Updated table will come later

Statistics bank table 08864 are until further notice not updated with figures for January 2024

Corrected figures

In table 2, the percentage change for group 8 is corrected 15 February 2024 at 12.25 pm. In table 1, the percentage change In group 0 has also been corrected 15 February 2024 at 15.45 pm. Please note that the figures in the statbank were correct at the time of publication.

External trade in goods

Updated: 15 February 2024

Modified: 15 Feb 2024, 15:45:00

Next update: 15 March 2024

Exports
Exports
January 2024
153.7
NOK Billion
External trade in goods
External trade in goods1
NOK billionChange in per cent
January 2024December 2023 - January 2024January 2023 - January 2024
Exports153.7-0.2-16.4
Crude oil43.3-2.1-3.2
Natural gas51.6-6.6-40.1
Ships and oil platforms0.0-100.0-100.0
Mainland exports58.58.611.9
Fish12.9-1.85.3
Imports80.85.26.3
Imports of ships and oil platforms3.6.200.8
The trade balance72.9-5.6-32.3
The mainland trade balance-18.718.317.1
1Due to the data collection method, the preliminary monthly figures published for ships and oil platforms are often incomplete. In retrospect, therefore, the trade in these goods could in some cases lead to major corrections in the figures. Please see tables 2-4 for the impact these figures have on the external trade.
Explanation of symbols

Selected tables and charts from this statistics

  • Imports of goods, main groups by SITC
    Imports of goods, main groups by SITC
    NOK MillionChange in per cent
    January 2023January 2024January 2023 - January 2024
    Total76 00080 7566.3
    Of this:
    Ships and oil platforms (partof SITC 793)1 1873 570200.8
    Imports excl. ships and oil platforms74 81377 1863.2
    0 Food and live animals5 8916 2906.8
    00 Live animals other than animals of div.031610-38.2
    01 Meat and meat preparations13417228.1
    02 Dairy products and birds' eggs18321014.7
    03 Fish, crustaceans, molluscs and prep. thereof1 025758-26.0
    04 Cereals and cereal preparations71687822.6
    05 Vegetables and fruit1 3541 51912.3
    06 Sugars, sugar prepatations and honey21326222.9
    07 Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices5846236.7
    08 Feeding stuff for animals (not cereals)1 0651 19211.9
    09 Miscellaneous edible products59966410.7
    1 Beverages and tobacco9631 0135.2
    11 Beverages6326716.2
    12 Tobacco and tobacco manufactures3313423.4
    2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels3 0034 97565.7
    21 Hides, skins and furskins, raw3570.7
    22 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits33248657.5
    23 Crude rubber106-33.8
    24 Wood, lumber and cork4124253.1
    25 Pulp and waste paper4297131.9
    26 Textile fibres and their waste13147.1
    27 Crude fertilizers and crude minerales38359154.5
    28 Metalliferous ores and metal scrap1 8633 33979.3
    29 Crude animal and vegetable materials2452501.9
    3 Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials8 3135 139-38.2
    32 Coal, coke and briquettes397373-6.1
    33 Petroleum, petroleum products6 3133 551-43.7
    334 Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (other than crude); preparations, n.e.s., containing by weight 70% or more of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparation4 0793 115-23.6
    34 Gas , natural and manufactured7914177.4
    342 Liquefied propane and butane728416.3
    35 Electric current1 5241 074-29.5
    4 Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes1 2051 068-11.3
    41 Animal oils and fats677527-22.2
    42 Fixed vegetable fats and oils, crude, refined or fractionated499461-7.5
    43 Animal or vegetable fats and oils, processed2980175.7
    5 Chemicals and related products n.e.s.9 3479 3830.4
    51 Organic chemicals1 0581 26319.3
    52 Inorganic chemicals1 2231 077-11.9
    53 Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials3283362.4
    54 Medicinal and pharmaceutical products2 3012 87124.8
    55 Essential oils and resinoids etc8711 12128.7
    56 Fertilizers638331-48.1
    57 Plastics in primary forms572508-11.2
    58 Plastics in non-primary forms6276310.7
    59 Chemical materials and products, n.e.s.1 7301 245-28.0
    6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material9 97810 1091.3
    61 Leather, leather manufactures, furskins424710.5
    62 Rubber manufactures, n.e.s.596509-14.5
    63 Cork and wood manufactures749688-8.1
    64 Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof890886-0.4
    65 Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles893795-11.0
    66 Non-metallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.983859-12.6
    67 Iron and steel1 9292 37823.3
    68 Non-ferrous metals82799420.3
    69 Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.3 0682 951-3.8
    7 Machinery and transport equipment26 91332 23719.8
    71 Power generating machinery and equipment9851 66969.6
    72 Machinery for special industries2 9422 661-9.6
    73 Metal working machinery21531144.8
    74 General industrial machinery and equipment3 9294 0332.7
    75 Office machines, data processing machines1 7343 34392.8
    76 Telecommunications apparatus and equipment3 0173 1895.7
    77 Electrical machinery and apparatus4 6575 0187.7
    78 Road vehicles7 2055 883-18.4
    781 Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons3 7952 392-37.0
    79 Other transport equipment including ships2 2306 130174.9
    8 Miscellaneous manufactured articles10 13710 4373.0
    81 Prefabricated buildings752653-13.3
    82 Furniture and parts thereof1 5011 398-6.9
    83 Travel goods, handbags etc.1982127.4
    84 Articles of apparel and accessories2 1872 2543.0
    85 Footwear725544-24.9
    87 Professional and scientific instruments1 6001 97723.5
    88 Photographic and optical goods29933411.7
    89 Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s2 8753 0666.7
    9 Other commodities and transactions249104-58.1
    91 Postal packages not classified according to kind00.
    93 Special transactions and commodities not classified according to kind17858-67.6
    96 Coin (other than gold coin), not being legal tender61-89.7
    97 Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold, ores and concentrates)6546-28.9
    Explanation of symbols
  • Exports of goods, main groups by SITC
    Exports of goods, main groups by SITC1
    NOK MillionChange in per cent
    January 2023January 2024January 2023 - January 2024
    Total183 768153 686-16.4
    Of this:
    Crude oil (part of SITC 333)44 77543 343-3.2
    Natural gas (SITC 343)86 08851 576-40.1
    Natural gas condensates (part of SITC 333))542232-57.2
    Ships and oil platforms (part of SITC 793)500-100.0
    Mainland exports52 31258 53611.9
    0 Food and live animals13 17613 8034.8
    00 Live animals other than animals of div.0395-41.8
    01 Meat and meat preparations263015.5
    02 Dairy products and birds' eggs1915-21.3
    03 Fish, crustaceans, molluscs and prep. thereof12 22412 8715.3
    04 Cereals and cereal preparations7470-5.0
    05 Vegetables and fruit2421-14.9
    06 Sugars, sugar prepatations and honey105-46.1
    07 Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices52543.2
    08 Feeding stuff for animals (not cereals)488432-11.3
    09 Miscellaneous edible products24929920.1
    1 Beverages and tobacco9185-6.4
    11 Beverages9084-7.4
    12 Tobacco and tobacco manufactures011 549.2
    2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels2 0682 2488.7
    21 Hides, skins and furskins, raw314956.2
    22 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits11137.7
    23 Crude rubber74-39.5
    24 Wood, lumber and cork43857431.1
    25 Pulp and waste paper3403719.0
    26 Textile fibres and their waste20228.6
    27 Crude fertilizers and crude minerales3893931.1
    28 Metalliferous ores and metal scrap802798-0.6
    29 Crude animal and vegetable materials3935-9.4
    3 Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials140 056105 406-24.7
    32 Coal, coke and briquettes21-31.6
    33 Petroleum, petroleum products49 85549 698-0.3
    334 Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (other than crude); preparations, n.e.s., containing by weight 70% or more of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparation4 5036 06834.8
    34 Gas , natural and manufactured87 36153 990-38.2
    342 Liquefied propane and butane1 1392 25998.3
    35 Electric current2 8381 716-39.5
    4 Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes4474521.0
    41 Animal oils and fats238228-4.0
    42 Fixed vegetable fats and oils, crude, refined or fractionated7470-5.9
    43 Animal or vegetable fats and oils, processed13515413.5
    5 Chemicals and related products n.e.s.6 8577 1794.7
    51 Organic chemicals1 4781 374-7.0
    52 Inorganic chemicals1 2731 040-18.3
    53 Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials211186-11.5
    54 Medicinal and pharmaceutical products9021 34248.8
    55 Essential oils and resinoids etc18623827.8
    56 Fertilizers2 :::
    57 Plastics in primary forms781730-6.6
    58 Plastics in non-primary forms1681690.9
    59 Chemical materials and products, n.e.s.1 8602 10113.0
    6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material10 25511 1198.4
    61 Leather, leather manufactures, furskins81247.3
    62 Rubber manufactures, n.e.s.10198-3.0
    63 Cork and wood manufactures217187-13.8
    64 Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof709547-22.9
    65 Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles21524514.0
    66 Non-metallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.20123416.5
    67 Iron and steel1 5431 79516.4
    68 Non-ferrous metals6 3697 14412.2
    69 Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.892857-3.9
    7 Machinery and transport equipment8 0579 86522.5
    71 Power generating machinery and equipment860836-2.9
    72 Machinery for special industries1 3101 221-6.8
    73 Metal working machinery7010348.0
    74 General industrial machinery and equipment1 4212 48775.0
    75 Office machines, data processing machines46853614.5
    76 Telecommunications apparatus and equipment60572820.4
    77 Electrical machinery and apparatus1 7652 06917.2
    78 Road vehicles1 1501 2256.5
    79 Other transport equipment including ships40766062.1
    8 Miscellaneous manufactured articles2 6763 39726.9
    81 Prefabricated buildings223209-5.9
    82 Furniture and parts thereof2882993.9
    83 Travel goods, handbags etc.2321-9.7
    84 Articles of apparel and accessories2452699.6
    85 Footwear72743.5
    87 Professional and scientific instruments1 0481 52145.2
    88 Photographic and optical goods3330-7.6
    89 Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s74597330.7
    9 Other commodities and transactions8613254.2
    91 Postal packages not classified according to kind00.
    93 Special transactions and commodities not classified according to kind3430.7
    96 Coin (other than gold coin), not being legal tender0034.9
    97 Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold, ores and concentrates)8212855.2
    1Standard International Trade Classification, Revision 4 (SITC, Rev. 4)
    2Due to confidentiality in commodity group 56, this group can not be published separately. This group is included in group 59.
    The percentage change for group 8 is corrected 15 February 2024 at 12.25 p.m.
    Explanation of symbols
  • Mainland exports by county of production, commodity groups by the SITC. Year. NOK million
    Mainland exports by county of production, commodity groups by the SITC. Year. NOK million1 2
    2023
    Total mainland exportsDistribution by the SITC
    Food, beverages and tobacco (SITC 0 and 1)Fish (subgroup 03 of SITC 0)Crude materials except fuels (SITC 2 and 4)Fuels (SITC 3)Chemicals and related products n.e.s (SITC 5)Manufactured goods (SITC 6)Machinery and transport equipment (SITC 7)Miscellanous manufactured articles (SITC 8)
    The whole country707 013179 636165 34634 486115 88783 135133 391116 40544 073
    County of production
    Viken (2020-2023)45 1683 0193574 9065314 5066 44110 5285 715
    Oslo17 1551 2093811 47257 5481 1834 3511 388
    Innlandet16 2478745961 891196632 8345 7824 183
    Agder51 45193384084719 12435 6604 454433
    Rogaland53 7028 8037 4393 59916 7681 61715 0085 9461 961
    Vestland135 39733 25431 8083 05167 7871 95822 0785 7781 490
    Møre og Romsdal61 35133 05730 2982 940893 21914 1595 6022 285
    Trøndelag - Trööndelage44 99028 53327 7252 117416 6364 0311 7501 881
    Nordland - Nordlánnda50 92028 97328 6592 9670:12 082:82
    Troms og Finnmark - Romsa ja Finnmárku (2020-2023)29 29126 68625 587463757361 2179239
    Svalbard000000000
    Jan Mayen000000000
    Norwegian goods produced in several counties44 7678 5858 5226 83327 367424159959441
    Re-exports of goods produced abroad3 91 6782 6579711 2862 5423 8899 17954 50717 618
    County not stated4 19 6022 7092 137809179562 4188 6684 025
    1
    2Standard International Trade Classification, Revision 4 (SITC, Rev. 4
    3County of production is defined as the county for the major value added. When the exports consists of a mix of goods from different counties, and the county of production is hard to state, the definition Norwegian goods produced in several counties is used. In the case when the value of an imported intermediate good is more than doubled, the good is considered as produced in Norway. In the opposite it is considered as exports of goods produced abroad.
    4County not stated implies no information about county of production is available.
    Explanation of symbols
  • Imports and exports of goods, by trade areas, continents and selected countries. Year. NOK Million
    Imports and exports of goods, by trade areas, continents and selected countries. Year. NOK Million1
    ExportsImportsTrade balance
    202320232023
    Total1 872 7261 023 372849 354
    Trade areas
    Nordic countries313 148190 811122 337
    EFTA15 60214 4191 183
    EU1 1 264 814569 716695 098
    OECD1 638 391630 5851 007 806
    Developing countries113 942226 960-113 018
    LDC - least developed countries2 5387 466-4 928
    Continents and countries
    Europe1 659 826648 8411 010 986
    Belgium103 74721 66782 080
    Denmark93 47747 69745 780
    Estonia2 4837 089-4 606
    Finland62 22125 58936 632
    France111 06829 07981 988
    Greece6 7061 9424 763
    Ireland6 7235 3171 405
    Iceland11 1344 4246 710
    Italy31 60031 757-157
    Lithuania17 00912 8004 209
    Netherlands155 89148 912106 980
    Poland113 58536 82076 765
    Portugal8 9963 9105 086
    Romania6 3515 479872
    Russia1 7953 046-1 251
    Slovakia1 8263 953-2 126
    Spain24 97622 2952 681
    United Kingdom356 68145 879310 802
    Switzerland4 4639 903-5 439
    Sweden144 472110 67033 802
    Czech Republic3 49613 380-9 884
    Türkiye11 8949 7732 120
    Germany355 854116 183239 670
    Hungary3 0515 621-2 570
    Austria4 1237 935-3 812
    Other countries in Europe16 20417 721-1 517
    Asia103 018210 075-107 056
    Hong Kong3 1061 2921 814
    India4 5818 772-4 191
    Japan9 71717 914-8 197
    China37 464114 099-76 635
    Malaysia2 1295 192-3 064
    Singapore4 4309 343-4 913
    South Korea13 2637 8545 410
    Taiwan3 6007 231-3 631
    Thailand4 7366 248-1 512
    Vietnam3 50510 017-6 512
    Other countries in Asia16 48722 113-5 626
    Northern, Central America and the Caribbean71 341111 111-39 770
    Canada6 19623 435-17 239
    United States60 12377 772-17 649
    Other countries in North- and Central America5 0229 904-4 882
    South America12 19632 957-20 761
    Brazil8 55520 947-12 392
    Chile1 9504 468-2 517
    Peru2271 747-1 520
    Other countries in South-America1 4645 795-4 332
    Africa22 56516 3766 189
    Angola1 109111998
    Botswana0130-130
    South Africa1 0024 609-3 607
    Other countries in Africa20 45411 5268 928
    Oceania3 7794 012-234
    Australia3 2582 967292
    New Zealand291457-166
    Other countries in Oceania230588-358
    1Figures for EU is without Great Britain from February 2020 on.
    Explanation of symbols
  • Imports and exports of goods (imports excl. ships and oil platforms and mainland exports), by trade areas, continents and selected countries. Year. NOK Million
    Imports and exports of goods (imports excl. ships and oil platforms and mainland exports), by trade areas, continents and selected countries. Year. NOK Million
    Mainland exportsImports excluding ships and oil platformsTrade balance
    202320232023
    Total707 0131 014 108-307 095
    Trade areas
    Nordic countries139 643190 039-50 395
    EFTA15 59914 3131 286
    EU1 412 692568 042-155 350
    OECD490 963628 944-137 981
    Developing countries102 850225 764-122 913
    LDC - least developed countries2 5387 466-4 928
    Continents and countries
    Europe506 280646 166-139 886
    Belgium22 29921 667632
    Denmark41 12647 316-6 190
    Estonia2 4837 089-4 606
    Finland11 04725 579-14 532
    France22 62329 079-6 457
    Greece1 8511 735117
    Ireland6 7235 2391 484
    Iceland11 1314 3186 812
    Italy15 52731 757-16 230
    Lithuania7 19512 800-5 606
    Netherlands70 46948 88921 580
    Poland33 21136 820-3 609
    Portugal7 3983 8423 556
    Romania2 5495 479-2 931
    Russia1 7953 046-1 251
    Slovakia1 8263 953-2 126
    Spain18 59622 295-3 698
    United Kingdom59 52145 77113 750
    Switzerland4 4639 903-5 439
    Sweden74 504110 633-36 129
    Czech Republic3 49613 380-9 884
    Türkiye8 0409 153-1 113
    Germany57 343116 181-58 839
    Hungary3 0515 621-2 570
    Austria4 1237 935-3 812
    Other countries in Europe13 89016 686-2 796
    Asia94 428204 463-110 035
    Hong Kong2 6861 2921 395
    India4 5818 772-4 191
    Japan9 71717 308-7 591
    China30 775114 099-83 324
    Malaysia2 1295 192-3 064
    Singapore4 4304 33793
    South Korea12 6217 8544 767
    Taiwan2 7617 231-4 470
    Thailand4 7366 248-1 512
    Vietnam3 50510 017-6 512
    Other countries in Asia16 48722 113-5 626
    Northern, Central America and the Caribbean67 925110 773-42 848
    Canada5 09723 168-18 071
    United States58 35777 772-19 416
    Other countries in North- and Central America4 4719 833-5 362
    South America12 03632 898-20 862
    Brazil8 55520 947-12 392
    Chile1 7904 409-2 619
    Peru2271 747-1 520
    Other countries in South America1 4645 795-4 331
    Africa22 56516 3766 189
    Angola1 109111998
    Botswana0130-130
    South Africa1 0024 609-3 607
    Other countries in Africa6 13011 5268 928
    Oceania3 7793 432346
    Australia3 2582 967292
    New Zealand291457-166
    Other countries in Oceania2308222
    1Figures for EU is without Great Britain from February 2020 on.
    Explanation of symbols
  • Export of fish, by species. Year
    Export of fish, by species. Year1
    Million NOKChange in per cent
    202220232022 - 2023
    Total146 492165 34612.9
    Salmon2 105 622122 31215.8
    Cod12 26812 2720.0
    Herring3 8934 0534.1
    Mackerel6 2686 6616.3
    Coalfish3 6363 9618.9
    Haddock1 9741 704-13.7
    Trout5 0145 4959.6
    Shrimps3 :::
    Halibut1 2341 41814.9
    Ling41245710.9
    Cusk23030633.0
    Redfish55678841.7
    Other fish2 4912 6245.3
    Other crustacean/ mollusc2 8933 29513.9
    1Within the SITC classification group 03 'Fish, crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates', Statistics Norway has grouped everything by species based on the product groups in the HS nomenclature. Some discrepancies may occur since not all product groups are specified by species. The group 'Other fish' is the sum of the remaining product groups under SITC 03.
    2Salmon contains more than the weekly figures of exports of salmon, fillets and other prepared salmon is also included.
    3Due to confidentiality in group “Shrimps” from 2013 on, exports in this group can not be published separately. This group is therefore included in commodity group “Other crustaceous animals except shrimps and mollusk”.
    Explanation of symbols
  • First revision of yearly figures of imports and exports. Commodity groups by SITC
    First revision of yearly figures of imports and exports. Commodity groups by SITC1
    ImportsExports
    NOK MillionChange in per centNOK MillionChange in per cent
    2022
    TOTAL
    Of which:1 030 5951.22 631 6701.2
    Crude oil5 81737.9555 6171.3
    Natural gas, whether or not liquefied4940.01 378 1401.6
    Natural gas condensates1563.44 5146.6
    Ships and oil platforms9 0955.88 5416.7
    Goods excl. ships and oil platforms1 021 5000.32 6231.2
    Mainland exports..684 8580.2
    0 Food and live animals67 0120.0157 7980.0
    00 Live animals other than animals of div.033580.0850.0
    01 Meat and meat preparations2 1210.03240.0
    02 Dairy products and birds' eggs2 193-0.18760.0
    03 Fish, crustaceans, molluscs and prep. thereof5 4640.0146 4920.0
    04 Cereals and cereal preparations8 2190.07280.0
    05 Vegetables and fruit15 5280.0226-0.4
    06 Sugars, sugar prepatations and honey2 2590.0640.0
    07 Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices5 9600.04840.0
    08 Feeding stuff for animals (not cereals)18 4120.25 8545.6
    09 Miscellaneous edible products6 4990.02 664-6.1
    1 Beverages and tobacco14 5170.01 1530.0
    11 Beverages9 7670.01 1220.0
    12 Tobacco and tobacco manufactures4 7510.0310.0
    2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels74 6740.027 3450.0
    21 Hides, skins and furskins, raw470.03010.0
    22 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits2 9750.070.0
    23 Crude rubber1930.0540.0
    24 Wood, lumber and cork7 2520.06 1720.0
    25 Pulp and waste paper6450.04 0680.0
    26 Textile fibres and their waste182-0.2256-0.1
    27 Crude fertilizers and crude minerales6 0610.05 262-0.1
    28 Metalliferous ores and metal scrap53 5590.010 7740.0
    29 Crude animal and vegetable materials3 7600.0451-0.2
    3 Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials110 4381.42 079 9511.4
    32 Coal, coke and briquettes5 728-2.6103821.3
    33 Petroleum, petroleum products80 2942.1632 7521.2
    334 Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (other than crude); preparations, n.e.s., containing by weight 70% or more of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparation68 0130.071 9500.0
    34 Gas , natural and manufactured2 2830.01 402 3301.6
    342 Liquefied propane and butane1 7780.021 8270.5
    35 Electric current22 1330.044 7660.0
    4 Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes15 6820.14 5490.0
    41 Animal oils and fats5 8760.02 2860.4
    42 Fixed vegetable fats and oils, crude, refined or fractionated8 6900.29010.0
    43 Animal or vegetable fats and oils, processed1 1160.01 362-0.5
    5 Chemicals and related products n.e.s.114 6750.085 9900.0
    51 Organic chemicals13 6140.015 1660.0
    52 Inorganic chemicals13 3260.016 6710.5
    53 Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials4 5690.02 3420.0
    54 Medicinal and pharmaceutical products30 8160.08 9420.0
    55 Essential oils and resinoids etc10 5420.52 5070.0
    56 Fertilizers2 7 4250.0::
    57 Plastics in primary forms7 916-0.38 6700.0
    58 Plastics in non-primary forms8 756-0.22 2440.0
    59 Chemical materials and products, n.e.s.17 7100.08 342-0.4
    6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material132 9920.0143 2740.6
    61 Leather, leather manufactures, furskins700-0.11550.0
    62 Rubber manufactures, n.e.s.8 0090.0959-0.5
    63 Cork and wood manufactures10 3690.02 3610.0
    64 Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof10 3990.08 3110.3
    65 Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles11 008-0.12 4120.0
    66 Non-metallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.13 117-0.12 392-0.1
    67 Iron and steel21 3500.023 5093.5
    68 Non-ferrous metals15 1040.092 6600.0
    69 Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.42 9360.010 5150.0
    7 Machinery and transport equipment363 1860.794 9110.9
    71 Power generating machinery and equipment14 118-0.18 1860.0
    72 Machinery for special industries32 276-0.111 808-0.2
    73 Metal working machinery2 260-0.15840.0
    74 General industrial machinery and equipment43 938-0.217 293-0.1
    75 Office machines, data processing machines23 745-0.14 7470.1
    76 Telecommunications apparatus and equipment34 505-0.37 0960.0
    77 Electrical machinery and apparatus58 143-0.119 947-0.1
    78 Road vehicles122 5330.011 511-0.2
    79 Other transport equipment including ships31 6699.513 7377.0
    8 Miscellaneous manufactured articles135 904-0.135 1750.6
    81 Prefabricated buildings11 6700.01 854-0.2
    82 Furniture and parts thereof20 802-0.14 010-0.9
    83 Travel goods, handbags etc.2 695-0.12181.5
    84 Articles of apparel and accessories28 660-0.12 3493.7
    85 Footwear8 058-0.16423.2
    87 Professional and scientific instruments21 000-0.513 5970.0
    88 Photographic and optical goods4 233-0.23380.1
    89 Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s38 7860.112 1671.3
    9 Other commodities and transactions1 5150.01 5250.0
    91 Postal packages not classified according to kind00.000.0
    93 Special transactions and commodities not classified according to kind6370.0190.0
    96 Coin (other than gold coin), not being legal tender51-0.2150.0
    97 Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold, ores and concentrates)8260.01 4900.0
    1
    2Due to confidentiality commodity group 56 is included in commodity group 59.
    Explanation of symbols

Norwegian import and export - all countries and commodity numbers 1988-2022. 

Complete datasets corresponding to Statbank table 08801 for download as CSV.

About the statistics

The external trade statistics comprise the development in Norway's trade with other countries in terms of value and volume figures. Aggregated as well as detailed imports and exports figures between Norway and partner countries, trade regions and continents are provided.

Imports and exports
Imports comprise mainly foreign manufactured goods entering Norway. This can also include re-importation of originally Norwegian-produced goods and processed goods. Exports comprise domestically produced goods sent out of Norway, i.e. the Norwegian statistical territory as defined in Section of population. Also included are reexportation of originally foreign-produced goods and processed goods.

Trade in goods is based on the physical movement of goods across borders, but for some items, such as ships, oil platforms and aircraft, trading often takes place without the occurrence of such movement. Whether there has been an import or export of such goods is therefore determined based on whether a change in economic ownership has taken place cf. also described in the Section of population. Economic ownership is defined as the person entitled to claim the economic benefit and who has the legal responsibility for the risk of the item.

Mainland exports
As from March 2013, the statistics on external trade in goods will use the term mainland exports on the exportation of goods other than crude oil, natural gas, natural gas condensates, ships and oil platforms. Previously, we also used the term traditional goods for these exports, as well as for imports excluding ships and oil platforms. (Balance of payments and the research department still use the term traditional goods. The balance of payments also includes items such as naphtha, propane and butane in its collective term crude oil and natural gas, external trade in goods does not.)

Country
Country of origin is used for imports. With regard to exports, the country of destination is used.

For raw materials, the country of origin is determined according to where the goods are produced. For manufactured goods (processed and refined goods), this is the country in which the goods have obtained the form they have at the time of import. The country of destination is defined as the country, which, on the date of export, is the last known country for which the goods are intended.

For more specific principles in relation to country of origin, the rule for ships, aircraft and oil platforms is that country of origin is the country that previously owned the goods (economic ownership). For Norwegian-produced goods sold abroad and subsequently bought in Norway, the country from which the goods are imported shall be given as the country of origin (manufacturing country).

Mode of transport
Mode of transport is defined as the means of transportation used when goods cross the border, either by import or export (in the Database for Standard Classifications there is a detailed description of mode of transport).

Quantity
For most goods, the quantity is expressed in kilograms (weight excluding packaging), except for ships and electricity, which are measured by gross tonnes and kWh respectively. However, for many goods, the quantity is also available in a different unit of measurement, such as pieces, barrels, cubic metres, carat, litres, pairs etc.

Statistical value
Statistical value is the value when crossing the Norwegian border. Duties, VAT and other taxes are not included in the statistical value.

Upon import, the value should be set to the CIF (Cost Insurance Freight) value, i.e. the value of the goods at the Norwegian border, including the costs associated with the delivery of goods to the border, transport costs and insurance. Similarly, for exports it is the value at the Norwegian border, including the costs associated with transporting it there, called FOB (Free On Board) value. CIF and FOB are two types of delivery terms called Incoterms. The delivery terms are an agreement between buyer and seller as to who bears the risk, responsibility and cost of transportation of the goods to the agreed place. In the Database for Standard Classifications there is an overview of the different delivery terms.

For crude oil exported by ship directly from installations on the Norwegian continental shelf, the value upon departure from the installation is used. In the case of crude oil and natural gas that is piped abroad, this value is determined based onon when it leaves the Norwegian continental shelf. The value of transport in international waters and into a terminal abroad is regarded as export of services.

The statistical value of exports and imports of ships is the transfer value including takeover of debt. With regard toto fish landed abroad (exported) by Norwegian vessels and caught outside the Norwegian customs border, the statistical value is the value of the fish paid to the fishing operator upon the sale of stock (minus the sales organisation fee).

County of production
The county of production is defined as the county in which the added value is greatest.

Classification of goods
The classification by HS (the international customs and statistics nomenclature, the Harmonized System) is a 6-digit grouping of goods organised primarily according to the material characteristics of goods at the time of crossing the border. Only in exceptional cases is the later use of the goods of any significance to the classification. The WCO (World Customs Organization) is responsible for this nomenclature.

The Norwegian customs tariff is based on the HS, but has two more digits, which are national codes. The 7th digit reflects national customs divisions/tariff rates (bound in the WTO - World Trade Organization). The 8th digit is used to cover the national statistical needs and and among others the interests of the Norwegian Agricultural Authority and Ministry of Foreign Affairs interests with regard to import and export regulations. In some cases, the 8th digit is also used to distinguish between goods subject to duties and/or fees. The Norwegian version is published annually on our website along with a text version of the nomenclature developed by Statistics Norway. The detailed commodity list, which includes all commodity numbers, also provides information about the validity of each commodity number.

Due to technological developments and changes in international trade, the HS nomenclature is normally updated every 5 years – with the most recent implementation on 1 January 2012. In addition, minor changes are made in the Norwegian customs tariff every year. The EU also uses the nomenclature of the HS in its publication of foreign trade figures. However, the EU version (available at Eurostat's website); the Combined Nomenclature (CN) - which also has eight digits - is more detailed than the Norwegian version. As mentioned previously, only the first 6 digits are common internationally.

When publishing external trade figures, the UN Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) is mainly used. Here the goods are grouped by level of processing (raw materials, semi-finished and finished goods). As from 1988 to 2006, the SITC-Rev.3 (unstats.un.org) is used, but as of 2007 the SITC-Rev. 4 (available at unstats.un.org as PDF) is used.

The classification BEC (Broad Economic Categories) (at unstats.un.org); the UN classification of commodities by end use, which is based on the SITC, is also used to some extent. This classification is not considered to be a "standard classification" in the same way as for example the SITC, and it is officially acknowledged that countries may have their own version of this grouping in order to satisfy national needs. The Norwegian version of this classification can be found in the Database for Standard Classifications.

The various nomenclatures are listed on the UN’s website, as well as correspondence tables between the different nomenclatures HS, SITC and BEC and their different versions.

The product classification CPA divides goods by industry group, and in external trade we use extracts from this. CPA (Statistical Classification of Productivity by Activity in the European Community) is the EU's central Product by Activity classification. It is a product group that is closely linked to industry, i.e. distinctive products within each activity can be linked to the activity classification NACE Rev.2.

Grouping by country
The Norwegian list of countries used follows the international standard ISO-3166. EU countries use the same standard, except for some deviations of less importance.

In the external trade publications these country groupings are frequently used:

  • Nordic countries - trade with Sweden, Denmark, Greenland, Faroe Islands, Finland, Åland and Iceland
  • EFTA - trade with Iceland, Switzerland and Liechtenstein
  • EU – in the Database for standard classifications current member states at any given time is available
  • OECD - for current member states at any given time see the OECD's website
  • Developing countries – as from 2007, the figures are according to the OECD’s DAC (DAC stands for Development Assistance Committee) for definitions of countries at any given time that are recognised as recipients of official foreign aid. The DAC list also includes a section on LDCs (Least Developed Countries - defined by the UN) - which we also use in the statistics.
    (Until 2006, these countries were defined as developing countries in the Norwegian trade statistics: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), Croatia, Macedonia, Malta, Slovenia - Africa except South Africa - Asia excluding Japan, North and South America except USA, Canada and Greenland - Oceania except Australia and New Zealand.)

Name: External trade in goods
Topic: External economy

15 March 2024

Division for External Trade Statistics

Statistics on imports and exports of goods are published at country level. Export figures are also given by county of production.

Monthly figures are released on the 15th of the month after the observation period (the previous month), or the first subsequent working day. With every new release, all the previous monthly figures are updated in every publication.

For more information about Revisions, please see Accuracy and Reliability.

Reports are sent to the EU statistical office (Eurostat), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization (WTO), International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the United Nations (UN).

Non-revised and revised micro data are stored in accordance with Statistics Norway's guidelines for storing computer files (DataDok).

The purpose of the external trade statistics is to provide information about the commodity flows between Norway and other countries. Exports and imports are important economic indicators both in describing structural changes and in monitoring the economic trends. The monthly statistics of external trade in goods have been published since 1913 (value figures were published for the first time in 1866).

With regard to essential changes in the statistics, the commodity classification in line with the Harmonised System that was introduced in 1988 entailed a comprehensive restructuring of the distribution at a detailed level in relation to the earlier CCCN nomenclature (the Customs Cooperation Council Nomenclature).

The statistics are mainly financed from State assignments, but also rely to some extent on market income.

The external trade statistics are a part of the national and international statistical system, and are used in the compilation of the national accounts and the balance of payment statistics in Statistics Norway. The statistics are aimed at covering the business sector’s need for data in this area for their planning of production, marketing and sales.

The statistics are also intended for prognoses and analyses performed by public authorities, research institutions and private organisations. International organisations such as the UN´s statistical office, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the statistical office of the EU (Eurostat) and others make use of the information provided in the external trade statistics.

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.

The figures for external trade statistics are an important part of the quarterly balance of payments and national accounts and the annual national accounts.

The balance of payments also collects estimates of trade in goods which are transported directly from abroad to the Norwegian continental shelf, imports of fuel and other oil products to Norwegian ships, aircraft and units abroad. Moreover the external account interprets some of the goods from the external trade statistics in goods as a service, such as computer games, software and licenses.

In the publication of the figures for external trade we give figures for crude oil, natural gas and condensates, while the balance of payments use the collective term “crude oil and natural gas”. Terms in foreign accounts also encompass items such as naphtha, propane and butane, while the external trade statistics do not.

In addition to the statistics mentioned, external trade figures are included in many of the other statistics published by Statistics Norway, for example:

Mirror statistics
Mirror statistics, in the context of external trade statistics, refer to a comparison between the statistics of two or more countries: exports of goods from one country should in principle equal the imports of the same goods in the partner country.

However, discrepancies are often identified in these figures for several reasons. Although there are international guidelines for the production of external trade statistics, there may still be differences in what the countries include. An example is differences in the usage of statistical trade systems, general or special trade, which causes delimitations to the statistics content. Countries may also have different methods for data collecting and processing, which can create distortions. Furthermore, some countries collect data from customs authorities and others directly from companies.

Basically, there should be a certain difference in value between the countries, as the exporting country provides the FOB-value while the importing country in addition to this adds costs for insurance and freight all the way to the location of delivery, the CIF-value (see Definitions). Some countries collect data from customs authorities, others directly from companies. A common source of error between countries is caused by different information about which is the country of destination. Different threshold-values for inclusion of data can also create distortions, f.ex. in Norwegian external trade statistics, declarations with value less than NOK 1 000 are excluded from the import statistics. Other countries may have other delimitations. Different practise of confidentiality and demands for confidentiality, inaccurate definitions of certain commodities as well as conscious and unconscious misuse of codes can lead to use of different classification codes between countries.

From a Norwegian point of view, there is a need for comparing external trade data with the corresponding statistics of our main trading partners, principally European countries. It is in this context important to have knowledge of the rules practiced by the individual partners.

The Statistical Office of the European Union, Eurostat, publishes external trade data for EU countries, totally for the Union and separate for each member country. This statistics are produced according to EU regulations, which defines external trade as trade between the European Union trade and third countries. As a consequence of this, exports to countries in the EU from a non EU-member state are recorded as imported to EU in the first country where the goods cross the borders of the European Union. When forwarding the goods to the country of destination, the good is recorded as an item dispatched from the EU-country that first received the goods. Information about the country of origin of the commodity is not included in the records. Several of the EU-countries publishes in addition to the data presented in the Eurostat database, Comext, separately external trade statistics produced after national methodology. For information about this, consult Eurostat's annual report: Quality report on International trade statistics.

EU regulations incorporated into the EEA agreement comprise contractual obligations pursuant toto EC regulations onon data collection and distribution of data to the EU’s statistical office, Eurostat. The current regulations are as follows:

Commission Regulation (EU) No. 92/2010 of 2 February 2010 implementing Regulation (EC) No. 471/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Community statistics relating to external trade with non-member countries, as regards data exchange between customs authorities and national statistical authorities, compilation of statistics and quality assessment

Commission Regulation (EU) No. 113/2010 of 9 February 2010 implementing Regulation (EC) No. 471/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Community statistics relating to external trade with non-member countries, as regards trade coverage, definition of the data, compilation of statistics on trade by business characteristics and by invoicing currency, and specific goods or movements

Commission Regulation (EU) No. 1106/2012 of 27 November 2012 implementing Regulation (EC) No. 471/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Community statistics relating to external trade with non-member countries, as regards the update of the nomenclature of countries and territories

Statistics area and the economic territory
The scope of foreign trade statistics is based on international guidelines from the United Nations Statistical Commission.

The general recommendation is that the statistics should include all goods which add to or subtract from the stock of material resources of a country by entering (imports) or leaving (exports) its economic territory. In addition to the geographical dimension, a country's economic territory also includes ships, aircraft and oil platforms owned by national corporations. These are goods that are not necessarily located within the geographic area, but are still viewed as part of the material resources of a country. For these goods external trade is measured by the change of economic ownership.

There are two different statistical trade systems - the general trade system and the special trade system. UN recommends using the general trade system where a country's statistical area coincides with its economic territory. This implies that goods are recorded at the time they enter or leave the economic territory. The special trade system is used when the statistical area covers only a part of the economic territory. Statistics Norway follows, with a few exceptions, the general trade system.

The Norwegian economic territory consists of mainland Norway, Svalbard, Jan Mayen, Norwegian dependencies, territorial waters, including the airspace above these, the economic zone, the Norwegian part of the continental shelf, territorial enclaves abroad (embassies, consulates, military bases, research stations) and Norwegian ships, aircraft and oil platforms.

External trade statistics is mainly based on information drawn from customs declarations. However, the responsible area of the customs authorities only covers mainland Norway and its territorial waters. As a supplement, data on important trade in goods to and from the remaining areas of the economic territory are collected directly from respondents and registers.

The following are defined as statistical area:

Mainland Norway and its territorial waters
Customs declarations contain information on physical flows of goods crossing the customs border. Imports and export that are exempted from ordinary declaration are referred to in the Customs Act §§ 4-10 and 4-11. According to the recommendations from the UN, some flows of goods should be excluded from the statistics. This includes trade in Norwegian goods between the customs area and other parts of the Norwegian economic territory. To the extent possible, trade in foreign goods to and from foreign enclaves, ships, aircraft and oil platforms located in Norway are omitted. To distinguish this type of transactions customs procedure codes from the declarations are used. In general, trade transactions are recorded at the time when the goods enter or leave the customs territory. However there are some exceptions, cf. the treatment of goods in customs warehouses.

There are four different types of customs warehouses. Goods waiting on declearance,can be stored in either a general or a central warehouse. For imports the time of recording is set when the goods are taken out of the warehouse and not when they arrived in the economic territory. This means that the statistical processing of these data follows the special trade principle. However, in practice the time difference between storage and withdrawals from warehouses is usually so small that the statistical processing is considered to be approximately equal to the general trade principle. For the remaining two types of customs warehouse; duty free and storage for further processing, the statistical treatment is according to the general trade system.

Customs declarations of exports and imports of electric current do not provide enough information for statistical purposes, and data is therefore obtained directly from the respondent.

Svalbard and Jan Mayen
Import transported through the Norwegian mainland to Svalbard and Jan Mayen should be declared by customs. Data on exports of coal transported directly from Svalbard are collected directly from the respondents.

The Norwegian part of the continental shelf
Imports via the Norwegian mainland to Norwegian owned installations and vessels that operate on the continental shelf should be declared by customs. Exports of crude oil and natural gas delivered directly from the continental shelf are based on data from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate and the different operators.

Norwegian owned ships, aircraft and oil platforms
Exports and imports of ships, aircraft and oil platforms are based on information from Norwegian ship registers as well as from different respondents. Export of Norwegian goods (excluding bunkers) to foreign ships and aircraft in Norwegian ports and airports are covered by customs declarations.

Data on exports of fish caught by Norwegian fishing vessels outside the customs area and landed abroad is obtained from the Directorate of Fisheries.

In accordance with the UN recommendations the following trade in goods are not included in the statistics:

  • Goods in transit, ie goods attending the Norwegian economic territory to be directly transported to a recipient outside this area
  • Goods traded through intermediate trade, ie goods transported between two foreign countries without entering the Norwegian economic territory
  • Goods physically crossing the country border, but defined as a service (including newspaper subscriptions, accompanied baggage, household goods)
  • Content delivered electronically (including e-books, downloadable games, etc.), defined purely as a service
  • Issued banknotes, securities and monetary gold
  • Samples, gifts and promotional material etc. with a low value
  • Goods for repair or return after repair
  • Goods in unaltered condition in return to vendor (claims etc.) and waste containers, replacement deliveries and free repairs (warranty)
  • Items for temporary use, that are returned within 12 months (exhibition, demonstration, scientific research, loan, professional equipment, transport vehicles in international traffic, containers, equipment in use for the press, radio and television equipment, etc.)
  • Change in ownership of non-financial assets
  • Goods that are damaged on the journey to and from the Norwegian economic territory
  • Satellites equipment moved to and launched in other countries without any change of ownership
  • Goods functioning as means of transport (ship, aircraft, packaging, etc.
  • Waste and scrap without any commercial value

Furthermore goods totalling less than NOK 1 000 are omitted, these goods amounts to less than one per cent of the import and about 0.04 per cent of the export. Imports of goods for less than NOK 200 and exports of goods less than NOK 5.000 (except from goods that are subject to taxes and restrictions) are not subject to declaration by the Customs.

The statistics are mainly based on administrative information obtained from TVINN, which is the Norwegian Customs’ electronic information system for the exchange of customs declarations between businesses and Norwegian Customs. Some data is, however, obtained from other sources, and more information on this can be found in the paragraph on data collection.

Sampling is not not relevant as external trade is a total count of the goods defined in the population.

Data collection

The vast majority of the data is, as mentioned, collected through the Customs’ TVINN register and transmitted electronically to Statistics Norway. However, some additional data, as shown below, is obtained separately.

Exports of crude oil and natural gas in gaseous state
Preliminary and final figures for exported volumes of crude oil and natural gas in gaseous state are collected through monthly reports from the operators and the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The prices, however, are obtained via various sources depending on whether they relate to crude oil or natural gas, and whether the data is being collected to compile preliminary or final figures.

From 2013 on, the development in the in gas prices from the producer price index (PPI) used to calculate the preliminary gas prices for foreign trade, while the level will be based on the value determined from the last registered price. PPI obtain figures for natural gas from different open sources for gas prices in the European market.

Preliminary oil prices are based on the reference price of Brent Blend for the current month.

For crude oil, the final prices: quarterly surveys from the licensees, as well as information from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy and the operators.

For natural gas, final prices: a quarterly average price based on information from a selection of licensees and operators was used until 2019. From 2020 on we have monthly prices also for these figures.

Due to insufficient information about country of destination there are from 2013 on changes in the dissemination of the figures of exports of natural gas in gaseous state. From 2013, country of destination according to these figures will be based on the landing point of the pipelines with natural gas from the Norwegian continental shelf.

Exports of crude oil in pipelines to Great Britain
All exports of Norwegian crude oil that are transported by pipeline to Teeside are registered in the official statistics with the UK as the country of destination. The ownership is Norwegian until the oil is processed in Great Britain, but because a commodity is registered as exported when it physically has crossed the Norwegian border.
After this unstabilized crude oil has gone through a fractionation process, where it is separated into the components of stabilized crude oil, ethane, propane and butane, it is shipped onwards, thus giving a new country distribution. Crude oil has to be stabilized in order to be transported by ship.
Only those shipments regarded as genuine importation into Great Britain is regarded are included in the statistics of Great Britain. All other flows are regarded as being in transit, and therefore excluded.

The figures by country in Statbank table 12780 for “Crude oil, incl. oil by pipelines after processing in Great Britain” shows reallocated figures after country of destination for oil exports by pipe lines (to Great Britain) and by ship to all countries.
Only those shipments regarded as genuine importation into Great Britain is regarded are included in the statistics of Great Britain. All other flows are regarded as being in transit, and therefore excluded.
The fractionation process implies that some of the crude oil disappears, thereby different total figures.

Imports and exports of ships and oil platforms
The data collection for vessels is based on current information from the Norwegian ship registers the Norwegian Ordinary Ship Register (NOR) and the Norwegian International Ship Register (NIS).

When it comes to oil platforms, information is collected from the Norwegian ship registers, the Customs’ TVINN register and importer/exporter.

Imports and exports of electricity
Information is received from Statnett. The volume of imports and exports of electricity is measured by the net transfer of the power grid junction point towards foreign countries and is registered every hour. The value of this trade is calculated by multiplying the amount of electricity transferred per hour with Norpools market price for the current hour. Thereafter the figures are aggregated to a monthly level.

Imports and exports of aircraft
For some aircrafts, monthly reports are received from Statistics Sweden, while the rest are obtained through regular declarations in the TVINN system.

Exports of coal from Svalbard
Reports on the export of coal from Svalbard are received yearly from the exporter.

Exports of fish caught by Norwegian vessels outside the Norwegian customs border
Since July 2010, the figures have been obtained from the Directorate of Fisheries (FDIR). Prior to that, the information was gathered through TVINN.

Data editing
Information from customs declarations is subject to statistical controls in the Customs declaration system (TVINN). The controls to check the estimated price, quantity and country were developed by the Customs in cooperation with Statistics Norway.

Data controls at Statistics Norway take place at different levels - some as soon as the data is loaded into the system (automatic recoding of variables). The manual part of the revision consists of different types of validity and probability tests. The former are controls of absolute errors, such as missing transport code, while the other type of test may check unlikely country codes or unreasonably high quantities for a specific type of good. The system aims to intercept the most serious errors in the data. Data collected from sources other than the Customs also undergo similar checks.

Estimations
External trade is based on a total count but some items are excluded, cf. section of population. There is no need for any statistical estimations of current figures, only aggregations, in order to enable us to publish in a timely manner.

The methods and routines used to produce seasonally adjusted figures are described in the chapter About seasonal adjustment.

The Statistics Act § 7 covers the disclosure of information.

The requirements for confidentiality in external trade of goods are practised so that data is suppressed only when the establishment/enterprise has a valid reason for confidential treatment and actively asks for it. Exporters/importers can demand suppression when there are 3 or fewer companies that import or export an item type to a given country, or when a company has a market share of over 90 per cent, or if two firms have a market share of over 95 per cent.This is called "passive confidentiality" and is in line with UN recommendations. This method is used by most countries..

Since Norway has a number of major manufacturers that are dominant in some product areas, some suppression of information exists on the export side. Between 5 and 10 per cent of mainland exports are affected by confidentiality. For imports, it is far less; around 1 per cent. Some commodity areas are more problematic with regard to dissemination, since suppression on highly aggregated levels must be carried out.

The six-digit HS-based commodity classification is subject to revisions due to technological development and also development in the commodity spectres of the international trade. These adjustments are normally made every five years. The most recent HS revision was implemented on 1 January 2012. Furthermore, national adjustments are made every year at the national eight-digit level. These revisions can create breaks in the time series for some commodity numbers. Detailed information about this is available in the yearly Commodity List External Trade. Correspondence tables between the different editions of the HS are available on the UN website.

With regard to the divisions according to the SITC, the current SITC-Rev.4 was introduced in January 2007, when it replaced the previous SITC-Rev.3 (1988-2006). The relation between the figures for the years before and after 2007 can be misleading for some commodity numbers. The degree of influence depends on the value of the commodity numbers that now have a different group affiliation. Correspondence tables between the different editions of the SITC are also available on the UN website.

For the tables that use the CPA nomenclature, the 2008 edition is used for the whole series.

Other elements influencing the comparability over time: The imports and exports of ships and oil platforms in the statistics were extended in 1991 to include transactions that concern vessels under a foreign flag with a Norwegian-registered holding company. Furthermore, the definition of developing countries was changed in 2007, which affects the figures slightly.

The data material in the External trade in goods statistics is very extensive, and at the most detailed level the quality can vary. The quality will be affected by errors in reported data. Collection errors can occur from incorrect values, incomplete information or misinterpretation of data on customs declarations. Examples of this are use of wrong commodity number, country code, county of production or incorrect quantity.

Users of the statistics must therefore consider this when using detailed figures. Commodity numbers with little trade, measured in value, will be more prone to errors than commodity numbers with a lot of trade. Furthermore, the statistical variables weight and quantity have poorer quality than value. Goods with restrictions and trade to particular countries are, however, monitored more closely.

Statistics Norway is required to report detailed figures to Eurostat, and therefore finds it appropriate that the figures are also published to Norwegian users, despite the varying quality.

Other sources of error include late updates, which sometimes occur for the trade with ships and oil platforms. The rules for customs clearance, which entail exemption from the duty to declare for goods with value below a set value, lead to lower figures than the real trade. This is not the best solution for preparation of the national accounts, where these lacking figures are estimated separately.

The calculation of seasonally-adjusted data beyond the usual seasonal effects is adjusted for the fact that trade is distributed unevenly across the week and taking into account the effect of Easter, as described in the section of estimations. However, beyond this nothing in particular is done. Therefore, it would be natural to assume that the seasonally-adjusted December figures should be interpreted more cautiously because of the Christmas holidays.

The export trade statistics is a full count, so there are therefore no non-response errors or sampling errors.

When publishing statistics for a new month of measurement, figures for the previous months in the same year are also revised. Furthermore, the figures for all months of the year are revised twice more: First time in May the following year (year t + 1), before final figures are published in May one year later (year t + 2). See External trade in goods tables in the Statbank in for more information about the size of the revisions.

At the aggregate level, the difference between preliminary monthly figures and revised figures published in May year t + 1 will normally be small for imports and mainland exports. At a detailed level and for individual months, the revisions can be of greater importance, relatively speaking. For oil and gas, larger audits can be experienced, in particular, related to the calculation of oil and gas prices. The revisions of the final publication in year t + 2 will normally be of minor importance, but in some cases relatively significant corrections can also be uncovered in this time perspective.

Monthly and quarterly time series are often characterised by considerable seasonal variations, which might complicate their interpretation. Such time series are therefore subjected to a process of seasonal adjustment in order to remove the effects of these seasonal fluctuations. Once data have been adjusted for seasonal effects by X-12-ARIMA or some other seasonal adjustment tool, a clearer picture of the time series emerges.

More information on seasonal adjustment, metadata on methods.

Many commodities in external trade in goods have a pattern that appear repeatedly at about the same time every year.

An example of seasonal variation for external trade in goods is the export of fish, where the seasonal pattern is influenced by fish species having different fishing seasons and international demands. The export of skrei is highest in February and March, and the salmon export highest towards the end of the year. Another example is the export of natural gas, where the amount exported varies with the winter and summer seasons, due to different demand from European countries.

To be able to follow the underlying development from month to month without being influenced by such variations, the figures are seasonally adjusted.

Pre-treatment is an adjustment for variations caused by calendar effects and outliers.

We follow the European Statistical System (ESS) guidelines on seasonal adjustment (ec.europa.eu) as far as possible. When background information for an outlier is available, the outlier is included as an explanatory variable (regressor) in the model.

For handling the corona crisis in the seasonal adjustment, we follow Eurostat's guidelines (available on Eurostat's web site as PDF), which state that the effect of the corona crisis should not be included in the basis for estimation of seasonal factors.

Calendar adjustment

Calendar adjustment contains both adjustments for trading days effects and for moving holiday effects. Adjustments for trading days means that we adjust the raw data so that both the number of working days since the composition of these can vary from period to period.

Calendar adjustment is carried out on all series that show a significant and plausible calendar effect with RegARIMA procedure (a regression model where the noise term is modelled by an ARIMA model).

Calendar regression variables are processed in accordance with the Norwegian holidays and public holidays.

Methods for trading/working day adjustment

RegARIMA correction is used – in this case, the effect of trading days is estimated in a RegArima framework. The effect of trading days can be estimated by using a correction for the length of the month or leap year, regressing the series on the number of working days etc. In this case, the residuals will have an ARIMA structure.

Correction for moving holidays

Test for moving holidays’ effect of Easter holiday after the X-13-ARIMAs impact modell. Very few series have a significant moving holidays’ effect.

National and EU/euro area calendars

Use of the Norwegian calendar, which considers Norwegian working days and public holidays.

Treatment of outliers

Outliers, or extreme values, are abnormal values of the series.

Series are inspected to identify outliers. Once identified, outliers are explained/modelled using all available information. Outliers for which a clear interpretation exists (changed methodology in data collections, special events and consequences of government policy changes etc.) are included as regressors in the model.

The identified outliers are predefined in pre-adjustment’s model. Program will only search for the last year for outlier. They are detected automatically by the seasonal adjustment tool. The outliers are removed before seasonal adjustment is carried out, and then reintroduced into the seasonally adjusted data.

Model selection

Pre-treatment requires choosing an ARIMA model, as well as deciding whether the data should be log-transformed or not.

Model selection is automatic, by JDemetra+’s established routines.

Decomposition routine

The decomposition routine specifies how the trend, seasonal and irregular components are decomposed. The most common decompositions are the multiplicative, additive or log additive.

We have used an automatic decomposition scheme selection in JDemetra+, and multiplicative decomposition is used for most series in this model.

Choice of seasonal adjustment approach: X-13 method in JDemetra+ (github.io)

Consistency between raw and seasonally adjusted data

In some series it is preferred that, for example, the sum of monthly seasonally adjusted figures for a year should be identical to the sum of monthly figures in the original raw series.

For the external trade statistics, no consistency conditions are applied.

Consistency between aggregate/definition of seasonally adjusted data

In some series, consistency between seasonally adjusted totals and the original series is imposed. For some series there is also a special relationship between the different series, e.g. GDP which equals production minus intermediate consumption.

Due to indirect approach for aggregates, the consistency is automatically fulfilled.

Direct versus indirect approach

Direct seasonal adjustment is performed if every time series, including aggregates, are seasonally adjusted on an individual basis. Indirect seasonal adjustment is performed if the seasonally adjusted estimate for a time series is derived by combining the estimates for two or more directly adjusted series.

A total of 38 seasonally adjusted series are published. Main aggregates such as total imports, total exports, mainland exports are seasonally adjusted indirectly. Furthermore, we have seasonally adjusted import and export series according to the one-digit SITC. All these series are value series. We find seasonal patterns for all these series, except SITC9 where series are adjusted mostly for calendar effects and the results from seasonal adjustment is uncertain.

The important export commodities crude oil, natural gas in gaseous form, fish (SITC03), metals other than iron and steel (SITC68) and electricity (SITC35) are seasonally adjusted for both value and volume, where volume series are direct adjusted and value series are indirectly adjusted.

Horizon for estimating the model and the correction factors

When performing seasonal adjustment of a time series, it is possible to choose the period to be used in estimating the model and the correction factors. Correction factors are the factors used in the pre-treatment and seasonal adjustment of the series.

The entire time series from January 2005 on is used to estimate the model and the correction factors.

General revision policy

Seasonally adjusted data may change due to a revision of the unadjusted (raw) data or the addition of new data. Such changes are called revisions, and there are several ways to deal with the problem of revisions when publishing the seasonally adjusted statistics.

In accordance with recommendations from the ESS guidelines, the models behind the seasonally adjusted figures will be subject to a thorough review once a year.

Concurrent versus current adjustment

Partial concurrent adjustment: the model is identified and estimated yearly, while filters, outliers (last year) and regression parameters are re-identified and estimated continuously as new or revised data become available.

Horizon for published revisions

The revision period for the seasonally adjusted results is limited to 4 years prior to the revision period of the unadjusted data, while older data are frozen.

Evaluation of seasonally adjustment data

A detailed set of graphical, descriptive, non-parametric and parametric criteria defined to assess the relevant characteristics of seasonally adjusted data are used.

Quality measures for seasonal adjustment

A set of available diagnostics within the seasonal adjusted tools and graphical capabilities are used.

A table containing selected quality indicators for the seasonal adjustments is available. The table is available here: indicators_seasonaladjustment (XLSX)

More information about the quality indicator is found here: metadata on methods: seasonal adjustment (PDF).

Seasonal adjustment of short time series

All series are sufficiently long to perform an optimal seasonal adjustment.

Treatment of problematic series

Following the Corona crisis that started in the 1st quarter of 2020, the seasonal adjustment follows the Eurostat guidelines for how to treat this extraordinary event. The result being that the effect of the Corona crisis is not a part of the foundation of the seasonal patterns. We assume that the seasonal pattern is unchanged, and that we correct for the systematic seasonal variation calculated on data before the corona crisis.

Data availability

Unadjusted figures (original series or raw data) and seasonally adjusted are available.

Contact

Opplysningstjenesten for utenrikshandelen

utenrikshandel@ssb.no