent letters of reminder a week after the due data. Firms who fail to comply receive a "notice of fine" a week after the new deadline. To avoid paying the fine, firms must submit completed forms to Statistics Norway within 6 to 7 days.

After checking the questionnaires, the prices are thereafter put through tests, which identifies duplicates and observations with large price changes from the previous month. The price material are then sorted by item and region and further edited. Finally, prices are controlled at item level and item group level. Generally firms are not contacted during the editing process.

Indices at micro level are calculated for each commodity by an unweighted geometric mean. Aggregation to higher levels is done by the Laspeyre formula where the weights are based on consumption in households in National Accounts. The price reference period is December and short-term indices are chained to long-term indices where the index reference period 2015 = 100.

Seasonal adjustment

The all-item index is also presented with seasonally adjusted figures, applying the X12ARIMA Method. For more information go to: About seasonal adjustment


Data collected from firms and households are subject to secrecy and are to be kept or destroyed in a secure manner. Any use of the data must be in accordance with the rules set out by the Data Inspectorate.

Comparability over time and space

The All-item index goes back to 1865. In the period 1865-1900 it was based on the price index for private consumption from the National Accounts . In the period 1901-1913 it was based on the Cost of Living Index of Oslo, calculated by a local statistical office in Oslo. In the period 1914-1959 it was based on Statistics Norway's Cost of Living Index.

Statistics Norway publishes indices at ECOICOP class level. There are also certain indices at sub-class level and indices at consumption segment and item level published each month. The indices published are available from January 1979. In addition derived series are published, among these are, CPI adjusted for tax-changes (CPI-AT), CPI excluding energy Products (CPI-AE) and CPI grouped by delivery sector. These series have different starting points.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

The questionnaires are formed in such a way that reported prices in the last two months are listed. This method is done to ensure that the prices of the same goods are given. However, outlets may of consideration of convenience copy the previous month's prices instead of the correct prices when filling out the questionnaires. The most obvious cases of this kind are revealed in manual checks carried out when receiving the questionnaires. When a good or service goes out of the market, the outlets are instructed to find a replacement and mark it in the questionnaire. If outlets report a price of the replacement without marking it, the difference in price between the old product and the replacement will incorrectly be registered as a price change of the old product. The extent of this error is unknown.

Non-response : Each month around 85 to 90 per cent of firms respond. The response increases to about 95 per cent after the process of reminding. Total and partial missing prices are imputed. There are four different algorithms used in estimating missing prices. Imputed prices are either based on the price changes or average prices of the same product in the region or the country as a whole.

Skewness : The sample of goods and services are updated once a year, where new products are introduced and replace old products. The sample of households in the household budget survey is also changed once a year to make the sample of households more representative. In the sample of outlets/ firms, one sixth of the samples are changed each year. Statistics Norway has not done any calculations on the skewness in the Norwegian CPI. International surveys indicate that the sample of goods and services is the source of the largest skewness.

Traditionally non-sampling errors in the CPI are divided into three main types of measurement errors;

a) Income effects which influences consumer behaviour through time;

Households through time face changes in income, which also affect the expenditure shares of different goods and services. To be able to set proper weights in CPI, in each period, the weights in the CPI should reflect the expenditure shares. Therefore the weights are updated yearly. There have not been any calculations done to measure errors caused by non-representative weights.

b) Price effects caused by changes in relative prices;

The price relationship between different goods and services changes over time. This changes also the expenditure share of households and causes the same measurement challenge as the income effects.

c) The unsatisfactory treatment of quality changes;

Statistics Norway has not accomplished separate calculations of these measurement errors in the Norwegian CPI. Calculation of measurement errors and analyses done in USA, Canada, Sweden and Great Britain estimate the measurement errors somewhere between 0.4 to 1.1 per cent measured as annual growth rate. However there are uncertainties in these estimates. Its likely to assume that the Norwegian CPI overestimates the development in the cost of living, but the level is likely to be less than one per cent measured as annual change.


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