301837
/en/sosiale-forhold-og-kriminalitet/statistikker/soshjelpk/aar
301837
statistikk
2017-07-06T08:00:00.000Z
Social conditions, welfare and crime;Public sector
en
soshjelpk, Social assistance, social assistance recipients, social assistance, qualification programme, assistant status, social services, duration of support, support cases, type of support (allowance, loan), personnel in the social services (for example social workers, child welfare officers, office employees), operating costsKOSTRA , Social security and benefits , Public sector, Social conditions, welfare and crime
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Social assistance

Updated

Next update

Not yet determined

Key figures

6.2

billion NOK in expenditure on social assistance in 2016

Social assistance
2016
Recipients of social assistance130 405
Single males total51 397
Single females total29 160
Social assistance as primary source of income53 155
Expenditure on social assistance (1 000 NOK)6 199 985
Average payment per month9 314

See more tables on this subject

Table 1 
Recipients of social assistance, by duration of benefit and family cycle

Recipients of social assistance, by duration of benefit and family cycle
201420152016
Average duration, monthsAverage duration, monthsAverage duration, months
Family cycle phase, total5.15.25.1
Single males total5.25.15.1
Single males - 19 years4.13.94.3
Single males 20 - 24 years4.84.84.8
Single males 25 - 44 years5.35.25.1
Single males 45 - 66 years5.55.55.5
Single males 67 years or more3.43.63.3
Single females total4.94.95.0
Single females - 19 years4.04.24.2
Single females 20 - 24 years4.64.64.6
Single females 25 - 44 years5.15.15.1
Single females 45 - 66 years5.35.45.4
Single females 67 years or more3.63.73.8
Single parents with children 0-17 years5.25.35.2
Single males with children 0-17 years5.05.14.9
Single females with children 0-17 years5.35.45.3
Couples without children 0-17 years4.84.84.8
Couples with children 0-17 years5.85.95.7
Unknown family cycle phase0.00.00.0

Table 2 
Social assistance - basic data. Rate of benefit per month for single peoples by region

Social assistance - basic data. Rate of benefit per month for single peoples by region
201420152016
Halden4 0005 0505 450
Moss5 6005 6005 850
Sarpsborg5 6005 6005 750
Fredrikstad5 6005 7005 850
Hvaler5 6005 7005 850
Aremark5 6005 7005 850
Marker5 6005 7005 850
Rømskog5 6005 7005 850
Trøgstad5 6005 7005 850
Spydeberg5 6005 7005 850
Askim5 6005 7005 700
Eidsberg5 6005 7005 850
Skiptvet5 6005 8505 850
Rakkestad5 5005 5005 500
Råde5 7005 7005 850
Rygge5 6005 7005 850
Våler (Østf.)5 6005 7005 850
Hobøl5 1975 7005 850
Vestby5 6005 7005 850
Ski5 6005 7005 850
Ås5 6005 8505 850
Frogn5 6005 7005 850
Nesodden5 7005 7005 950
Oppegård5 6005 7005 850
Bærum5 6005 7005 850
Asker5 6005 7005 850
Aurskog-Høland5 6005 7005 850
Sørum5 6005 7005 850
Fet5 7005 7005 850
Rælingen5 5005 7005 850
Enebakk5 6005 7005 850
Lørenskog5 6005 7005 850
Skedsmo5 6005 6005 850
Nittedal5 6005 8505 850
Gjerdrum5 3225 3225 800
Ullensaker5 6005 7005 850
Nes (Ak.)5 5005 7005 850
Eidsvoll5 6005 6005 600
Nannestad5 6005 7005 850
Hurdal5 7005 7005 850
Oslo municipality6 4356 4356 589
Kongsvinger5 6005 7005 600
Hamar5 6005 8505 850
Ringsaker5 6005 7005 850
Løten5 6005 7005 850
Stange5 6005 6005 850
Nord-Odal5 7005 7005 950
Sør-Odal5 1055 1055 105
Eidskog4 3474 3474 347
Grue5 6005 6005 200
Åsnes5 7005 6005 850
Våler (Hedm.)5 6005 7005 850
Elverum5 6005 5005 500
Trysil5 6005 7005 850
Åmot5 6005 7005 850
Stor-Elvdal5 6005 7005 850
Rendalen5 6005 7005 850
Engerdal5 6005 7005 850
Tolga5 6005 7005 850
Tynset5 7005 8505 850
Alvdal5 6005 7005 850
Folldal5 6005 7005 850
Os (Hedm.)5 6005 7005 850
Lillehammer5 6005 7005 850
Gjøvik5 6005 7005 850
Dovre5 7005 7005 950
Lesja5 6005 7005 850
Skjåk5 6005 7005 850
Lom5 6005 7005 850
Vågå5 6005 7005 850
Nord-Fron5 7005 8505 950
Sel5 6005 7005 850
Sør-Fron5 6005 7005 850
Ringebu5 6005 7005 850
Øyer5 6005 7005 850
Gausdal5 6605 8536 011
Østre Toten5 6005 7005 850
Vestre Toten5 6005 7005 850
Jevnaker5 6005 7005 850
Lunner5 6005 7005 850
Gran5 6005 7005 850
Søndre Land5 6005 7005 850
Nordre Land5 6005 7005 850
Sør-Aurdal5 6005 7005 850
Etnedal5 6005 7005 850
Nord-Aurdal5 6005 7005 850
Vestre Slidre5 6005 7005 850
Øystre Slidre5 6005 7005 850
Vang5 6005 7005 850
Drammen5 6005 7005 850
Kongsberg5 6005 7005 850
Ringerike5 6005 7005 850
Hole4 9564 9564 956
Flå5 6005 7005 850
Nes (Busk.)5 7005 7005 850
Gol5 6005 7005 850
Hemsedal5 6005 7005 850
Ål5 6005 7005 850
Hol5 6005 7005 850
Sigdal5 6005 7005 850
Krødsherad5 6005 7005 850
Modum5 6005 7005 850
Øvre Eiker5 6005 7005 850
Nedre Eiker5 6005 7005 850
Lier5 6005 7005 850
Røyken5 6005 7005 850
Hurum5 5002 6005 850
Flesberg5 6005 7005 850
Rollag5 6005 7005 850
Nore og Uvdal5 6005 7005 850
Horten5 7005 7005 850
Holmestrand5 6005 7005 850
Tønsberg5 6005 7005 850
Sandefjord (-2016)5 6005 7005 850
Larvik5 6005 7005 850
Svelvik5 6005 7005 850
Sande (Vestf.)5 6005 8505 850
Hof5 6005 7005 850
Re5 6005 7005 850
Ramnes (-2001)...
Andebu (-2016)5 6005 7005 850
Stokke (-2016)5 6005 7005 850
Nøtterøy5 6005 7005 950
Tjøme5 6005 7005 850
Lardal5 6005 7005 850
Porsgrunn5 6005 7005 850
Skien5 7005 7005 850
Notodden5 3735 7005 850
Siljan5 6005 7005 850
Bamble5 6005 7005 850
Kragerø5 6005 8505 850
Drangedal5 6005 7005 850
Nome5 6005 7005 850
Bø (Telem.)5 6005 7005 850
Sauherad5 6005 7005 850
Tinn5 6005 7005 950
Hjartdal5 6005 7005 850
Seljord5 6005 7005 850
Kviteseid5 6005 7005 850
Nissedal5 6005 7005 850
Fyresdal5 6005 7005 850
Tokke5 6005 7005 850
Vinje5 6005 7005 850
Risør5 6005 7005 850
Grimstad5 6005 7005 850
Arendal5 1975 1975 700
Gjerstad5 6005 7005 850
Vegårshei4 6004 6004 600
Tvedestrand5 2885 3735 600
Froland4 9014 9014 901
Lillesand5 6005 7005 850
Birkenes5 6005 7005 850
Åmli5 6005 8505 850
Iveland5 6005 8505 850
Evje og Hornnes4 6005 7005 850
Bygland5 7005 8505 850
Valle5 6005 7005 950
Bykle5 6005 7005 850
Kristiansand5 6005 7005 950
Mandal5 6005 7005 850
Farsund5 6005 7005 850
Flekkefjord5 6005 8505 950
Vennesla5 5005 7005 800
Songdalen5 7005 7005 850
Søgne5 6005 7005 850
Marnardal5 6005 7005 850
Åseral5 6005 7005 850
Audnedal5 6005 7005 850
Lindesnes5 1975 1975 850
Lyngdal5 6005 7005 850
Hægebostad5 6005 7005 850
Kvinesdal5 6005 7005 850
Sirdal5 7005 7005 850
Eigersund5 6005 7005 850
Sandnes5 6005 7005 850
Stavanger5 6005 8505 950
Haugesund5 6005 7005 850
Sokndal5 6005 7005 850
Lund5 6005 8505 850
Bjerkreim5 6005 7005 850
5 6005 7005 950
Klepp5 6005 7005 850
Time5 6005 7005 850
Gjesdal5 6005 7005 850
Sola5 6005 7005 850
Randaberg5 6005 7005 850
Forsand5 6005 7005 950
Strand5 6005 7005 850
Hjelmeland5 6005 7005 850
Suldal5 6005 7005 850
Sauda5 6005 7005 850
Finnøy5 6005 7005 850
Rennesøy5 6005 7005 850
Kvitsøy5 6005 7005 850
Bokn5 6005 7005 850
Tysvær5 6005 7005 850
Karmøy5 6005 7005 850
Utsira5 5005 7005 700
Vindafjord (1965-2005)...
Ølen (2002-2005)...
Vindafjord5 6005 7005 850
Bergen5 6005 7005 850
Etne5 6005 7005 950
Ølen (-2001)...
Sveio5 6005 7005 850
Bømlo5 6005 7005 850
Stord5 1975 7005 850
Fitjar5 3755 7005 850
Tysnes5 6005 7005 850
Kvinnherad5 6005 7005 850
Jondal5 6005 7005 850
Odda5 6005 7005 850
Ullensvang5 6005 7005 850
Eidfjord5 6005 7005 850
Ulvik5 6005 7005 850
Granvin5 5005 5005 700
Voss5 5005 7005 850
Kvam5 6005 7005 850
Fusa5 6005 7005 850
Samnanger5 6005 7005 850
Os (Hord.)5 5005 6005 700
Austevoll5 6005 7005 850
Sund5 6005 6005 700
Fjell5 5245 6305 787
Askøy5 1975 1975 197
Vaksdal5 6005 7005 850
Modalen5 6005 7005 850
Osterøy5 6005 7005 850
Meland5 7005 7005 850
Øygarden5 6005 7005 850
Radøy5 6005 7005 950
Lindås5 6005 7005 700
Austrheim5 6005 7005 830
Fedje5 6005 7005 850
Masfjorden5 6005 7005 850
Flora5 6005 7005 850
Gulen5 6005 7005 850
Solund5 6005 7005 850
Hyllestad5 6005 7005 850
Høyanger5 6005 7005 850
Vik5 6005 7005 850
Balestrand5 6005 7005 850
Leikanger5 6405 7005 850
Sogndal5 6005 7005 850
Aurland5 6005 7005 850
Lærdal5 6005 7005 850
Årdal5 6505 6505 950
Luster5 6005 7005 850
Askvoll5 7005 7005 950
Fjaler5 6005 7005 850
Gaular5 6005 7005 850
Jølster5 6005 7005 850
Førde5 6005 7005 850
Naustdal5 6005 8505 950
Bremanger5 6005 7005 850
Vågsøy5 6005 7005 850
Selje5 5005 7005 850
Eid5 6005 7005 850
Hornindal5 6005 7005 850
Gloppen5 6005 7005 816
Stryn5 6005 7005 850
Molde5 6005 7005 850
Kristiansund (-2007)...
Ålesund5 6005 7005 850
Kristiansund5 6005 7005 850
Vanylven5 6005 7005 850
Sande (M. og R.)5 6005 7005 850
Herøy (M. og R.)5 6005 7005 850
Ulstein5 6005 7005 700
Hareid5 6005 7005 850
Volda5 6005 7005 850
Ørsta5 6005 7005 850
Ørskog5 6005 7005 850
Norddal5 6005 7005 850
Stranda5 6005 7005 850
Stordal5 6005 7005 850
Sykkylven5 6005 7005 850
Skodje5 6005 7005 850
Sula5 6005 7005 850
Giske5 6005 7005 850
Haram5 6005 8505 850
Vestnes5 6005 7005 850
Rauma5 6005 7005 850
Nesset5 6005 8505 850
Midsund5 6005 7005 850
Sandøy5 6005 7005 850
Aukra5 6005 7005 850
Fræna5 6005 7005 850
Eide5 6005 7005 850
Averøy5 6005 7005 850
Frei (-2007)...
Gjemnes5 6005 7005 850
Tingvoll5 6005 7005 850
Sunndal5 6005 7005 850
Surnadal5 6005 7005 850
Rindal5 6005 7005 850
Aure (-2005)...
Halsa5 6005 7005 850
Tustna (-2005)...
Smøla5 6005 7005 850
Aure5 6005 7005 850
Trondheim5 6005 7005 850
Hemne5 6005 7005 850
Snillfjord5 6005 6005 850
Hitra5 6005 7005 850
Frøya5 6005 7005 850
Ørland5 6005 7005 850
Agdenes5 6005 7005 850
Rissa3 2005 7005 850
Bjugn5 6005 7005 850
Åfjord5 6005 7005 850
Roan5 6005 7005 850
Osen5 6005 7005 850
Oppdal5 6005 7005 850
Rennebu5 6005 7005 850
Meldal5 6005 7005 850
Orkdal5 6005 7005 850
Røros5 7005 7005 850
Holtålen5 6005 7005 850
Midtre Gauldal5 6005 7005 950
Melhus5 4005 4005 400
Skaun5 6005 7005 850
Klæbu5 5005 8505 850
Malvik5 6005 7005 850
Selbu5 6005 7005 850
Tydal5 6005 7005 850
Steinkjer5 6005 7005 950
Namsos5 6005 7005 850
Meråker5 6005 7005 850
Stjørdal5 6005 7005 850
Frosta5 6005 7005 850
Leksvik5 6005 7005 850
Levanger5 1055 1055 105
Verdal5 1055 1055 105
Mosvik (-2011)...
Verran3 7003 7003 700
Namdalseid5 6005 7005 850
Inderøy (-2011)...
Snåase - Snåsa5 6005 7005 850
Lierne5 6005 7005 850
Raarvihke - Røyrvik5 6005 7005 850
Namsskogan5 5005 5005 500
Grong5 6005 7005 850
Høylandet5 6005 7005 850
Overhalla5 6005 7005 850
Fosnes5 6005 7005 850
Flatanger5 6005 7005 850
Vikna5 6005 7005 850
Nærøy5 6005 7005 850
Leka5 6008 0485 850
Inderøy5 6005 7005 850
Bodø5 6005 7005 950
Narvik5 5005 6005 700
Bindal5 6005 7005 850
Sømna5 6005 7005 850
Brønnøy5 6005 7005 850
Vega5 6005 7005 850
Vevelstad5 6005 7005 850
Herøy (Nordl.)5 2395 1885 400
Alstahaug5 6005 7005 850
Leirfjord5 6005 7005 850
Vefsn5 6005 7005 950
Grane5 6005 7005 850
Hattfjelldal5 6005 7005 850
Dønna5 6055 7105 814
Nesna5 6005 7005 850
Hemnes5 7005 7005 850
Rana5 6005 7005 850
Lurøy5 6005 7005 850
Træna5 6005 7005 850
Rødøy5 6005 7005 850
Meløy5 6005 7005 850
Gildeskål5 6005 7005 850
Beiarn5 6005 7005 850
Saltdal5 6005 7005 870
Fauske5 6005 7006 150
Skjerstad (-2004)...
Sørfold6 1656 2956 425
Steigen5 6005 7005 850
Hamarøy - Hábmer5 6005 7005 950
Divtasvuodna - Tysfjord5 7005 7005 950
Lødingen5 7005 7005 850
Tjeldsund5 6005 7005 850
Evenes5 6005 7005 850
Ballangen5 6005 7005 850
Røst5 6005 7005 850
Værøy5 6005 7005 850
Flakstad5 6005 7005 850
Vestvågøy5 6005 7005 850
Vågan5 6005 6005 600
Hadsel5 6005 7005 130
Bø (Nordl.)5 7505 7505 750
Øksnes5 6005 7005 850
Sortland5 7005 7005 850
Andøy5 7005 7005 850
Moskenes5 6005 7005 850
Harstad (-2012)...
Tromsø5 6005 7005 850
Harstad5 7005 7005 850
Kvæfjord5 6005 7005 850
Skånland5 6005 7005 850
Bjarkøy (-2012)...
Ibestad5 6005 7005 850
Gratangen5 6005 7005 850
Loabák - Lavangen5 6005 7005 850
Bardu5 6005 7005 850
Salangen5 6005 7005 850
Målselv5 6005 7005 850
Sørreisa5 6005 7005 850
Dyrøy5 6005 7005 850
Tranøy5 6005 7005 850
Torsken5 6005 7005 850
Berg5 6005 7005 850
Lenvik5 6005 7005 850
Balsfjord5 6005 7005 850
Karlsøy5 6005 7005 850
Lyngen5 6005 7005 850
Storfjord - Omasvuotna - Omasvuono5 6005 7005 850
Gáivuotna - Kåfjord5 6005 7005 850
Skjervøy5 6005 7005 850
Nordreisa5 6005 7005 850
Kvænangen5 6005 7005 850
Vardø4 8304 8304 830
Vadsø5 5005 7005 850
Hammerfest7 1407 2747 476
Guovdageaidnu - Kautokeino5 6005 7005 850
Alta5 6105 6105 850
Loppa5 6005 7005 850
Hasvik5 6005 7005 850
Kvalsund6 1606 2706 545
Måsøy5 6005 7005 850
Nordkapp5 6005 8505 850
Porsanger - Porsángu - Porsanki5 6005 7005 850
Kárásjohka - Karasjok5 6005 7005 850
Lebesby5 6005 7005 850
Gamvik5 6005 7005 850
Berlevåg5 1975 7005 850
Deatnu - Tana5 6005 6005 850
Unjárga - Nesseby5 6005 7005 850
Båtsfjord5 6005 7005 850
Sør-Varanger5 3735 7005 850

Table 3 
Recipients of social assistance, by labour force status, year and family cycle phase

Recipients of social assistance, by labour force status, year and family cycle phase
Recipients of social assistance
201420152016
Labour force status, total125 407127 372130 405
Employed full-time6 7726 5036 075
Employed part-time9 1399 6169 818
On governmental employment measures5 6695 5935 982
On municipal employment measures1 1051 2781 429
In education5 8095 7776 199
Unemployed49 56450 36650 316
Not in the labour force35 65035 43235 474
On introductory programme for newly arrived immigrants7 5909 04111 723
With qualification benefit4 0623 6713 293
Unknown479596

About the statistics

The statistics comprise recipients of social assistance, figures on fixed levels of payments of municipal assistance, participants in qualification programs, other municipal social services, municipal programs for drug and alcohol abusers, shelters and violence in close relations.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Number of cases and recipients of social assistance

The statistics is divided in number of cases and recipients. The number of cases is higher than receivers since it is possible for one person to receive social assistance in several municipalities. A person receiving social assistance in more than one municipality will be counted as several cases, but as one recipient.

In cases where a married couple receive economic social assistance it is arbitrary which of them that is regarded as a recipient, however the guidelines say that the person who first seeks assistance is to be counted.

Economic assistance

The statistics only cover payments in cash. Social assistance includes both allowances and loans. All figures in the statistics refer to the gross amount received. Neither public reimbursements nor repayment of loans are registered. Economic assistance does not include expenses for different social services such as institutionalisations.

Main income source for life subsistence

The main source of income in the last reported month for receiving social assistance is classified as the main income source for the recipient.

New and old recipients

New recipients are persons that did not receive social assistance the previous year, but they might have received support at an earlier point of time. Clients receiving social assistance both this and the previous year are named "reappearances".

By matching the files containing recipients for the last two years by the national identity number, reappearances are identified. Recipients lacking the national identity number are divided among "new" and "old" recipients in the same proportion as found in the population with a known number.

Standard classifications

Figures are given after different classifications, for instance age, family cycle phase, municipality, county and size of the municipality.

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Social assistance
Topic: Social conditions, welfare and crime

Responsible division

Division for Social Welfare Statistics

Regional level

The statistics is given on national-, county- and municipal level and on an urban district level for Oslo (and Bergen until 2004) via KOSTRA.

Frequency and timeliness

Annually - unrevised figures are published/released March 15 and revised figures on June 15.

Final figures are released once a year.

International reporting

Not relevant

Microdata

Raw data files and explanations are stored.

Background

Background and purpose

The purpose of the social assistance statistics is to give information about the number of recipients, average payments, total expenditure and development of economic social assistance.

Statistics about public assistance has been compiled since 1866. Until 1881 the Ministry of Church and Education held the responsibility of the statistics, from then it has been the responsibility of Statistics Norway. The statistics has been published in a number of different publications. In 1965 public assistance was replaced by social care in accordance with the Social Care Act of 1964. This new statistics began in 1966, and collection changed from summaries per municipality to information about each individual case.

In 1992 a new registration system was introduced. From now on only recipients receiving economic assistance were registered. Changes in methods of collection can make comparisons across different years difficult. January 1 1993, a new law concerning social assistance was implemented - the Social Services Act. January 1. 2010, Act on social services in the Labour and Welfare Service was implemented.

From 2001, all reporting is done through KOSTRA. KOSTRA is based on electronic reporting from the municipalities to Statistics Norway. Publishing through KOSTRA is largely based on the coupling of data from various sources, e.g. data on accounts, data on service- and personnel and data on the population.

Until 2013, "Qualification benefits" was published as a separate statistics. From 2014 on, this is a part of the Social assistance statistics  

Users and applications

The Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Directorate of Health, Ministry of Local Government and Modernisation, counties and municipalities, research institutions, media and students in public health, are the main users of the statistics. The statistics are also used in public planning, education and public debate. The intention of KOSTRA is also to provide information about government in municipalities and counties for the population, for the municipalities themselves and for the central authorities.

Equal treatment of users

Not relevant

Coherence with other statistics

Economic social assistance is also part of Statistics Norway's Income Statistics:

See: http://www.ssb.no/english/subjects/05/01/

The data is gathered via KOSTRA.

For more information about KOSTRA see: http://www.ssb.no/kostra/

Legal authority

Act concerning official statistics and the Central Bureau of Statistics (The Statistics Act) no 54 of June 16 1989, §§ 2-2, 3-2.

Act on social services in the Labour and Welfare Service no 131 of December 18 2009, § 8.

EEA reference

Not relevant

Production

Population

The statistics cover all recipients of economic social assistance. For recipients of economic social assistance the actual year the statistics also contains information about their sex, age, marital status and the number of children they (or their spouse) are accountable for.

Furthermore the statistics covers self reported information concerning the recipient’s main income source for life subsistence, other social security benefits, their relation to the labour market, and amount and duration of the economic social assistance.

From 1992 the statistics also contains information on what months they received support and the recipients' financial situation at their final contact with the municipal social service department (that year), for instance is he/she employed by government measures, receiving rehabilitation or on education?

From 1997 recipients with negative values are excluded from the statistics. This means that repayments are not counted; also see section 4.1 about Economic assistance.

Data sources and sampling

The data is gathered from municipal social service departments.

For collecting the data, the following forms from KOSTRA are used:

Schema 7 Man-years and activity in the municipal social services on December 31

Schema 12 Support rates economic social assistance

Schema 11 Registration form social assistance

All recipients of economic social assistance from every municipality are covered.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Data are collected annually via electronic schemes and electronic account files. If a municipality does not manage to deliver data for the current year, older data are used.

The response burden varies according to the number of recipients of economic social assistance in the municipality. No specific measurement of the burden is carried out.

Both automatic sum controls and comparisons with information from previous years are utilized. Municipalities are contacted in the event of missing data or discrepancies in the data.

After data delivery, the municipalities receive tables from Statistics Norway for control purposes. These tables show unrevised information about the number of recipients, duration of benefit and payment of social assistance. Data concerning recipients lacking information are also returned.

The main focus of the quality control is to ensure the reliability of the main figures in the statistics, e.g. number of recipients, payment of social assistance and duration of benefit.

At last there have been done some automatic corrections in the data such as this: recipients 67 years or older have all been given old age pension unless they are receiving complementary pension.

Benefit per case and per resident is calculated. It is also calculated how many residents (per 1 000) that receive economic social assistance.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant

Confidentiality

Figures are not given when based upon less than four units.

Comparability over time and space

Due to changes in the statistics from 1996 to 1997, comparisons made to earlier releases may be difficult. The changes include registration of the recipients' working situation, cohabiting couples and citizenship. Since 1997 the social assistance has been part of KOSTRA registration, but since the municipalities joined KOSTRA at different points of time, time series for all municipalities are not available.

In 1992 employees in the social services were separated from child welfare services, even if these in several municipalities are organized as one office. From 2001, when all the municipalities delivered data via KOSTRA, the registration has become more detailed and it now includes functions.

The act relating to benefits to recently arrived refugees and immigrants was introduced as a voluntary arrangement for the local authorities on September 1 2003, and as a compulsory arrangement on September 1 2004. As the benefit was introduced late in the year, the figures for 2003 and 2004 are not fully comparable with each other or previous years.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

It is difficult to disclose certain types of errors, for instance whether the number of clients and/or payments is too high or too low. The municipalities must themselves, based on the unrevised tables, make the errors known to Statistics Norway. There is also a possibility that some recipients are not covered or reported so called partial non-response.

In the data material there may be answers missing, inaccurate or contradictory information. This may also be the case after the final revision. Duplicates observations are removed. But due to the fact that not all of the recipients have a national identity number, the same client may occur on several occasions.

Figures concerning man-years are based on information from the municipality or the urban district. A possible major fault arises in connection with differentiating between social assistance and other services. This could be tasks relating to disabled people, refugees, abusers and young unemployed people. Registration errors may explain smaller changes from one year to another.

Partial defection may occur, see section 5.1.

Revision

Not relevant

Contact