391067
/en/bygg-bolig-og-eiendom/statistikker/boforhold/aar
391067
statistikk
2020-04-01T08:00:00.000Z
Construction, housing and property;Social conditions, welfare and crime;Immigration and immigrants
en
boforhold, Housing conditions, register-based, dwellings, housing conditions, cramped quarters, number of rooms, type of building, own, rent, disadvantaged on the housing marketSocial conditions, welfare and crime, Dwelling and housing conditions , Living conditions , Construction, housing and property, Social conditions, welfare and crime, Immigration and immigrants
true

Housing conditions, register-based

Updated

Corrected

Next update

Not yet determined

Key figures

76.8 %

of households own their dwelling

Households and persons by tenure status, type of building and crowded dwelling, number and per cent.
2019
ResidentsHouseholds
NumberPer centNumberPer cent
1The figures for 2015 and 2016 were corrected 05.28.2018 due to a revision in the dwellings register.
Tenure status
Owner4 314 31982.11 863 83276.8
Freeholder3 711 31170.61 529 24963.0
Part- / shareholder603 00811.5334 58313.8
Tenant940 13217.9562 61823.2
Type of building1
Detached house2 930 63255.81 187 62748.9
House with two dwellings510 6479.7219 1389.0
Row house, linked house and house with 3 or 4 dwellings625 78311.9295 89012.2
Multi-dwelling building1 030 56819.6611 05625.2
Other residential building156 8363.0112 7534.6
Crowded dwelling
Live in spacious dwelling, many rooms and sq.m.4 613 25187.82 211 49391.1
Live in crowded dwelling, few rooms and sq.m.540 34610.3161 5686.7
Unknown100 8691.953 4172.2

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
Households by tenure status

Households by tenure status
2019
TotalFreeholderPart- / shareholderTenantPercent tenants
The whole country2 426 4501 529 249334 583562 61823.2
Østfold (-2019)134 64086 20221 19627 24220.2
Akershus (-2019)261 028187 50624 71548 80718.7
Oslo336 728123 985108 512104 23131.0
Hedmark (-2019)93 22364 3428 99019 89121.3
Oppland (-2019)89 29062 8975 14421 24923.8
Buskerud (-2019)126 85583 91715 16227 77621.9
Vestfold (-2019)114 24675 05015 45523 74120.8
Telemark (-2019)80 76952 59112 21215 96619.8
Aust-Agder (-2019)52 68440 4201 92410 34019.6
Vest-Agder (-2019)83 36958 6027 21317 55421.1
Rogaland203 140145 90116 81740 42219.9
Hordaland (-2019)238 843145 20536 36057 27824.0
Sogn og Fjordane (-2019)47 63433 5732 46811 59324.3
Møre og Romsdal117 86585 1788 19224 49520.8
Trøndelag - Trööndelage220 078134 40328 12657 54926.1
Nordland112 12576 30311 95123 87121.3
Troms - Romsa (-2019)79 27649 5737 96121 74227.4
Finnmark - Finnmárku (-2019)34 65723 6012 1858 87125.6

Table 2 
Persons by density of dwelling

Persons by density of dwelling
2019
Live in spacious dwelling, many rooms and sq.m.Live in crowded dwelling, few rooms and sq.m.UnknownPersons
The whole country87.810.31.95 254 466
Østfold (-2019)88.79.12.2292 231
Akershus (-2019)88.49.62.0607 035
Oslo78.220.51.2666 240
Hedmark (-2019)91.36.52.1194 254
Oppland (-2019)90.47.12.5187 862
Buskerud (-2019)88.18.93.0277 535
Vestfold (-2019)89.37.33.4245 870
Telemark (-2019)90.57.42.1170 338
Aust-Agder (-2019)91.36.82.0115 895
Vest-Agder (-2019)90.28.31.5184 843
Rogaland90.77.61.7467 618
Hordaland (-2019)88.310.61.2525 289
Sogn og Fjordane (-2019)88.78.33.0108 007
Møre og Romsdal90.67.32.1260 665
Trøndelag - Trööndelage88.09.92.1469 923
Nordland89.19.21.7238 871
Troms - Romsa (-2019)87.811.01.2167 831
Finnmark - Finnmárku (-2019)86.911.12.074 159

Table 3 
Households by type of building

Households by type of building
2019
Dwellings totalDetached houseHouse with two dwellingsRow house, linked house and house with 3 or 4 dwellingsMulti-dwelling buildingOther residential building
The whole country2 426 4761 187 665219 194295 921611 000112 696
Østfold (-2019)134 63772 16115 35919 28221 7976 038
Akershus (-2019)261 026118 52527 03942 13562 34810 979
Oslo336 72827 38820 35730 894244 00314 086
Hedmark (-2019)93 22264 4236 3057 94410 2694 281
Oppland (-2019)89 30363 0987 9096 6096 6555 032
Buskerud (-2019)126 86171 10913 47814 56922 3125 393
Vestfold (-2019)114 24362 41811 77316 84916 8656 338
Telemark (-2019)80 76352 1426 3058 5749 6264 116
Aust-Agder (-2019)52 67537 9593 0394 5014 3132 863
Vest-Agder (-2019)83 37945 0207 39011 48714 8004 682
Rogaland203 144111 76522 03726 82434 7427 776
Hordaland (-2019)238 855109 08419 27033 65668 8108 035
Sogn og Fjordane (-2019)47 63433 7683 6984 7342 6792 755
Møre og Romsdal117 85772 16812 96415 26511 5945 866
Trøndelag - Trööndelage220 076105 91621 28526 59352 96013 322
Nordland112 14371 38510 38312 60012 7455 030
Troms - Romsa (-2019)79 27446 8786 7149 26212 2094 211
Finnmark - Finnmárku (-2019)34 65622 4583 8894 1432 2731 893

Table 4 
Tenure status for household types

Tenure status for household types
2019
FreeholderPart- / shareholderTenantNumber of households
Error in statistics for 2019 corrected 27 April 2020
Housholds total63.013.823.22 426 450
Living alone44.518.337.1941 205
Couple without resident children75.112.112.7586 147
Couple with small children (youngest child 0-5 years)74.510.714.8228 579
Couple with older children (youngest child 6-17 years)85.17.37.6259 136
Lone parent with small children (youngest child 0-5 years)37.411.850.825 849
Lone parent with older children (youngest child 6-17 years)58.515.625.984 137
One-family households with adult children (youngest child 18 years and over)82.210.17.7182 295
Two or more-family households with children80.18.811.131 760
Two or more-family households without resident children 0-17 years51.411.637.187 342

Table 5 
Density of dwelling by household type

Density of dwelling by household type
2019
Live in spacious dwelling, many rooms and sq.m.Live in crowded dwelling, few rooms and sq.m.UnknownNumber of households
Housholds total91.16.72.22 426 455
Living alone92.94.13.0941 176
Couple without resident children96.51.91.6586 134
Couple with small children (youngest child 0-5 years)78.020.41.6228 607
Couple with older children (youngest child 6-17 years)87.111.51.4259 093
Lone parent with small children (youngest child 0-5 years)82.614.43.025 887
Lone parent with older children (youngest child 6-17 years)91.66.22.184 063
One-family households with adult children (youngest child 18 years and over)95.13.41.5182 315
Two or more-family households with children68.929.22.031 772
Two or more-family households without resident children 0-17 years84.811.93.387 408

About the statistics

The housing conditions of all residents and households in Norway is presented. This includes ownership rates, crowded dwellings, the type of building and accessibility.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Resident: The statistics include all persons that are residents of a private household (see definition below) in Norway in 1 January according to the National Population Register. Who is regarded as a resident of Norway and where in Norway a person shall be counted as a resident is stipulated in the Population Registration Act of 16 January 1970 (with subsequent changes) and its regulation from 1994. The total number of residents in an area is the population. Students registered with their parents while they study abroad are not included in the statistics. The same applies for some persons that according to the register can be considered to reside abroad.

Couples: Two persons who live in the same residence and are married, registered partners or cohabitants (living together without being married or registered partners) are considered to be a couple. To be regarded as cohabitants, the persons have to be living in the same residence, be of the opposite sex, and either

  • have children together
  • be registered as cohabitants in the 2001 census form, or
  • have been registered as cohabitants in the revision routine to update the households from the 2001 census.

The data source does not have enough information to identify unmarried same sex couples. Divorced and separated couples that are registered in the same residence are considered a couple when they fulfil the requirements for cohabitation.

Children: Children are persons registered as living with at least one of their parents (biological or adoptive), and who are not in a couple or/and have children of their own. Children include biological and adoptive children, but not foster children.

Household: A private household consists of persons that are residents in the same private dwelling according to the National Population Register. The creation of households is described in more detail in Production. Households can consist of one or more families. Persons that belong to the same family also belong to the same household. We first determine which persons belong to the same household, and then which persons belong to the same family.

Immigrants are persons born abroad of two foreign-born parents and four foreign-born grandparents. Country of Birth is mainly the mother's place of residence at the time she is giving birth.

EU/EEA, USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand includes immigrants with their country of birth in: Denmark, Greenland, Finland, Faroe Islands, Iceland, Sweden, Belgium, Bulgaria, Andorra, Estonia, France, Gibraltar, Greece, Ireland, Croatia, Italy, Latvia, Malta, Netherlands, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Lithuania, Spain, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Germany, Slovenia, Hungary, Austria, Vatican City State, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Canada, USA, Australia and New Zealand.

Asia, Africa, Latin America, Oceania except Australia and New Zealand and Europe except EU/EEA includes immigrants with their country of birth in: Albania, Belarus, Moldova, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Asia, Africa, America except USA and Canada and Oceania except Australia and New Zealand. Persons who were stateless at birth and with an unknown place of birth are also included.

Dwelling: A dwelling is defined as one or more rooms that has been built or rebuilt for the purpose of being used as a round-the-year dwelling for one or more persons. It must be possible to have access to the room(s) without having to go through another dwelling. Both dwelling units and single rooms are counted as dwellings. A dwelling unit is a conventional dwelling with at least one room and kitchen. Single rooms are living quarters with a separate entrance and with access to water and toilet outside other living quarters.

Year of construction: The year of construction is the year that a building became habitable. In buildings with more than one dwelling, where the dwellings are being occupied gradually, the year of construction is the year when at least half of the dwellings are habitable. In houses that have been renovated, the year of construction is the original year of construction. For dwellings in extensions to the main building, where data is only registered on the extension of the building, the year of construction of the extension is used.

Utility floor space: The floor area measured within the outer walls, defined in Norwegian Standard NS 3940 Area and volume calculations of buildings. All types of room (including storage rooms) within the outer walls are included. Rooms that need to be entered by exiting the dwelling are not included.

P-area: Area within the outer walls, defined in Norwegian Standard NS 3940 Area and volume calculations of buildings, of rooms used for short or long stays (P rooms). The following rooms are included as P-rooms: basement sitting room, TV room, loft room, playroom, study, home office, computer room, media room, library, gym, lounge, living room, family room, dressing room, bathroom/shower room, toilet, utility room, entrance/porch, kitchen, bedroom, sauna, hobby room, pool room, enclosed stairwell/elevator and other living areas used for residential purposes.

Number of rooms in the dwelling: A room must satisfy the room requirements of the Building Act and be 6 m2 or larger. Kitchens, baths, hallways and the like are not counted as rooms.

Number of floors: The number of floors is collected from the table of floors that is connected to each building.

Placement (floor) in the building: The numerical address includes information on the entrance floor of the dwelling.

Elevator: The variable indicates whether an elevator is installed in the building. Passenger elevators are counted as elevators, but not goods elevators or stair lifts.

Lives in crowded dwelling, many rooms and sq.m.: Households are considered as living crowded if: 1. the number of rooms is lower than the number of residents or one resident lives in one room, and 2. the number of square metres (P-area) is below 25 sq.m. per person. If the number of rooms or the P-area is not specified, a household will be regarded as living in cramped conditions if one of these criteria is met.

Tenure status shows the household’s ownership status to the property. Owners include freeholders and . The household owns the dwelling if at least one of the residents is registered as owning the property. The householders are considered to be tenants when none of the residents are registered as owners.

Type of building is established according to the function of the building. Combined buildings, for instance combined dwelling and business buildings, are classified by the function that occupies the main part of the utility floor space. The building types in the dwelling statistics are aggregated from the most detailed classification in the GAB register, see About the statistic for Dwellings.

Detached house includes single-unit dwellings (including farms)

House with two dwellings both horizontally and vertically divided

Row house, linked house and house with 3 or 4 dwellings

Multi-dwelling building block of flats or apartment buildings with at least 2 floors

Other residential building includes building types not included in the other groups. Residences for communities (including student accomodations) is included in this group.

EU-equivalence scale is used to compare economic well-being in households of different sizes, by using economies of scale.  It assigns a value of 1 to the household head, of 0.5 to each additional adult member and of 0.3 to each child under the age of 17. According to this scale, a household with two adults and two children has to have a household income which is 2.1 times as high as a single person in order to have the same economic well-being. This is also called the equivalence income.

Low income, 60 per cent: All households that have a disposable equivalence income below 60 per cent of the median income. The median income is the mid-way income point in the distribution of income when sorted in ascending (or descending) order. The number of persons with an income above the median will be the same as the number of persons with an income below the median.

Income quartiles: All households are divided into four groups of equal sizes based on equivalence income. The lowest quartile is the fourth with the lowest equivalence income. The second quartile is the fourth with the second lowest equivalence income. The third quartile is the fourth with the second highest equivalence income. The highest quartile is the fourth with the highest equivalence income.

Recipients of dwelling support: Households that have received state dwelling support during the income year.

Recipients of social assistance: Households where the main income earner has received NOK 1 000 or more in socialassistance during the income year.

Recipients of social security benefits: Households where the main income earner has received more than half of their income from the National Insurance. The numbers are presented separately for households where the main income earner is below 67 years old and 67 years old or older. The latter group is dominated by recipients of the old-age pension.

High debt burden: Households that have a total debt equal to or more than three times that of the household's total income. A corresponding indicator can be found in the Income and Wealth Statistics for Households.

Standard classifications

Household type. The variable follows the standard classification of household type. Distinctions are made between one-person and multi-person households, and between households with and without children (see the definition of Children). For more, see About the statistics for Families and households.

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Housing conditions, register-based
Topic: Construction, housing and property

Responsible division

Division for Income and social welfare statistics

Regional level

Most of the statistics are published at municipality level. Some tables are only available for municipalities with at least 10 000 inhabitants. 

Frequency and timeliness

Annually. The statistics are registered on 1 January. For release dates, see the statistics release calendar.

International reporting

Not relevant

Microdata

Data files with individual information are stored. 

Background

Background and purpose

The aim of the statistics is to present the housing conditions for persons and households registered as living in Norway, and to present this information over time. The statistics also look at housing conditions for different parts of the population. Housing conditions are presented at a small geographical level and the population is broken down at a detailed level. The statistics are presented for the first time in 2016, covering data from 2015. The Ministry of Local Government and Modernisation has provided funding to develop the statistics.

Users and applications

The main users are ministries, directorates and researchers studying housing conditions or living conditions in general. Counties and municipalities are also important users as the statistics can be presented at a detailed geographical level.

The statistics also give information to the media or others interested in the state and development of the population’s housing conditions.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the statistics release calendar.

Coherence with other statistics

The tables are based on similar data used in the population and housing census 2011 and some of the indicators are comparable with data in the publication Population and housing census, dwellings. Tables cannot, however, be compared directly.

Some of the indicators are similar to those found in the statistics Housing conditions, survey on living conditions, which is based on a nationally representative survey. We have commented on the cases where definitions in these statistics differ from definitions in “Housing conditions, survey on living conditions” below. 

The statistics are based on the same data sources as the statistics on Dwellings and the statistics on Families and households.

Corresponding and relevant documentation for indicators based on registered income can be found in the Income and wealth statistic for households.

Legal authority

Statistics Act §§ 2-1, 2-2 and 3-2.

EEA reference

Not relevant

Production

Population

All persons registered as a resident in a private household in Norway on 1 January that can be matched with a registered dwelling. A person is registered as a resident in Norway when they have lived here or intend to live here for at least 6 months and have a valid residence permit. Persons who immigrated to work in Norway less than 6 months before the date of registration are not included in the statistics. For a further definition of residents in Norway see: “Definitions, Definitions of the main concepts and variables, Resident”. In some cases we have not been able to match persons or households to dwellings. These persons and households are not included in the statistics.

Data sources and sampling

All the information is obtained from administrative and statistical registers. Most of the register data that is utilised is also in other statistics from Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway has created systems called statistical registers within different areas of statistics (sectors). These are based on one or more administrative data systems, either administrative registers from other government agencies or administrative data collected by Statistics Norway.

Population and household data

Data on persons, families and households is based on information from the National Population Register, the Ground Parcel, Address and Building Register and the Central Coordinating Register for Legal Entities in Brønnøysund. From 1 January 2014, information about students that receive student living allowances and are registered as living with their parents have been collected from NRK (the Norwegian broadcasting company), Norway Post and the Norwegian State Educational Loan Fund.

Information from the population register is processed by Statistics Norway in order to provide information about households. Information from the Ground Parcel, Address and Building Register and the Central Coordinating Register for Legal Entities is used in this work. The information is used to find out who belongs to the same household and if it is a private household or a different kind of household (institution etc.).

A comprehensive system for control, editing and data processing has been developed to make sure the statistics cover all households. The aim is to determine which persons make up a couple, a family and a household. This has been necessary because the data has weaknesses, especially in relation to dwelling numbers in the address data. The address alone is therefore not enough to determine the composition of families and households.

See About the statistics for Families and households for more detailed information.

Dwelling data

The statistics on dwellings are mostly based on information from Statistics Norway’s statistical version of the Ground Parcel, Address and Building Register (GAB), the SSB-GAB. The Norwegian Mapping and Cadastre Authority is responsible for the administration of the GAB. The municipalities provide the information on dwellings in the GAB based on applications from developers, owners and other applicants. Other data sources are used as a supplement for information on year of construction, utility floor space, bathrooms and toilets (WC). The most important sources are the National Population Register, which is used for year of construction and utility floor space, the SEFRAK register (the Directorate for Cultural Heritages register on older buildings), for year of construction, and information on dwellings sold through finn.no. Information on some dwellings collected in the 2001 census is also used as supplementary data.

Information on elevators is collected from registers kept by Norsk Heiskontroll (Norwegian elevator control).

Information about type of ownership is found in data about sector codes and organisational structure from the Central Coordinating Register for Legal Entities and information about the owners address of residence is taken from BeReg (Statistics Norway’s statistical version of the National Population Register).

See About the statistics for Dwellings for more detailed information.

Income data

Data on income is taken from the register-based income statistics, which have been a full census since 2004. Various administrative and statistical data sources have been merged to provide the information on income and wealth as of 31 December of the income year.

See About the statistics for Income and wealth statistics for households for more detailed information.

Geographical information

Information on addresses for residents and dwellings is gathered from the address data in the Ground Parcel, Address and Building Register. This includes details of the basic statistical unit, the municipality etc. the address belongs to and whether the address is in a densely or sparsely populated area.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

The statistics are only based on registers and there is no data collection, see “Data sources and sampling”.

Register-based data utilized in statistics is controlled and to a greater or lesser extent revised. The variables that are not found in one specific administrative source are created by combining different register sources. Control and revision of the data is mainly done within the different areas of statistics.

Households

The household data is made according to the principles used in the household statistics. The procedure for creating a household is described in About the statistics for Families and households. The basic principle is that all persons registered at the same address in the National Population Register belong to the same household (see “Definitions of the main concepts and variables”).

Ownership

Information on type of ownership is found by combining household and dwelling data. The household is registered as a freeholder when at least one of the residents is registered as the owner of the dwelling in the Ground Parcel, Address and Building Register. When at least one of the residents is registered as owner through a housing cooperative or has the right of occupation in SERG (the tax administration’s property register), the dwelling is regarded as owned by part-/ shareholders. The household is registered as tenants if none of these criteria are met.

Consistency between private households and inhabited dwellings

In theory, the number of households should be the same as the number of inhabited dwellings (see “Definitions of the main concepts and variables”). The principle is that residents and households are connected using the residential address. It was necessary to develop a method for coordination between household and dwelling data because of mistakes and missing values in the data. The method gives reasonable estimates for households and inhabited dwellings, but not complete conformity between the two populations. Approximately 8 000 households are not matched with a dwelling. They are not included in the statistics.

Dwellings

Some data is missing, especially for older houses. Because of this, supplementary information is collected from sources other than the Ground Parcel, Address and Building Register, and imputations are made of characteristics like utility floor space, the number of rooms, the number of bathrooms and toilets. There are different routines for different types of dwellings. For example, the number of rooms/bathrooms/toilets that is most common in blocks of flats is imputed for dwellings in that kind of building where data is missing.

The procedure is described in more detail in About the statistics for Dwellings.

Comparability: See Coherence with other statistics.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant

Confidentiality

One of the goals of the statistics on housing conditions is to provide data for small geographical areas, but the statistics cannot provide information that can be traced back to specific individuals. It is therefore necessary to make sure that combinations of variables that only occur once or twice cannot be identified in the tables. Ones and twos in tables at the municipal level are therefore replaced randomly by 0 or 3. The numbers 0 and 3 also occur naturally, and it is not possible to differentiate between the two types of 0 and 3. The replacements are done in a way that minimises the possibility of influencing the numbers at a higher level of aggregation. Small deviations from the original figures will still occur. These deviations will generally be smaller than the deviations caused by the errors described in “Sources of error and uncertainty” and will not lessen the usefulness of the statistics. Minor discrepancies can occur when the same table is made based on two different matrices.

Comparability over time and space

In terms of previously published statistics, the Population and housing census 2011 is the source that  is most comparable to the statistics on housing conditions. Some changes have however been made in how households are constructed. Unmarried students registered as living at home were included in their parents’ household in the 2011 census. They are now registered as residents in a household closer to the place of study. Furthermore, one-person households living at the same address have now been combined into one household to a greater degree than previously. These changes have led to a decline in the number of households by 0.7 per cent. See About the statistics for Families and households for more information. This also includes information on the comparability with the household statistics. See About the statistic for Dwellings for the comparable information for the dwelling statistics.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

See About the statistic for Dwellings for possible sources of errors in the data on dwellings.

See About the statistics for Families and households for possible errors in the data on persons and households.

Revision

Not relevant