Release rescheduled

Figures for Income and wealth statistics for households, 2020, is expected to be published in February 2022.

Income and wealth statistics for households

Updated: 11 March 2021

Next update: Not yet determined

Change in median income after tax for all households
Change in median income after tax for all households
2018 - 2019
0.8
%

Selected tables and figures from this statistics

Registered incomes for households by type of household. Average in NOK.
Registered incomes for households by type of household. Average in NOK.1 2 3
2019
All householdsLiving alone, person under 30 yearsLiving alone, person 30-44 yearsLiving alone, person 45-66 yearsLiving alone, person 67 years and olderCouple without resident children, oldest person under 30 yearsCouple without resident children, oldest person 30-44 yearsCouple without resident children, oldest person 45-66 yearsCouple without resident children, oldest person 67 years and olderCouples with children 0-5 yearsCouples with children 6-17 yearsCouples with children 18 years and olderSingle mother/father with children 0-5 yearSingle mother/father with children 6-17 yearSingle mother/father with children 18 year and olderTwo or more-familiy households
Income from work (NOK)590 600318 300408 300363 50026 500722 000908 200947 800149 100931 4001 243 7001 248 900256 800475 400591 500777 800
Wages and salaries (NOK)556 700309 600390 500342 20022 100704 200873 900888 600128 600885 6001 167 0001 171 800247 600454 900559 700725 000
Net income from self-employment (NOK)33 9008 80017 80021 3004 40017 80034 20059 30020 60045 80076 70077 1009 20020 50031 80052 800
Property income (NOK)44 3005 80011 00029 20024 30013 30024 40092 30068 30037 00079 40094 80010 60023 00033 60049 200
Interest received (NOK)6 5002 2002 1004 1007 2005 6005 6009 10015 0005 0005 60010 5001 6002 7006 0007 300
Share dividends received (NOK)25 2002 1005 70016 4007 6004 30011 10057 80031 00023 20053 10061 1006 30014 70016 00027 400
Realised capital gains (NOK)10 9001 0002 5007 9008 1002 0005 80021 20019 9009 40018 30018 1001 9004 5009 70010 400
Realised capital losses (NOK)4 0006001 6002 8001 8001 0003 3006 0005 7007 1006 5006 5001 2001 9003 2003 900
Other capital incomes (NOK)5 7001 0002 3003 6003 2002 4005 20010 2008 0006 6008 90011 7002 0003 0005 1008 100
Transfers received (NOK)224 10045 40067 200145 700330 20052 60070 000243 700627 800185 100128 000251 500207 200146 000216 000320 300
Taxable transfers (NOK)207 20033 70057 900138 700327 70034 70060 800239 900624 600141 80092 300240 400124 00087 400201 200288 800
Social security benefits (NOK)4 140 50022 90039 500100 700253 90018 90033 300148 800469 60021 30050 300163 40069 90055 900148 800204 000
Old-age pensions (NOK)89 5000011 200250 4000041 500443 7003002 70063 70010080053 900112 300
Disability benefits (NOK)37 40012 30027 40076 0003 0006 90018 60089 60023 5008 80029 10074 80012 00029 20069 20065 400
Work assessment allowance (NOK)11 90010 50012 00011 40010011 90014 70017 2001 90011 30017 80024 40016 00016 90021 20021 800
Service pensions etc. (NOK)30 80020070014 20068 50020080036 000128 3001 4006 90030 1001 2005 10022 50033 600
Contractual pension (NOK)5 100005 2002 3000018 50018 30003007 30001002 5004 600
Contractual pension (AFP) in public sector (NOK)5 3 300003 7009000012 40011 70002004 300001 5002 800
Contractual pension (AFP) in private sector (NOK)1 800001 5001 400006 2006 60002002 900001 0001 700
Unemployment benefits (NOK)3 7002 1004 8003 3001002 8006 2004 9006006 9004 6005 7005 0003 5004 6007 000
Sickness benefits (NOK)6 16 7005 40010 40014 50040010 90018 00030 5003 90029 60027 50032 00017 80020 00020 80025 700
Other taxable transfers (NOK)7 10 5003 1002 5009002 5001 8002 5001 1003 80082 7002 7002 00030 2002 8002 10014 000
Tax-free transfers (NOK)16 90011 7009 3007 0002 50017 8009 2003 8003 30043 20035 60011 00083 20058 60014 80031 600
Familiy allowances (NOK)6 3001001 20040000500200022 80022 5001 00026 40025 4001 6009 700
Dwelling support (kr)1 2001 7001 7001 5008006007003001001 30070030010 1004 2001 1001 400
Scholarships (NOK)2 3004 1006000013 6004 50010003 6004 0004 3004 1003 9003 3007 800
Social assistance (NOK)2 7004 3004 4003 3002001 9002 1008001003 4002 2001 50016 3007 6004 0004 200
Basic and attendance benefits (NOK)1 3005006008007006005008001 0001 5003 2001 7001 6003 1001 6002 300
Cash for care (NOK)60002000000005 400004 100001 200
Other tax-free transfers (NOK)8 2 6009007009007001 0001 0001 6002 0005 2002 9002 20020 60014 5003 2005 000
Total income (NOK)859 000369 400486 500538 400381 000787 9001 002 6001 283 800845 3001 153 5001 451 1001 595 200474 700644 400841 1001 147 400
Total assessed taxed and negative transfers (NOK)219 30083 400125 500145 80067 900179 500261 800371 800173 800297 200411 500436 20084 700145 600201 600269 200
Assessed taxes (NOK)214 20081 500121 300141 50067 700175 000254 800363 800172 700289 000401 700426 60081 600140 500196 200262 600
Negative transfers (NOK)9 5 0001 9004 2004 3002004 5007 0008 0001 1008 2009 8009 5003 1005 1005 5006 600
After-tax income (NOK)639 700286 100361 000392 600313 100608 400740 800912 000671 600856 3001 039 6001 159 000390 000498 800639 400878 200
Number of households2 436 001169 625212 154316 952282 25650 12067 178213 643254 033225 841259 349119 08325 05085 08563 57592 057
1Private households consiting of single persons living alone under the age of 18 are not included.
2Couples included married couples, cohabiting couples and registered partners.
3Students not included.
4For recipients of new transitional benefits for single mothers/fathers from April 2014, the benefits will be taxed as wage. From the income year 2015, the benefits are included in Social security benefits.
5Includes recipients of the former private contractual pension scheme (AFP).
6Sickness benfits from the National Insurance Scheme. Holiday payments from sickness benefits are included.
7Other taxable transfers include benefits such as parental benefit, annuity, introduction benefits for newly arrived refugees and qualification benefits (from 2008).
8Other tax-free transfers benefits such as childcare benefit to single parents, lump sum maternity grants, compensation for work injury, education benefit to single parents and received child support managed by public arrangement. Various benefits received by people attending job creating programs are included from 2009. From 2014, extra compensation for recipients of contractual pension (AFP) is included.
9Negative transfers include paid child support managed by public arrangement, paid annuity and mandatory contribution to private pension plan.
Explanation of symbols
Measures of income dispersion. Household equivalent income (EU-scale) between persons
Measures of income dispersion. Household equivalent income (EU-scale) between persons1
Total populationTotal population excluding persons in student households
Gini coefficientStandard error of the Gini coefficientP90/P102 S80/S203 Gini coefficientStandard error of the Gini coefficientP90/P102 S80/S203
19960.2450.0042.73.50.2400.0042.63.4
19970.2490.0042.73.50.2430.0042.63.4
19980.2380.0032.73.40.2330.0032.63.2
19990.2420.0042.73.40.2360.0042.63.3
20000.2620.0042.73.70.2570.0042.63.6
20010.2290.0022.63.20.2230.0022.53.1
20020.2640.0042.73.80.2580.0042.63.6
20030.2740.0032.83.90.2670.0032.73.7
20040.283..2.74.10.276..2.63.8
20050.327..2.84.80.319..2.74.5
20060.243..2.83.50.235..2.63.3
20070.252..2.83.70.244..2.73.5
20080.248..2.83.60.240..2.73.4
20090.241..2.83.50.231..2.63.3
20100.245..2.83.60.236..2.63.3
20110.247..2.83.60.237..2.73.4
20120.249..2.93.70.239..2.73.4
20130.250..2.93.70.241..2.73.4
20140.256..2.93.80.247..2.83.5
20150.271..3.04.00.263..2.83.8
20160.261..3.03.90.252..2.83.6
20170.261..3.03.90.252..2.83.6
20180.260..3.03.90.251..2.83.6
20190.259..3.03.90.250..2.83.6
1Negative amounts have been set to zero.
2Percentile ratio of the 9th and the 1st decile cut-offs.
3The ratio of the share of income held by the top 20 per cent of the distribution and the bottom 20 per cent of the distribution.
Explanation of symbols
Property account for households
Property account for households1 2
20192018 - 2019
Average for households with different property holdings (NOK)Share of households with different property holdings (per cent)NOK millionPercentage change (NOK million)
Estimated real capital3 723 00083.77 593 7214.9
Estimated market value primary dwelling3 751 30069.26 321 8083.8
Estimated market value secondary dwelling2 906 20010.1718 2821.3
Gross financial capital1 419 80099.13 427 2569.5
Bank deposits523 90099.11 264 0694.7
Shares and other securities3 293 40019.71 580 20615.2
Share savings account3 448 30017.5191 07949.5
Units of mutual funds207 00026.7134 6767.1
Foreign taxable wealth excl. real properties518 4003.442 96317.6
Estimated gross wealth4 562 10099.211 020 9776.3
Debt1 782 30085.83 724 7345.1
Study debt250 40025.4155 1675.8
Estimated net wealth3 009 60099.57 296 2446.9
Positive net wealth3 836 30081.27 585 6926.7
Negative net wealth-647 60018.3-289 4481.8
Property taxes43 60015.216 1146.4
1Students not included.
2All wealth items are based on market value or assumed sales value before any tax valuation discount.
3From 2017 it is possible to own listed shares and mutual fund holdings through a share savings account.
Explanation of symbols
Percentage share of total estimated net wealth, average net wealth and lowest value in decile for households, by deciles
Percentage share of total estimated net wealth, average net wealth and lowest value in decile for households, by deciles1
2019
Share of total net wealth (per cent)Average estimated net wealth (NOK)Lowest value in decile (NOK)
Total100.02 995 200..
Decile 1-3.7-1 107 400..
Decile 2-0.3-80 700-247 600
Decile 30.382 1003 200
Decile 41.7507 500230 900
Decile 53.81 140 300811 900
Decile 66.11 838 3001 477 300
Decile 78.82 637 2002 215 100
Decile 812.23 653 4003 092 100
Decile 917.65 264 0004 297 200
Decile 1053.516 016 9006 554 500
Top 5 per cent40.524 276 2009 420 100
Top 1 per cent23.169 094 60021 668 300
Top 0,1 per cent11.6347 410 200104 264 400
1Students not included
Explanation of symbols
Registered incomes for residents. Number of persons with amount. Amount in NOK million.
Registered incomes for residents. Number of persons with amount. Amount in NOK million.
20182019
Number of persons with amountNOK millionNumber of persons with amountNOK million
INCOME FROM WORK3 153 0201 374 080.33 205 6471 448 852.4
Wages and salaries3 046 4331 295 838.23 096 9081 366 035.9
Net income from self-employment317 20178 242.1315 83082 816.5
PROPERTY INCOME4 173 837109 579.54 229 421108 951.2
Interest received4 160 31212 938.94 221 03816 102.8
Share dividends received518 21762 414.8491 29861 656.7
Realised capital gains243 70626 980.2268 41926 797.1
Realised capital losses132 7658 337.4120 8339 733.2
Other capital incomes1 540 58215 583.01 546 94014 127.8
TRANSFERS RECEIVED3 087 762537 172.53 102 509558 009.3
TAXABLE TRANSFERS2 222 714492 607.22 233 666512 177.4
Social security benefits1 1 394 923333 933.61 416 284348 247.9
Old-age pensions889 333212 125.1909 509222 670.9
Disability benefits348 97785 694.0362 38792 447.6
Work Assessment Allowance180 70532 051.1168 57029 094.2
Service pensions etc864 06472 377.7886 00676 073.5
Contractual pension (AFP)111 92011 447.4121 73612 454.7
Contractual pension (AFP) in public sector2 36 1827 482.036 9787 945.9
Contractual pension (AFP) in private sector75 7473 965.484 7804 508.8
Unemployment benefits121 89910 689.4105 6759 092.6
Sickness benefits3 699 93438 481.3707 18640 672.4
Other taxable transfers4 258 80125 677.7254 51125 636.4
TAX-FREE TRANSFERS1 535 81144 565.41 532 88645 832.0
Familiy allowances705 35914 627.0701 07915 522.0
Dwelling support127 9412 684.6123 7532 988.6
Scholarships394 3789 025.4400 4829 112.9
Social assistance130 7716 866.5127 8386 909.5
Basic and attendance benefits166 5873 450.7165 5603 236.4
Cash for care41 8571 624.539 9701 519.7
Other tax-free transfers5 269 8486 286.8270 8566 542.8
TOTAL INCOME4 419 0712 020 832.34 461 1262 115 812.9
Assessed taxes and negative transfers3 830 398513 547.63 882 234536 605.0
Assessed taxes3 794 808501 738.33 847 037524 246.1
Negative transfers6 1 248 18911 809.31 258 79012 358.9
AFTER-TAX INCOME4 419 3071 507 284.74 461 3871 579 207.9
NUMBER OF RESIDENTS5 328 212..5 367 580..
1For recipients of new transitional benefits for single mothers/fathers from April 2014, the benefits will be taxed as wage. From the income year 2015, the benefits are included in Social security benefits.
2Includes recipients of the former private contractual pension scheme (AFP).
3Sickness benfits from the National Insurance Scheme. Holiday payments from sickness benefits are included.
4Other taxable transfers include benefits such as parental benefit, annuity, introduction benefits for newly arrived refugees and qualification benefits (from 2008).
5Other tax-free transfers benefits such as childcare benefit to single parents, lump sum maternity grants, compensation for work injury, education benefit to single parents and received child support managed by public arrangement. Various benefits received by people attending job creating programs are included from 2009. From 2014, extra compensation for recipients of contractual pension (AFP) is included.
6Negative transfers include paid child support managed by public arrangement, paid annuity and mandatory contribution to private pension plan
Explanation of symbols

About the statistics

Income and wealth statistics for households provide figures for the level, composition, development and distribution of income and wealth. The statistics comprises all monetary income, both taxable and tax-exempt, as well as wealth and debt. The statistics presents the general developments of income and wealth as well as its distribution between household types and other groups.

The concepts presented here are explained according to how they are used in the statistics. These explanations may differ from the common definitions of the concepts.

Household

A household is regarded as all persons who live permanently in the same dwelling and having common housekeeping. The statistics include only persons in private households. Persons registered as living in institutions are not included.

Student household

A student household is defined as a household where the main income earner is not mainly economically active or in receipt of pensions and benefits, but receives a loan from the State Educational Loan Fund.

Main income earner

The main income earner is the person in the household who has the highest total income before taxes of the income earners in the household. If there is no income earner in the household, the oldest person is defined as the main income earner.

Total income

Total income is the sum of employee, income from self-employment, property income and transfers received. Assessed tax and other negative transfers are not deducted.

After-tax income

After-tax income is calculated as total income minus assessed tax and negative transfers.

Income from work

Income from work is the sum of employee income and net income from self-employment during the calendar year. As of 2006 sickness and parental benefits is not included.

Income from self-employment

Income received in self-employment jobs. It primarily concerns the profit or loss from unincorporated enterprises.

Property income

Property income is the sum of interest received, share dividends received, realized capital gains (or losses) and other property income received during the calendar year.

Taxable transfers

Taxable transfers are the sum of pensions and benefits from the social security scheme, public and private employer provided schemes, unemployment benefits, sickness benefits and other taxable benefits.

Tax-free transfers

Tax-free transfers consist of child benefits, dwelling support, scholarships, social assistance, basic and attendance benefit and more.

Child support received through private agreements is not registered, and therefore not included in the statistics.

Assessed taxes and negative transfers

This comprises income tax and wealth tax to the central government and municipalities. Examples of negative transfers are pension contributions in employment and paid child support managed by public arrangement.

Estimated real capital

Estimated value of properties, buildings and constructions, possessions, etc.

Market value is used for primary and secondary dwellings, commercial properties, forests and farms.

Tax value is used for other real estate and private and commercial moveable property.

Primary dwelling

The dwelling where the address of the owner is registered in the National Population Register at the end of the year. Value is set according to assessed market value. A person can only own one primary dwelling. Farmhouses on farms are not regarded as primary dwellings.

Secondary dwelling

A dwelling that a person owns, which is not the primary dwelling. Value is set according to assessed market value. Cabins and holiday properties are not secondary dwellings.

Estimated gross financial capital

Comprises bank deposits, shares, units of mutual funds, share savings accounts, bonds and other securities.

Prior to 2008, appreciation of shares, mutual funds, primary capital certificates etc. were subject to discounts. In the wealth statistics, tax value was applied. Between 2008 and 2016, discounts were not used, and tax value corresponded to market value. From 2017, discounts in the appreciation values were once again used in the taxation of financial wealth. In the wealth statistics, however, tax values have been adjusted upwards so that the appreciation used in the wealth statistics corresponds to market or sales value.

Estimated gross wealth

Sum of estimated real capital and gross financial capital.

Debt

Comprises dept to creditors and share of dept for owners in Building Societies. From 2017, market value of debt is used, including appreciation discounts used in the taxation of debt. Prior to 2017, market value and taxable value of debt were the same.

From 2017 and on the sum of debt was subject to a reduction before subtracting the debt from the wealth estimation when assessing taxation of wealth.

In the Income and wealth statistics for households, the sum of debt before any possible reduction is used in the definition of wealth.

Unsecured debt contains debt with both interest-bearing and non-interest-bearing balances. Data on unsecured debt are only available from the income year 2019 and on. The size of the unsecured debt is calculated according to data from Gjeldsregisteret AS as of December 31st in the income year.

Estimated net wealth

Estimated gross wealth minus debt.

Median income

Median income is the exact income amount that splits a distribution in two equally sized groups, when income is sorted ascending (or descending). The number of persons with income above the median will be the same as the number of persons with income below the median.

Income per consumption unit (equivalent income)

The needs of a household grow with each additional member but not in a proportional way. Needs for housing space, electricity, etc. will not be three times as high for a household with three members than for a single person, due to economy of scale. With the help of equivalence scales each household type in the population is assigned a value in proportion to its needs. The factors commonly considered to assign these values are the number of persons in the household and whether they are adults or children.

Several equivalents scales exist which are used for different purposes. In the Income and wealth statistics for households, the EU scale is applied (see below).

Consumption units calculated according to the EU scale

This is the ‘OECD-modified equivalence scale’ which assigns a value of 1 to the household head, of 0.5 to each additional adult member and of 0.3 to each child under the age of 17.

Consumption units calculated according to the OECD scale

This equivalence scale assigns a value of 1 to the household head, of 0.7 to each additional adult member and of 0.5 to each child under the age of 17.

Low income threshold

The low-income thresholds are defined as a share of median equivalent income after tax. Commonly used shares are 50 or 60 per cent of median income after tax per consumption unit. There is no official low-income threshold in Norway. Statistics Norway calculates different low-income thresholds based on the income level among the total population, and thus is relative to the general income growth and comparable for persons belonging to different household types.

Low-income group

Persons belonging to a household with annual equivalent income below the low-income threshold.

Economically active

A person that has income from employment or self-employment that is greater than twice the Basic Amount of the National Insurance Scheme (so-called "G", or "grunnbeløpet"). For the income year 2010 and earlier, persons with income from employment or self-employment greater than the Minimum Pension for single people were regarded as economically active.

This concept differs from the definition “Employed persons” used in other statistics, which defines whether a person is in employment on a certain time.

Single parents

Persons in the household type "mother/father with children aged 0-17 years".

Old-age pensioners

Persons in households where the main income earner, according to the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration, receives old age pension from the social security system.

Disability pensioners

Persons in households where the main income earner, according to the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration, receives disability pension from the social security system.

Pensioners within the Voluntary Early Retirement Scheme

Persons in households where the main income earner, according to the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration, is in early retirement.

Receivers of survivor's benefits

Persons in households where the main income earner, according to the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration, receives survivor's benefit (after deceased spouse) from the social security system.

Single pensioner, receiver of the minimum state pension

Persons that according to Statistics Norway's Household Income Statistics belong to a single-person household and are in receipt of a special allowance from the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration.

Receivers of work assessment allowance

Persons in households where the main income earner is registered with a longstanding illness. Included are persons in receipt of rehabilitation allowances, persons incapable of full labour force participation, but attend labour market schemes, and others. Up until 2005, persons who were incapable of full labour force participation but who attended programmes initiated by the National Insurance Scheme (e.g. school and work placements), and persons who were receiving vocational rehabilitation allowances, were not included in the statistics.

Long-term unemployed

Persons in households where the main income earner has been registered as unemployed for 6 consecutive months or more during the year.

People on social assistance

Persons in households where the main income earner has received social assistance at least once during the year.

Singles

Persons who are the only person in a household.

Immigrants

Persons in households where the main income earner is born abroad by two foreign-born parents (first-generation immigrant).

Norwegian-born to immigrant parents

Persons in households where the main income earner is born in Norway by two foreign-born parents.

Refugees

Persons in households where the main income earner is immigrated to Norway for refuge reasons.

Persons with refugee background

Persons in households where the main income earner is immigrated to Norway for refuge reasons or immigrated family members of these.

Age

Age (number of years) at the end of the year.

Socioeconomic status

Socioeconomic status is described by type of economic activity (see above). The economically active population, which mainly receive their income from working, is divided into self-employed and employees. If income from self-employment is greater than income from employment, the person is classified as self-employed, and vice versa.

We have the following socio-economic groups:

Working

  • Self-employed in agriculture, forestry and fishing
  • Self-employed in other industries.
  • Employee

Non-working

  • Pensioners and National Insurance recipients
  • Other non-working

Income sources not included in the income statistics

After-tax income comprises the sum of income from work, property income and transfers, where assessed taxes and negative transfers are deducted. This way of defining income is in accordance with the practical definition recommended in the Canberra report (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe 2011).

The income statistics cover most of the various monetary income sources. Due to lack of information, the following elements are not included in the statistics although they affect the income level.

  • The value of public services, such as public health care and education
  • The net value of unpaid domestic services. This include unpaid housework, child care and goods produced for own consumption
  • The net value of owner-occupied housing services.
  • The net value of services from household consumer durables
  • Income withheld from taxation or gained from criminal activities
  • Child support received through private agreements
  • Rental income when renting out less than 50 per cent of owner-occupied housing
  • Municipal subsidy schemes for housing and cash benefits for child care
  • Local property taxes are not deducted when estimating after-tax income due to lack of information
  • Interest payments are not deducted from after-tax income, although data on this is available. This is done as a rough compensation for not including the value of owner-occupied housing services in the income.

Types of household are in accordance with standard classifications.

Name: Income and wealth statistics for households

Topic: Income and consumption

Not yet determined

Division for Income and social welfare statistics

National level, counties, municipalities and urban districts in the four largest cities.

Annually. The statistics are released in the last quarter in the year after the statistical year.

Income data is used in Eurostat's structural indicators on low income and income distribution. Micro data for selected years is also included in the database Luxembourg Income Study (LIS). Income data is also included in the Nordic publication "Social security in the Nordic countries" by the Nordic social committee, and in OECDs Income Distribution Database.

Data files with individual income data that have gone through the linkage and statistics files are stored

The purpose of the statistics is to quantify the economic resources the households have available for saving and consumption. This is a basis for information about essential sides of the state and development of living conditions and welfare in the society, such as:

  • Types of income and the size of these
  • Wealth and debt – sizes and types
  • How income and wealth is distributed between households.

This gives an opportunity to measure economic inequality, estimate the extent of low income, rate of debt, economic activity and other conditions, and study how this varies between types of households, population groups, regions etc.

The Income Distribution Survey was conducted annually from 1986 to 2004 based on a representative sample survey. Information on the household composition was collected from various Living Condition Surveys and Household Budget Surveys. Up until 1992, the income data was obtained in the form of paper forms from the local tax offices. In addition, tax-free transfers were obtained electronically from other government agencies. Beginning with the survey for the 1993 income year, it was possible to obtain all income data from the personal tax return in electronic form. From 2005 we have also established household composition by using registers. This means that we are now able to produce a totally register-based household income statistics

The main users are the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Ministry of Children and Families, the Norwegian Directorate of Health, the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration, local and regional authorities and research institutes in the areas of household economics, tax research and living conditions in general.

The tax model “LOTTE”, which is operated by Statistics Norway and is used for simulation of taxes and in tax research is updated annually with data from the Income and wealth statistics for households.

The data sources are very detailed and are therefore capable of providing other arrangements and allocations of statistics than those that are published by Statistics Norway.

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.

Tax statistics for personal tax payers is an important data source for the statistics on income and wealth for households. The tax statistics include data from all the records in the tax return and is obtained for all persons residing in the country. The statistics have been available as total census based on registers from the year 1993 and on.

Statistics Act of june 21, 2019 §10.

None

All persons residing in Norway and resident in a private household as of 31st December of the income year.

From 2013, residents studying abroad are also excluded from the households.

The totally register-based income statistics as of 2004 is a total census. Households are derived at after performing certain adjustments to the formal households (formal address according to the National Population Register). These adjustments include omitting people living in institutions and moving students, that no longer reside with their parents, to single person households. Surveys suggest that less than 10 per cent of the students in Norway actually live at home. In addition, other administrative sources are used to identify more cohabitating couples that belong to the same household.

Income data is received by linking different administrative registers and statistical data sources for the whole population as of 31st of December of the income year. Income and biographical data is collected from the following sources:

  • Data from tax returns (wages and salaries, self-employment income, pensions etc.)
  • The Tax Register (taxes)
  • The a-ordning (unemployment benefit, various tax-free transfers)
  • Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration (family allowances, basic and additional amounts, cash benefit etc.)
  • KOSTRA (social assistance)
  • State Educational Loan Fund (loans to students, scholarships)
  • Education statistics and household statistics from Statistics Norway (highest level of completed education etc.)
  • Sample survey in the period 1986-2004. From 2004 totally census-based.

Data are collected from various administrative registers.

Consistency controls are undertaken by comparing information from different sources.

The population of the Income Distribution Survey (1986-2004) was weighted by the use of a calibration program. This method of estimation permits the population to show the same aggregates familiar from the register statistics (for the population) for selected variables. This applies to the different personal incomes and net wealth.

Not relevant

Application and storage of data follow the requirements given in the Statistics act to ensure that sensitive information is not improperly disclosed.

If a variable is classified so that it contains fewer than 11 observations, numbers are not published for this classification.

The Income and wealth statistics has gone through several significant changes through the years. This is due to changes in the income concept, as a result of changes in the tax system and access to new income components from registers.

The estimation of household wealth has also changed over the years, according to changing tax rules and available data and methods for estimating market value for various wealth components. From 2010 and on, for example, Statistics Norway has been able to estimate market value for primary and secondary dwellings in Norway.

Some data collection and processing errors are unavoidable. These include coding errors, revision errors, data processing errors, etc. Comprehensive efforts have been made to minimize these errors, and we regard these types of errors to be relatively insignificant.

Sources of error and uncertainty before 2005

From and including the income year 2005, these statistics are based on a total census and will not be affected by variance and bias. For previous years with survey-based statistics, the following is of relevance:

All sample surveys are subject to a certain amount of uncertainty. In general; the fewer observations the more uncertain the results. Results based on less than 20 observations are therefore not published.

Groups based on relatively few observations will be very strongly influenced by extreme observations, i.e. observations that deviate greatly from the average. In this statistics, extreme observations in most cases are included, but an attempt has been made to reduce the effect of such observations by adjustments (reduction) of the household weights.

Bias can occur when the distribution between certain groups in the sample is not the same as the corresponding distribution in the total population. Sample bias of this type can occur through non-response. Most of the data for the Income Distribution Survey was obtained from administrative registers. Non-response is not a problem for this part of the material. The household composition was based on interviews, where there will always be non-response. Non-response is adjusted by replacing household data with data on family composition from registers.

Not relevant




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