Housing conditions, register-based

Updated: 24 January 2024

Next update: Not yet determined

Per cent of households who own their dwelling
Per cent of households who own their dwelling
2023
76.3
%
Households and persons by tenure status, type of building and crowded dwelling, number and per cent.
Households and persons by tenure status, type of building and crowded dwelling, number and per cent.
2023
ResidentsHouseholds
NumberPer centNumberPer cent
Tenure status
Owner4 411 94281.61 949 60376.3
Freeholder3 799 30570.31 603 11762.7
Part- / shareholder612 63711.3346 48613.6
Tenant994 56918.4605 24123.7
Type of building
Detached house2 933 33254.31 205 81847.4
House with two dwellings526 6249.7229 1579.0
Row house, linked house and house with 3 or 4 dwellings657 12912.2313 54412.3
Multi-dwelling building1 117 86620.7672 30526.4
Other residential building171 5523.2125 1284.9
Crowded dwelling
Live in spacious dwelling, many rooms and sq.m.4 805 37088.92 351 25792.0
Live in crowded dwelling, few rooms and sq.m.524 9439.7162 4986.4
Unknown76 1901.441 0941.6
Explanation of symbols

Selected tables and charts from this statistics

  • Households by tenure status
    Households by tenure status
    2023
    TotalFreeholderPart- / shareholderTenantPercent tenants
    The whole country2 554 8441 603 117346 486605 24123.7
    Viken (2020-2023)571 848387 73563 351120 76221.1
    Oslo350 149128 316111 416110 41731.5
    Innlandet182 093125 25314 43942 40123.3
    Vestfold og Telemark (2020-2023)202 566129 79729 52143 24821.4
    Agder144 700105 0829 66629 95220.7
    Rogaland215 164154 48417 33243 34820.1
    Vestland299 899188 48439 24972 16624.1
    Møre og Romsdal122 47388 4378 44325 59320.9
    Trøndelag - Trööndelage232 078142 26429 61160 20325.9
    Nordland - Nordlánnda115 70077 71012 73125 25921.8
    Troms og Finnmark - Romsa ja Finnmárku (2020-2023)118 17475 55510 72731 89227.0
    Explanation of symbols
  • Persons by density of dwelling
    Persons by density of dwelling
    2023
    Live in spacious dwelling, many rooms and sq.m.Live in crowded dwelling, few rooms and sq.m.UnknownPersons
    The whole country88.99.71.45 406 503
    Viken (2020-2023)89.19.11.81 259 683
    Oslo80.318.90.8685 917
    Innlandet92.06.61.5370 210
    Vestfold og Telemark (2020-2023)90.57.22.3422 516
    Agder91.67.21.2311 612
    Rogaland91.27.51.4484 032
    Vestland89.49.51.1645 792
    Møre og Romsdal91.57.01.5264 138
    Trøndelag - Trööndelage89.49.21.3483 150
    Nordland - Nordlánnda90.78.11.2237 575
    Troms og Finnmark - Romsa ja Finnmárku (2020-2023)89.19.81.0241 878
    Explanation of symbols
  • Households by type of building
    Households by type of building
    2023
    Dwellings totalDetached houseHouse with two dwellingsRow house, linked house and house with 3 or 4 dwellingsMulti-dwelling buildingOther residential building
    The whole country2 554 8611 212 409229 867314 260672 837125 488
    Viken (2020-2023)571 857275 80660 29581 800128 11625 840
    Oslo350 15227 76821 32131 421251 30018 342
    Innlandet182 100124 00514 49915 33418 7609 502
    Vestfold og Telemark (2020-2023)202 566114 63318 74726 88031 18211 124
    Agder144 70186 08311 10017 27022 2218 027
    Rogaland215 165115 27322 74029 25439 3118 587
    Vestland299 898145 38024 11840 29778 59511 508
    Møre og Romsdal122 47073 21913 75516 15412 9856 357
    Trøndelag - Trööndelage232 072108 09021 57128 54859 59714 266
    Nordland - Nordlánnda115 70671 84910 72713 41014 2785 442
    Troms og Finnmark - Romsa ja Finnmárku (2020-2023)118 17470 30310 99413 89216 4926 493
    Explanation of symbols
  • Tenure status for household types
    Tenure status for household types
    2023
    FreeholderPart- / shareholderTenantNumber of households
    Housholds total62.713.623.72 545 944
    Living alone44.917.937.21 027 435
    Couple without resident children75.311.912.8623 702
    Couple with small children (youngest child 0-5 years)75.510.314.2217 957
    Couple with older children (youngest child 6-17 years)84.57.38.1265 668
    Lone parent with small children (youngest child 0-5 years)38.611.849.521 733
    Lone parent with older children (youngest child 6-17 years)57.215.227.683 975
    One-family households with adult children (youngest child 18 years and over)81.410.18.5183 672
    Two or more-family households with children77.98.913.231 013
    Two or more-family households without resident children 0-17 years50.211.238.790 789
    Explanation of symbols
  • Density of dwelling by household type
    Density of dwelling by household type
    2023
    Live in spacious dwelling, many rooms and sq.m.Live in crowded dwelling, few rooms and sq.m.UnknownNumber of households
    Housholds total92.06.41.62 545 976
    Living alone93.54.42.21 027 479
    Couple without resident children97.11.81.1623 664
    Couple with small children (youngest child 0-5 years)79.919.01.0217 944
    Couple with older children (youngest child 6-17 years)87.311.61.1265 650
    Lone parent with small children (youngest child 0-5 years)83.814.12.121 806
    Lone parent with older children (youngest child 6-17 years)92.16.41.583 977
    One-family households with adult children (youngest child 18 years and over)95.53.31.1183 672
    Two or more-family households with children70.028.51.431 077
    Two or more-family households without resident children 0-17 years85.911.52.690 707
    Explanation of symbols

About the statistics

The housing conditions of all residents and households in Norway is presented. This includes ownership rates, crowded dwellings, the type of building, local environment and accessibility.

Last updated: 23 January 2024

Resident
The statistics include all persons that are residents of a private household (see definition below) in Norway in 1 January according to the National Population Register. Who is regarded as a resident of Norway and where in Norway a person shall be counted as a resident is stipulated in the Population Registration Act of 16 January 1970 (with subsequent changes) and its regulation from 1994. The total number of residents in an area is the population. Students registered with their parents while they study abroad are not included in the statistics. The same applies for some persons that according to the register can be considered to reside abroad.

Couples
Two persons who live in the same residence and are married, registered partners or cohabitants (living together without being married or registered partners) are considered to be a couple. To be regarded as cohabitants, the persons have to be living in the same residence, be of the opposite sex, and either

  • have children together
  • be registered as cohabitants in the 2001 census form, or
  • have been registered as cohabitants in the revision routine to update the households from the 2001 census.

The data source does not have enough information to identify unmarried same sex couples. Divorced and separated couples that are registered in the same residence are considered a couple when they fulfil the requirements for cohabitation.

Children
Persons registered as living with at least one of their parents (biological or adoptive), and who are not in a couple or/and have children of their own. Children include biological and adoptive children, but not foster children.

Household
A private household consists of persons that are residents in the same private dwelling according to the National Population Register. The creation of households is described in more detail in Production. Households can consist of one or more families. Persons that belong to the same family also belong to the same household. We first determine which persons belong to the same household, and then which persons belong to the same family.

Immigrants
Persons born abroad of two foreign-born parents and four foreign-born grandparents. Country of Birth is mainly the mother's place of residence at the time she is giving birth.

EU/EEA, USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand
Includes immigrants with their country of birth in: Denmark, Greenland, Finland, Faroe Islands, Iceland, Sweden, Belgium, Bulgaria, Andorra, Estonia, France, Gibraltar, Greece, Ireland, Croatia, Italy, Latvia, Malta, Netherlands, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Lithuania, Spain, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Germany, Slovenia, Hungary, Austria, Vatican City State, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Canada, USA, Australia and New Zealand.

Asia, Africa, Latin America, Oceania except Australia and New Zealand and Europe except EU/EEA
Includes immigrants with their country of birth in: Albania, Belarus, Moldova, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Asia, Africa, America except USA and Canada and Oceania except Australia and New Zealand. Persons who were stateless at birth and with an unknown place of birth are also included.

Dwelling
A dwelling is defined as one or more rooms that has been built or rebuilt for the purpose of being used as a round-the-year dwelling for one or more persons. It must be possible to have access to the room(s) without having to go through another dwelling. Both dwelling units and single rooms are counted as dwellings. A dwelling unit is a conventional dwelling with at least one room and kitchen. Single rooms are living quarters with a separate entrance and with access to water and toilet outside other living quarters.

Year of construction
The year of construction is the year that a building became habitable. In buildings with more than one dwelling, where the dwellings are being occupied gradually, the year of construction is the year when at least half of the dwellings are habitable. In houses that have been renovated, the year of construction is the original year of construction. For dwellings in extensions to the main building, where data is only registered on the extension of the building, the year of construction of the extension is used.

Utility floor space
The floor area measured within the outer walls, defined in Norwegian Standard NS 3940 Area and volume calculations of buildings. All types of room (including storage rooms) within the outer walls are included. Rooms that need to be entered by exiting the dwelling are not included.

P-area
Area within the outer walls, defined in Norwegian Standard NS 3940 Area and volume calculations of buildings, of rooms used for short or long stays (P rooms). The following rooms are included as P-rooms: basement sitting room, TV room, loft room, playroom, study, home office, computer room, media room, library, gym, lounge, living room, family room, dressing room, bathroom/shower room, toilet, utility room, entrance/porch, kitchen, bedroom, sauna, hobby room, pool room, enclosed stairwell/elevator and other living areas used for residential purposes.

Number of rooms in the dwelling
A room must satisfy the room requirements of the Building Act and be 6 m2 or larger. Kitchens, baths, hallways and the like are not counted as rooms.

Number of floors
The number of floors is collected from the table of floors that is connected to each building.

Placement (floor) in the building
The numerical address includes information on the entrance floor of the dwelling.

Elevator
The variable indicates whether an elevator is installed in the building. Passenger elevators are counted as elevators, but not goods elevators or stair lifts.

Lives in crowded dwelling, many rooms and sq.m.
Households are considered as living crowded if: 1. the number of rooms is lower than the number of residents or one resident lives in one room, and 2. the number of square metres (P-area) is below 25 sq.m. per person. If the number of rooms or the P-area is not specified, a household will be regarded as living in cramped conditions if one of these criteria is met.

Tenure status
Shows the household’s ownership status to the property. Owners include freeholders and . The household owns the dwelling if at least one of the residents is registered as owning the property. The householders are considered to be tenants when none of the residents are registered as owners.

Type of building
Established according to the function of the building. Combined buildings, for instance combined dwelling and business buildings, are classified by the function that occupies the main part of the utility floor space. The building types in the dwelling statistics are aggregated from the most detailed classification in the GAB register, see About the statistic for Dwellings.

Detached house
Includes single-unit dwellings (including farms)

House with two dwellings
B
oth horizontally and vertically divided

Row house, linked house and house with 3 or 4 dwellings

Multi-dwelling building
B
lock of flats or apartment buildings with at least 2 floors

Other residential building
Includes building types not included in the other groups. Residences for communities (including student accomodations) is included in this group.

EU-equivalence scale
Is used to compare economic well-being in households of different sizes, by using economies of scale. It assigns a value of 1 to the household head, of 0.5 to each additional adult member and of 0.3 to each child under the age of 17. According to this scale, a household with two adults and two children has to have a household income which is 2.1 times as high as a single person in order to have the same economic well-being. This is also called the equivalence income.

Low income, 60 per cent
All households that have a disposable equivalence income below 60 per cent of the median income. The median income is the mid-way income point in the distribution of income when sorted in ascending (or descending) order. The number of persons with an income above the median will be the same as the number of persons with an income below the median.

Income quartiles
All households are divided into four groups of equal sizes based on equivalence income. The lowest quartile is the fourth with the lowest equivalence income. The second quartile is the fourth with the second lowest equivalence income. The third quartile is the fourth with the second highest equivalence income. The highest quartile is the fourth with the highest equivalence income.

Recipients of dwelling support
Households that have received state dwelling support during the income year.

Recipients of social assistance
Households where the main income earner has received NOK 1 000 or more in socialassistance during the income year.

Recipients of social security benefits
Households where the main income earner has received more than half of their income from the National Insurance. The numbers are presented separately for households where the main income earner is below 67 years old and 67 years old or older. The latter group is dominated by recipients of the old-age pension.

High debt burden
Households that have a total debt equal to or more than three times that of the household's total income. A corresponding indicator can be found in the Income and Wealth Statistics for Households.

Long distance
Measured as the aerial distance from the household's dwelling to various offers:

  • More than 2 km to kindergarten and sports facilities
  • More than 4 km to primary school
  • More than 6 km to grocery stores, restaurants and cafes
  • More than 10 km to upper secondary school, cinema and library

Inconvenient public transport

We use UN indicator 11.2.1, which measures the proportion of the population that has convenient access to public transport. Access to public transport is considered convenient if the stop is available within a walking distance of 500 meters from the home. In addition, there is a requirement for one departure per hour within normal operating hours (08:00-22:00). Those who live in areas with inconvenient public transport do not meet this requirement.

Lives in area exposed to air pollution

The limit for whether one is "exposed" to air pollution is taken from Guidelines for the treatment of air quality in spatial planning (T-1520). We have included households that live in homes that are in the yellow and red zones in the category "exposed". These have a limit value of >40 mg NO2 per cubic meter.

Live less than 100 meters from a busy road

The limit for whether one is "exposed" to busy roads is calculated by looking at the distance from the home to a road with at least 5,000 daily traffic and which is not a tunnel. Annual traffic is the sum of the number of vehicles that pass a point on a stretch of road in the year divided by the days of the year. If the home is less than 100 meters from such a road, one is considered "exposed".

Live in an area exposed to noise from roads, railways or planes

The basis for whether you are "exposed" to noise is taken from the Norwegian Road Administration's Noise Warning Map. These have been drawn up according to the Guidelines for the treatment of noise in spatial planning (T-1442), which calculates red (Lden6>65dB) and yellow (Lden>55dB) noise zones along national and county roads. The calculation height is 4 metres. In addition to road noise, we have added values ​​for railway and airport noise. Overall, this indicator expresses whether people live in a noise zone (yellow or red) along national and county roads, railways and airports.

Live in an area with limited access to hiking areas and play and recreation areas

The limits were set based on children and young people. The definition of "safe access" is taken from the Norwegian Environment Agency's indicators for Norway's environmental status: Environmental indicator 3.1.3 and 3.2.2. It is considered access within 200 m of recreational areas and within 500 m of short-distance hiking terrain. Requirements have been set that one should not have to cross or move along roads with relatively high traffic and a high speed limit for safe access. The access calculations are made by calculating the distance along roads, footpaths and cycle paths.

Household type. The variable follows the standard classification of household type. Distinctions are made between one-person and multi-person households, and between households with and without children (see the definition of Children). For more, see About the statistics for Families and households.

Classification of county

Classification of municipalities

Name: Housing conditions, register-based

Topic: Construction, housing and property

Not yet determined

Division for Income and social welfare statistics

National level, county level. Most of the statistics are published at municipality level. Some tables are only available for municipalities with at least 10 000 inhabitants.

Annually. The statistics are registered on 1 January. For release dates, see the statistics release calendar.

Not relevant

Collected and revised data are stored securely by Statistics Norway in compliance with applicable legislation on data processing.

Statistics Norway can grant access to the source data (de-identified or anonymised microdata) on which the statistics are based, for researchers and public authorities for the purposes of preparing statistical results and analyses. Access can be granted upon application and subject to conditions. Refer to the details about this at Access to data from Statistics Norway.

The aim of the statistics is to present the housing conditions for persons and households registered as living in Norway, and to present this information over time. The statistics also look at housing conditions for different parts of the population. Housing conditions are presented at a small geographical level and the population is broken down at a detailed level. The statistics are presented for the first time in 2016, covering data from 2015. The Ministry of Local Government and Modernisation has provided funding to develop the statistics.

The main users are ministries, directorates and researchers studying housing conditions or living conditions in general. Counties and municipalities are also important users as the statistics can be presented at a detailed geographical level.

The statistics also give information to the media or others interested in the state and development of the population’s housing conditions.

No external users have access to statistics before they are released at 8 a.m. on ssb.no after at least three months’ advance notice in the release calendar. This is one of the most important principles in Statistics Norway for ensuring the equal treatment of users.

The tables are based on similar data used in the population and housing census 2011 and some of the indicators are comparable with data in the publication Population and housing census, dwellings. Tables cannot, however, be compared directly.

Some of the indicators are similar to those found in the statistics Housing conditions, survey on living conditions, which is based on a nationally representative survey. We have commented on the cases where definitions in these statistics differ from definitions in “Housing conditions, survey on living conditions” below.

The statistics are based on the same data sources as the statistics on Dwellings and the statistics on Families and households.

Corresponding and relevant documentation for indicators based on registered income can be found in the Income and wealth statistic for households.

The statistics are developed, produced and disseminated pursuant to Act no. 32 of 21 June 2019 relating to official statistics and Statistics Norway (the Statistics Act).

The statistics are part of the national program for official statistics, main area Construction, housing and property, sub-area Housing and living conditions.

Not relevant

All persons registered as a resident in a private household in Norway on 1 January that can be matched with a registered dwelling. A person is registered as a resident in Norway when they have lived here or intend to live here for at least 6 months and have a valid residence permit. Persons who immigrated to work in Norway less than 6 months before the date of registration are not included in the statistics. For a further definition of residents in Norway see: “Definitions, Definitions of the main concepts and variables, Resident”. In some cases we have not been able to match persons or households to dwellings. These persons and households are not included in the statistics.

All the information is obtained from administrative and statistical registers. Most of the register data that is utilised is also in other statistics from Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway has created systems called statistical registers within different areas of statistics (sectors). These are based on one or more administrative data systems, either administrative registers from other government agencies or administrative data collected by Statistics Norway.

Population and household data

Data on persons, families and households is based on information from the National Population Register, the Ground Parcel, Address and Building Register and the Central Coordinating Register for Legal Entities in Brønnøysund. From 1 January 2014, information about students that receive student living allowances and are registered as living with their parents have been collected from NRK (the Norwegian broadcasting company), Norway Post and the Norwegian State Educational Loan Fund.

Information from the population register is processed by Statistics Norway in order to provide information about households. Information from the Ground Parcel, Address and Building Register and the Central Coordinating Register for Legal Entities is used in this work. The information is used to find out who belongs to the same household and if it is a private household or a different kind of household (institution etc.).

A comprehensive system for control, editing and data processing has been developed to make sure the statistics cover all households. The aim is to determine which persons make up a couple, a family and a household. This has been necessary because the data has weaknesses, especially in relation to dwelling numbers in the address data. The address alone is therefore not enough to determine the composition of families and households.

See About the statistics for Families and households for more detailed information.

Dwelling data

The statistics on dwellings are mostly based on information from Statistics Norway’s statistical version of the Ground Parcel, Address and Building Register (GAB), the SSB-GAB. The Norwegian Mapping and Cadastre Authority is responsible for the administration of the GAB. The municipalities provide the information on dwellings in the GAB based on applications from developers, owners and other applicants. Other data sources are used as a supplement for information on year of construction, utility floor space, bathrooms and toilets (WC). The most important sources are the National Population Register, which is used for year of construction and utility floor space, the SEFRAK register (the Directorate for Cultural Heritages register on older buildings), for year of construction, and information on dwellings sold through finn.no. Information on some dwellings collected in the 2001 census is also used as supplementary data.

Information on elevators is collected from registers kept by Nasjonalt installasjonsregister for løfteinnretninger (NIREG).

Information about type of ownership is found in data about sector codes and organisational structure from the Central Coordinating Register for Legal Entities and information about the owners address of residence is taken from BeReg (Statistics Norway’s statistical version of the National Population Register).

See About the statistics for Dwellings for more detailed information.

Income data

Data on income is taken from the register-based income statistics, which have been a full census since 2004. Various administrative and statistical data sources have been merged to provide the information on income and wealth as of 31 December of the income year.

See About the statistics for Income and wealth statistics for households for more detailed information.

Geographical information

Information on addresses for residents and dwellings is gathered from the address data in the Ground Parcel, Address and Building Register. This includes details of the basic statistical unit, the municipality etc. the address belongs to and whether the address is in a densely or sparsely populated area.

Local environment indicators

Information about the local environment is obtained from various data sources where nurseries, schools, businesses, public transport stops and sports facilities are located. In addition to locating zones exposed to noise, air pollution and busy roads.

Collection from these data sources is documented in the note: Hvordan varierer nærmiljøet blant ulike befolkningsgrupper?

The statistics are only based on registers and there is no data collection, see “Data sources and sampling”.

Register-based data utilized in statistics is controlled and to a greater or lesser extent revised. The variables that are not found in one specific administrative source are created by combining different register sources. Control and revision of the data is mainly done within the different areas of statistics.

Households

The household data is made according to the principles used in the household statistics. The procedure for creating a household is described in About the statistics for Families and households. The basic principle is that all persons registered at the same address in the National Population Register belong to the same household (see “Definitions of the main concepts and variables”).

Ownership

Information on type of ownership is found by combining household and dwelling data. The household is registered as a freeholder when at least one of the residents is registered as the owner of the dwelling in the Ground Parcel, Address and Building Register. When at least one of the residents is registered as owner through a housing cooperative or has the right of occupation in SERG (the tax administration’s property register), the dwelling is regarded as owned by part-/ shareholders. The household is registered as tenants if none of these criteria are met.

Consistency between private households and inhabited dwellings

In theory, the number of households should be the same as the number of inhabited dwellings (see “Definitions of the main concepts and variables”). The principle is that residents and households are connected using the residential address. It was necessary to develop a method for coordination between household and dwelling data because of mistakes and missing values in the data. The method gives reasonable estimates for households and inhabited dwellings, but not complete conformity between the two populations. Approximately 8 000 households are not matched with a dwelling. They are not included in the statistics.

Dwellings

Some data is missing, especially for older houses. Because of this, supplementary information is collected from sources other than the Ground Parcel, Address and Building Register, and imputations are made of characteristics like utility floor space, the number of rooms, the number of bathrooms and toilets. There are different routines for different types of dwellings. For example, the number of rooms/bathrooms/toilets that is most common in blocks of flats is imputed for dwellings in that kind of building where data is missing.

The procedure is described in more detail in About the statistics for Dwellings.

Comparability: See Coherence with other statistics.

Not relevant

Interviewers and everyone who works at Statistics Norway have a duty of confidentiality. Statistics Norway has its own data protection officer.

Statistics Norway does not publish figures where there is a risk of identifying individual data about persons or households [enter the correct unit here, where applicable].

The rounding up/down method is used in these statistics to ensure this.

More information can be found on Statistics Norway’s website under Methods in official statistics, in the ‘Confidentiality’ section.

One of the goals of the statistics on housing conditions is to provide data for small geographical areas, but the statistics cannot provide information that can be traced back to specific individuals. It is therefore necessary to make sure that combinations of variables that only occur once or twice cannot be identified in the tables. Ones and twos in tables at the municipal level are therefore replaced randomly by 0 or 3. The numbers 0 and 3 also occur naturally, and it is not possible to differentiate between the two types of 0 and 3. The replacements are done in a way that minimises the possibility of influencing the numbers at a higher level of aggregation. Small deviations from the original figures will still occur. These deviations will generally be smaller than the deviations caused by the errors described in “Sources of error and uncertainty” and will not lessen the usefulness of the statistics. Minor discrepancies can occur when the same table is made based on two different matrices.

In terms of previously published statistics, the Population and housing census 2011 is the source that is most comparable to the statistics on housing conditions. Some changes have however been made in how households are constructed. Unmarried students registered as living at home were included in their parents’ household in the 2011 census. They are now registered as residents in a household closer to the place of study. Furthermore, one-person households living at the same address have now been combined into one household to a greater degree than previously. These changes have led to a decline in the number of households by 0.7 per cent. See About the statistics for Families and households for more information. This also includes information on the comparability with the household statistics. See About the statistic for Dwellings for the comparable information for the dwelling statistics.

See About the statistic for Dwellings for possible sources of errors in the data on dwellings.

See About the statistics for Families and households for possible errors in the data on persons and households.

Not relevant

Contact

Madeleine Elisabeth Schlyter Oppøyen

madeleine.oppoyen@ssb.no

(+47) 41 58 41 65