375059
/en/bygg-bolig-og-eiendom/statistikker/boforhold/aar
375059
statistikk
2019-05-07T08:00:00.000Z
Construction, housing and property;Social conditions, welfare and crime;Immigration and immigrants
en
boforhold, Housing conditions, register-based, dwellings, housing conditions, cramped quarters, number of rooms, type of building, own, rent, disadvantaged on the housing marketSocial conditions, welfare and crime, Dwelling and housing conditions , Living conditions , Construction, housing and property, Social conditions, welfare and crime, Immigration and immigrants
true

Housing conditions, register-based

Updated

Next update

Key figures

76.8 %

of households own their dwelling

Households and persons by tenure status, type of building and crowded dwelling, number and per cent.
2018
ResidentsHouseholds
NumberPer centNumberPer cent
1The figures for 2015 and 2016 were corrected 05.28.2018 due to a revision in the dwellings register.
Tenure status
Owner4 286 54582.21 841 24876.8
Freeholder3 681 96670.61 507 59862.9
Part- / shareholder604 57911.6333 65013.9
Tenant931 61017.9556 20123.2
Type of building1
Detached house2 933 94956.21 183 65349.4
House with two dwellings506 5129.7216 9169.0
Row house, linked house and house with 3 or 4 dwellings616 45811.8291 22912.1
Multi-dwelling building1 005 74119.3594 83124.8
Other residential building155 4933.0110 8094.6
Crowded dwelling
Live in spacious dwelling, many rooms and sq.m.4 571 80587.62 181 02991.0
Live in crowded dwelling, few rooms and sq.m.540 14910.4160 8086.7
Unknown106 1992.055 5742.3

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
Tenure status for household types

Tenure status for household types
2018
FreeholderPart- / shareholderTenantNumber of households
Housholds total62.913.923.22 397 449
Living alone44.218.637.2921 860
Couple without resident children74.912.312.8576 078
Couple with small children (youngest child 0-5 years)74.211.014.8230 781
Couple with older children (youngest child 6-17 years)85.27.37.5257 902
Lone parent with small children (youngest child 0-5 years)37.411.950.727 222
Lone parent with older children (youngest child 6-17 years)58.415.825.885 308
One-family households with adult children (youngest child 18 years and over)82.110.37.7179 953
Two or more-family households with children80.98.310.831 456
Two or more-family households without resident children 0-17 years51.111.437.686 889

Table 2 
Density of dwelling by household type

Density of dwelling by household type
2018
Live in spacious dwelling, many rooms and sq.m.Live in crowded dwelling, few rooms and sq.m.UnknownNumber of households
Housholds total91.06.72.32 397 466
Living alone92.84.13.1921 934
Couple without resident children96.41.91.7576 065
Couple with small children (youngest child 0-5 years)77.820.41.7230 734
Couple with older children (youngest child 6-17 years)87.111.41.5257 867
Lone parent with small children (youngest child 0-5 years)82.614.23.227 193
Lone parent with older children (youngest child 6-17 years)91.36.42.385 317
One-family households with adult children (youngest child 18 years and over)95.13.31.6180 035
Two or more-family households with children68.729.32.031 412
Two or more-family households without resident children 0-17 years84.611.83.586 909

Table 3 
Households by tenure status

Households by tenure status
2018
TotalFreeholderPart- / shareholderTenantPercent tenants
The whole country2 397 4491 507 598333 650556 20123.2
Østfold132 76084 71721 20926 83420.2
Akershus255 622183 10824 64647 86818.7
Oslo332 115121 618108 196102 30130.8
Hedmark92 35463 5818 82419 94921.6
Oppland88 74862 4235 17421 15123.8
Buskerud125 41582 51015 14127 76422.1
Vestfold112 63373 92615 23523 47220.8
Telemark80 34252 31911 95216 07120.0
Aust-Agder52 27539 9521 93010 39319.9
Vest-Agder82 36657 8317 19517 34021.1
Rogaland201 274144 40816 81340 05319.9
Hordaland236 593143 08636 55456 95324.1
Sogn og Fjordane47 40133 0592 52111 82124.9
Møre og Romsdal117 65684 8608 21524 58120.9
Trøndelag216 267132 30128 10455 86225.8
Nordland111 14375 51111 88123 75121.4
Troms - Romsa78 12649 0337 88021 21327.2
Finnmark - Finnmárku34 35923 3552 1808 82425.7

Table 4 
Persons by density of dwelling

Persons by density of dwelling
2018
Live in spacious dwelling, many rooms and sq.m.Live in crowded dwelling, few rooms and sq.m.UnknownPersons
The whole country87.610.42.05 218 153
Østfold88.59.22.2289 820
Akershus88.49.62.1596 829
Oslo78.020.71.3658 514
Hedmark91.06.62.4193 507
Oppland90.37.12.6187 766
Buskerud87.89.13.1275 902
Vestfold89.37.23.5243 721
Telemark90.57.42.2170 338
Aust-Agder91.26.82.0115 472
Vest-Agder89.98.61.5183 844
Rogaland90.57.71.8465 377
Hordaland88.010.71.3522 972
Sogn og Fjordane88.08.53.5108 191
Møre og Romsdal90.57.32.2261 614
Trøndelag87.910.02.1464 405
Nordland88.99.11.9238 685
Troms - Romsa87.411.21.4166 879
Finnmark - Finnmárku86.411.32.374 317

Table 5 
Households by type of building

Households by type of building
2018
Dwellings totalDetached houseHouse with two dwellingsRow house, linked house and house with 3 or 4 dwellingsMulti-dwelling buildingOther residential building
The whole country2 397 4171 183 710216 929291 205594 800110 773
Østfold132 76071 78515 01118 88021 1745 910
Akershus255 631117 82426 66941 34259 15510 641
Oslo332 11627 24220 20030 752240 71113 211
Hedmark92 34764 2546 1647 8029 8324 295
Oppland88 74863 0357 8056 5356 3914 982
Buskerud125 41170 71013 38414 18821 6505 479
Vestfold112 62962 20511 59916 58216 1636 080
Telemark80 34352 1326 2818 4239 4044 103
Aust-Agder52 27337 8762 9884 4144 1512 844
Vest-Agder82 35944 7767 28611 38114 1784 738
Rogaland201 270111 42222 00426 18233 9407 722
Hordaland236 589108 83819 09533 28767 2538 116
Sogn og Fjordane47 39733 8313 6444 6322 5162 774
Møre og Romsdal117 65372 58212 87914 91811 3615 913
Trøndelag216 267104 93621 12026 14650 86513 200
Nordland111 14271 12210 29812 53712 3784 807
Troms - Romsa78 12646 7826 6549 10511 4184 167
Finnmark - Finnmárku34 35622 3583 8484 0992 2601 791

About the statistics

The housing conditions of all residents and households in Norway is presented. This includes ownership rates, crowded dwellings, the type of building and accessibility.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Resident: The statistics include all persons that are residents of a private household (see definition below) in Norway in 1 January according to the National Population Register. Who is regarded as a resident of Norway and where in Norway a person shall be counted as a resident is stipulated in the Population Registration Act of 16 January 1970 (with subsequent changes) and its regulation from 1994. The total number of residents in an area is the population. Students registered with their parents while they study abroad are not included in the statistics. The same applies for some persons that according to the register can be considered to reside abroad.

Couples: Two persons who live in the same residence and are married, registered partners or cohabitants (living together without being married or registered partners) are considered to be a couple. To be regarded as cohabitants, the persons have to be living in the same residence, be of the opposite sex, and either

  • have children together
  • be registered as cohabitants in the 2001 census form, or
  • have been registered as cohabitants in the revision routine to update the households from the 2001 census.

The data source does not have enough information to identify unmarried same sex couples. Divorced and separated couples that are registered in the same residence are considered a couple when they fulfil the requirements for cohabitation.

Children: Children are persons registered as living with at least one of their parents (biological or adoptive), and who are not in a couple or/and have children of their own. Children include biological and adoptive children, but not foster children.

Household: A private household consists of persons that are residents in the same private dwelling according to the National Population Register. The creation of households is described in more detail in Production. Households can consist of one or more families. Persons that belong to the same family also belong to the same household. We first determine which persons belong to the same household, and then which persons belong to the same family.

Immigrants are persons born abroad of two foreign-born parents and four foreign-born grandparents. Country of Birth is mainly the mother's place of residence at the time she is giving birth.

EU/EEA, USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand includes immigrants with their country of birth in: Denmark, Greenland, Finland, Faroe Islands, Iceland, Sweden, Belgium, Bulgaria, Andorra, Estonia, France, Gibraltar, Greece, Ireland, Croatia, Italy, Latvia, Malta, Netherlands, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Lithuania, Spain, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Germany, Slovenia, Hungary, Austria, Vatican City State, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Canada, USA, Australia and New Zealand.

Asia, Africa, Latin America, Oceania except Australia and New Zealand and Europe except EU/EEA includes immigrants with their country of birth in: Albania, Belarus, Moldova, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Asia, Africa, America except USA and Canada and Oceania except Australia and New Zealand. Persons who were stateless at birth and with an unknown place of birth are also included.

Dwelling: A dwelling is defined as one or more rooms that has been built or rebuilt for the purpose of being used as a round-the-year dwelling for one or more persons. It must be possible to have access to the room(s) without having to go through another dwelling. Both dwelling units and single rooms are counted as dwellings. A dwelling unit is a conventional dwelling with at least one room and kitchen. Single rooms are living quarters with a separate entrance and with access to water and toilet outside other living quarters.

Year of construction: The year of construction is the year that a building became habitable. In buildings with more than one dwelling, where the dwellings are being occupied gradually, the year of construction is the year when at least half of the dwellings are habitable. In houses that have been renovated, the year of construction is the original year of construction. For dwellings in extensions to the main building, where data is only registered on the extension of the building, the year of construction of the extension is used.

Utility floor space: The floor area measured within the outer walls, defined in Norwegian Standard NS 3940 Area and volume calculations of buildings. All types of room (including storage rooms) within the outer walls are included. Rooms that need to be entered by exiting the dwelling are not included.

P-area: Area within the outer walls, defined in Norwegian Standard NS 3940 Area and volume calculations of buildings, of rooms used for short or long stays (P rooms). The following rooms are included as P-rooms: basement sitting room, TV room, loft room, playroom, study, home office, computer room, media room, library, gym, lounge, living room, family room, dressing room, bathroom/shower room, toilet, utility room, entrance/porch, kitchen, bedroom, sauna, hobby room, pool room, enclosed stairwell/elevator and other living areas used for residential purposes.

Number of rooms in the dwelling: A room must satisfy the room requirements of the Building Act and be 6 m2 or larger. Kitchens, baths, hallways and the like are not counted as rooms.

Number of floors: The number of floors is collected from the table of floors that is connected to each building.

Placement (floor) in the building: The numerical address includes information on the entrance floor of the dwelling.

Elevator: The variable indicates whether an elevator is installed in the building. Passenger elevators are counted as elevators, but not goods elevators or stair lifts.

Lives in crowded dwelling, many rooms and sq.m.: Households are considered as living crowded if: 1. the number of rooms is lower than the number of residents or one resident lives in one room, and 2. the number of square metres (P-area) is below 25 sq.m. per person. If the number of rooms or the P-area is not specified, a household will be regarded as living in cramped conditions if one of these criteria is met.

Tenure status shows the household’s ownership status to the property. Owners include freeholders and . The household owns the dwelling if at least one of the residents is registered as owning the property. The householders are considered to be tenants when none of the residents are registered as owners.

Type of building is established according to the function of the building. Combined buildings, for instance combined dwelling and business buildings, are classified by the function that occupies the main part of the utility floor space. The building types in the dwelling statistics are aggregated from the most detailed classification in the GAB register, see About the statistic for Dwellings.

Detached house includes single-unit dwellings (including farms)

House with two dwellings both horizontally and vertically divided

Row house, linked house and house with 3 or 4 dwellings

Multi-dwelling building block of flats or apartment buildings with at least 2 floors

Other residential building includes building types not included in the other groups. Residences for communities (including student accomodations) is included in this group.

EU-equivalence scale is used to compare economic well-being in households of different sizes, by using economies of scale.  It assigns a value of 1 to the household head, of 0.5 to each additional adult member and of 0.3 to each child under the age of 17. According to this scale, a household with two adults and two children has to have a household income which is 2.1 times as high as a single person in order to have the same economic well-being. This is also called the equivalence income.

Low income, 60 per cent: All households that have a disposable equivalence income below 60 per cent of the median income. The median income is the mid-way income point in the distribution of income when sorted in ascending (or descending) order. The number of persons with an income above the median will be the same as the number of persons with an income below the median.

Income quartiles: All households are divided into four groups of equal sizes based on equivalence income. The lowest quartile is the fourth with the lowest equivalence income. The second quartile is the fourth with the second lowest equivalence income. The third quartile is the fourth with the second highest equivalence income. The highest quartile is the fourth with the highest equivalence income.

Recipients of dwelling support: Households that have received state dwelling support during the income year.

Recipients of social assistance: Households where the main income earner has received NOK 1 000 or more in socialassistance during the income year.

Recipients of social security benefits: Households where the main income earner has received more than half of their income from the National Insurance. The numbers are presented separately for households where the main income earner is below 67 years old and 67 years old or older. The latter group is dominated by recipients of the old-age pension.

High debt burden: Households that have a total debt equal to or more than three times that of the household's total income. A corresponding indicator can be found in the Income and Wealth Statistics for Households.

Standard classifications

Household type. The variable follows the standard classification of household type. Distinctions are made between one-person and multi-person households, and between households with and without children (see the definition of Children). For more, see About the statistics for Families and households.

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Housing conditions, register-based
Topic: Construction, housing and property

Next release

Responsible division

Division for Income and social welfare statistics

Regional level

Most of the statistics are published at municipality level. Some tables are only available for municipalities with at least 10 000 inhabitants. 

Frequency and timeliness

Annually. The statistics are registered on 1 January. For release dates, see the statistics release calendar.

International reporting

Not relevant

Microdata

Data files with individual information are stored. 

Background

Background and purpose

The aim of the statistics is to present the housing conditions for persons and households registered as living in Norway, and to present this information over time. The statistics also look at housing conditions for different parts of the population. Housing conditions are presented at a small geographical level and the population is broken down at a detailed level. The statistics are presented for the first time in 2016, covering data from 2015. The Ministry of Local Government and Modernisation has provided funding to develop the statistics.

Users and applications

The main users are ministries, directorates and researchers studying housing conditions or living conditions in general. Counties and municipalities are also important users as the statistics can be presented at a detailed geographical level.

The statistics also give information to the media or others interested in the state and development of the population’s housing conditions.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the statistics release calendar.

Coherence with other statistics

The tables are based on similar data used in the population and housing census 2011 and some of the indicators are comparable with data in the publication Population and housing census, dwellings. Tables cannot, however, be compared directly.

Some of the indicators are similar to those found in the statistics Housing conditions, survey on living conditions, which is based on a nationally representative survey. We have commented on the cases where definitions in these statistics differ from definitions in “Housing conditions, survey on living conditions” below. 

The statistics are based on the same data sources as the statistics on Dwellings and the statistics on Families and households.

Corresponding and relevant documentation for indicators based on registered income can be found in the Income and wealth statistic for households.

Legal authority

Statistics Act §§ 2-1, 2-2 and 3-2.

EEA reference

Not relevant

Production

Population

All persons registered as a resident in a private household in Norway on 1 January that can be matched with a registered dwelling. A person is registered as a resident in Norway when they have lived here or intend to live here for at least 6 months and have a valid residence permit. Persons who immigrated to work in Norway less than 6 months before the date of registration are not included in the statistics. For a further definition of residents in Norway see: “Definitions, Definitions of the main concepts and variables, Resident”. In some cases we have not been able to match persons or households to dwellings. These persons and households are not included in the statistics.

Data sources and sampling

All the information is obtained from administrative and statistical registers. Most of the register data that is utilised is also in other statistics from Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway has created systems called statistical registers within different areas of statistics (sectors). These are based on one or more administrative data systems, either administrative registers from other government agencies or administrative data collected by Statistics Norway.

Population and household data

Data on persons, families and households is based on information from the National Population Register, the Ground Parcel, Address and Building Register and the Central Coordinating Register for Legal Entities in Brønnøysund. From 1 January 2014, information about students that receive student living allowances and are registered as living with their parents have been collected from NRK (the Norwegian broadcasting company), Norway Post and the Norwegian State Educational Loan Fund.

Information from the population register is processed by Statistics Norway in order to provide information about households. Information from the Ground Parcel, Address and Building Register and the Central Coordinating Register for Legal Entities is used in this work. The information is used to find out who belongs to the same household and if it is a private household or a different kind of household (institution etc.).

A comprehensive system for control, editing and data processing has been developed to make sure the statistics cover all households. The aim is to determine which persons make up a couple, a family and a household. This has been necessary because the data has weaknesses, especially in relation to dwelling numbers in the address data. The address alone is therefore not enough to determine the composition of families and households.

See About the statistics for Families and households for more detailed information.

Dwelling data

The statistics on dwellings are mostly based on information from Statistics Norway’s statistical version of the Ground Parcel, Address and Building Register (GAB), the SSB-GAB. The Norwegian Mapping and Cadastre Authority is responsible for the administration of the GAB. The municipalities provide the information on dwellings in the GAB based on applications from developers, owners and other applicants. Other data sources are used as a supplement for information on year of construction, utility floor space, bathrooms and toilets (WC). The most important sources are the National Population Register, which is used for year of construction and utility floor space, the SEFRAK register (the Directorate for Cultural Heritages register on older buildings), for year of construction, and information on dwellings sold through finn.no. Information on some dwellings collected in the 2001 census is also used as supplementary data.

Information on elevators is collected from registers kept by Norsk Heiskontroll (Norwegian elevator control).

Information about type of ownership is found in data about sector codes and organisational structure from the Central Coordinating Register for Legal Entities and information about the owners address of residence is taken from BeReg (Statistics Norway’s statistical version of the National Population Register).

See About the statistics for Dwellings for more detailed information.

Income data

Data on income is taken from the register-based income statistics, which have been a full census since 2004. Various administrative and statistical data sources have been merged to provide the information on income and wealth as of 31 December of the income year.

See About the statistics for Income and wealth statistics for households for more detailed information.

Geographical information

Information on addresses for residents and dwellings is gathered from the address data in the Ground Parcel, Address and Building Register. This includes details of the basic statistical unit, the municipality etc. the address belongs to and whether the address is in a densely or sparsely populated area.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

The statistics are only based on registers and there is no data collection, see “Data sources and sampling”.

Register-based data utilized in statistics is controlled and to a greater or lesser extent revised. The variables that are not found in one specific administrative source are created by combining different register sources. Control and revision of the data is mainly done within the different areas of statistics.

Households

The household data is made according to the principles used in the household statistics. The procedure for creating a household is described in About the statistics for Families and households. The basic principle is that all persons registered at the same address in the National Population Register belong to the same household (see “Definitions of the main concepts and variables”).

Ownership

Information on type of ownership is found by combining household and dwelling data. The household is registered as a freeholder when at least one of the residents is registered as the owner of the dwelling in the Ground Parcel, Address and Building Register. When at least one of the residents is registered as owner through a housing cooperative or has the right of occupation in SERG (the tax administration’s property register), the dwelling is regarded as owned by part-/ shareholders. The household is registered as tenants if none of these criteria are met.

Consistency between private households and inhabited dwellings

In theory, the number of households should be the same as the number of inhabited dwellings (see “Definitions of the main concepts and variables”). The principle is that residents and households are connected using the residential address. It was necessary to develop a method for coordination between household and dwelling data because of mistakes and missing values in the data. The method gives reasonable estimates for households and inhabited dwellings, but not complete conformity between the two populations. Approximately 8 000 households are not matched with a dwelling. They are not included in the statistics.

Dwellings

Some data is missing, especially for older houses. Because of this, supplementary information is collected from sources other than the Ground Parcel, Address and Building Register, and imputations are made of characteristics like utility floor space, the number of rooms, the number of bathrooms and toilets. There are different routines for different types of dwellings. For example, the number of rooms/bathrooms/toilets that is most common in blocks of flats is imputed for dwellings in that kind of building where data is missing.

The procedure is described in more detail in About the statistics for Dwellings.

Comparability: See Coherence with other statistics.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant

Confidentiality

One of the goals of the statistics on housing conditions is to provide data for small geographical areas, but the statistics cannot provide information that can be traced back to specific individuals. It is therefore necessary to make sure that combinations of variables that only occur once or twice cannot be identified in the tables. Ones and twos in tables at the municipal level are therefore replaced randomly by 0 or 3. The numbers 0 and 3 also occur naturally, and it is not possible to differentiate between the two types of 0 and 3. The replacements are done in a way that minimises the possibility of influencing the numbers at a higher level of aggregation. Small deviations from the original figures will still occur. These deviations will generally be smaller than the deviations caused by the errors described in “Sources of error and uncertainty” and will not lessen the usefulness of the statistics. Minor discrepancies can occur when the same table is made based on two different matrices.

Comparability over time and space

In terms of previously published statistics, the Population and housing census 2011 is the source that  is most comparable to the statistics on housing conditions. Some changes have however been made in how households are constructed. Unmarried students registered as living at home were included in their parents’ household in the 2011 census. They are now registered as residents in a household closer to the place of study. Furthermore, one-person households living at the same address have now been combined into one household to a greater degree than previously. These changes have led to a decline in the number of households by 0.7 per cent. See About the statistics for Families and households for more information. This also includes information on the comparability with the household statistics. See About the statistic for Dwellings for the comparable information for the dwelling statistics.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

See About the statistic for Dwellings for possible sources of errors in the data on dwellings.

See About the statistics for Families and households for possible errors in the data on persons and households.

Revision

Not relevant