External trade in goods

Updated: 15 November 2021

Next update: 15 December 2021

Trade surplus
Trade surplus
October 2021
84.5
NOK Billion

Selected tables and figures from this statistics

Imports of goods, main groups by SITC. Month and so far this year
Imports of goods, main groups by SITC. Month and so far this year
NOK MillionChange in per centNOK MillionChange in per cent
October 2020October 2021October 2020 -October 2021So far this yearOctober 2020 -October 2021
October 2020October 2021
Total67 70972 2966.8629 203689 1059.5
Of which:
Ships and oil platforms (part of SITC 793)1940-100.08 8596 518-26.4
Imports excl. Ships and oil platforms67 51572 2967.1620 344682 58710.0
0 Food and live animals4 8385 66517.145 10647 5695.5
00 Live animals other than animals of div.0324269.718820911.1
01 Meat and meat preparations179158-11.81 4751 94631.9
02 Dairy products and birds' eggs155145-6.61 5351 72212.2
03 Fish, crustaceans, molluscs and prep. thereof42867357.14 3754 362-0.3
04 Cereals and cereal preparations5775953.15 8195 8650.8
05 Vegetables and fruit1 0971 1050.811 87011 8850.1
06 Sugars, sugar prepatations and honey19822814.81 4971 70714.1
07 Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices532502-5.64 0174 1232.6
08 Feeding stuff for animals (not cereals)1 1681 73348.49 94411 11911.8
09 Miscellaneous edible products4795004.44 3864 6325.6
1 Beverages and tobacco1 3041 3070.211 27512 2298.5
11 Beverages8438966.37 1297 4694.8
12 Tobacco and tobacco manufactures462411-10.94 1464 76114.8
2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels4 2214 4595.739 93247 11318.0
21 Hides, skins and furskins, raw16296.233343.7
22 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits293221-24.61 7442 40337.8
23 Crude rubber1212-2.213815411.4
24 Wood, lumber and cork46471253.44 6006 59943.5
25 Pulp and waste paper4238-10.536142718.3
26 Textile fibres and their waste161920.5126116-7.5
27 Crude fertilizers and crude minerales29332611.03 1493 4489.5
28 Metalliferous ores and metal scrap2 8232 8751.826 79330 95815.5
29 Crude animal and vegetable materials275252-8.62 9892 976-0.4
3 Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials2 9553 83029.629 28837 61228.4
32 Coal, coke and briquettes15329592.11 9072 0356.7
33 Petroleum, petroleum products2 7252 8454.426 17330 87918.0
334 Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (other than crude); preparations, n.e.s., containing by weight 70% or more of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparation1 5152 35155.215 36618 86422.8
34 Gas , natural and manufactured50139174.86841 379101.6
342 Liquefied propane and butane3890134.455493669.0
35 Electric current265511 996.95243 319533.3
4 Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes8231 59393.58 29710 05121.1
41 Animal oils and fats37543114.93 5943 5990.1
42 Fixed vegetable fats and oils, crude, refined or fractionated4191 071155.54 4816 07335.5
43 Animal or vegetable fats and oils, processed2991217.622237971.1
5 Chemicals and related products n.e.s.6 6058 56229.665 25574 53214.2
51 Organic chemicals69694836.26 4417 95923.6
52 Inorganic chemicals468974108.14 7466 24031.5
53 Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials403354-12.03 5753 5930.5
54 Medicinal and pharmaceutical products1 8212 11015.818 76520 66210.1
55 Essential oils and resinoids etc1 013939-7.37 7448 3177.4
56 Fertilizers26544267.12 7212 9849.7
57 Plastics in primary forms43561641.74 1815 47931.0
58 Plastics in non-primary forms60369715.65 9626 67311.9
59 Chemical materials and products, n.e.s.9021 48264.311 11912 62413.5
6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material9 4389 7283.189 54695 6786.8
61 Leather, leather manufactures, furskins68691.344956726.3
62 Rubber manufactures, n.e.s.6386654.35 3545 6575.7
63 Cork and wood manufactures8178625.56 9157 87713.9
64 Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof7517824.26 8756 851-0.4
65 Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles8959020.78 6828 9413.0
66 Non-metallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.9659811.78 4338 7874.2
67 Iron and steel1 3901 56612.616 90314 080-16.7
68 Non-ferrous metals890881-1.06 6989 58543.1
69 Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.3 0243 021-0.129 23633 33314.0
7 Machinery and transport equipment26 36225 852-1.9247 196262 5676.2
71 Power generating machinery and equipment1 455788-45.816 18814 079-13.0
72 Machinery for special industries2 5982 415-7.025 18423 572-6.4
73 Metal working machinery176140-20.41 6281 6441.0
74 General industrial machinery and equipment3 5633 464-2.833 13632 629-1.5
75 Office machines, data processing machines1 6701 98618.915 48818 26717.9
76 Telecommunications apparatus and equipment2 6512 7333.123 50624 4504.0
77 Electrical machinery and apparatus4 1644 5278.737 10339 4906.4
78 Road vehicles7 6338 44810.765 96687 26132.3
781 Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons4 7795 82922.039 12958 86750.4
79 Other transport equipment including ships2 4521 351-44.928 99621 175-27.0
8 Miscellaneous manufactured articles11 04311 1901.392 129100 8329.4
81 Prefabricated buildings1 0041 0332.98 0078 3564.4
82 Furniture and parts thereof1 5341 5913.714 27315 92711.6
83 Travel goods, handbags etc.1711773.61 5381 76214.6
84 Articles of apparel and accessories2 3802 4221.819 19521 45511.8
85 Footwear52059514.44 7715 56416.6
87 Professional and scientific instruments1 5841 516-4.214 99715 3242.2
88 Photographic and optical goods3193262.12 6963 13016.1
89 Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s3 5313 529-0.126 65229 31410.0
9 Other commodities and transactions120110-8.51 181922-21.9
91 Postal packages not classified according to kind00.00.
93 Special transactions and commodities not classified according to kind1341223.217320317.4
96 Coin (other than gold coin), not being legal tender4774.3355044.2
97 Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold, ores and concentrates)10362-39.8973669-31.3
Explanation of symbols
Exports of goods, main groups by SITC. Month and so far this year
Exports of goods, main groups by SITC. Month and so far this year
NOK MillionChange in per centNOK MillionChange in per cent
October 2020October 2021October 2020 -October 2021So far this yearOctober 2020 -October 2021
October 2020October 2021
Total72 969156 762114.8632 1221 037 73964.2
Of which:
Crude oil (part of SITC 333)19 04532 71071.8168 512280 05566.2
Natural gas (SITC 343)13 64271 994427.787 930308 023250.3
Natural gas condensates (part of SITC 333)33748443.63 4211 887-44.8
Ships and oil platforms (part of SITC 793)2880-100.05 3618 49858.5
Mainland exports39 65651 57430.1366 899439 27619.7
0 Food and live animals11 07512 72014.991 188100 96110.7
00 Live animals other than animals of div.035870.66363-0.4
01 Meat and meat preparations4626-43.9254236-7.2
02 Dairy products and birds' eggs497145.5577453-21.5
03 Fish, crustaceans, molluscs and prep. thereof10 17711 69714.984 16093 39511.0
04 Cereals and cereal preparations4040-1.0419417-0.4
05 Vegetables and fruit2721-22.01671765.6
06 Sugars, sugar prepatations and honey43-17.33635-3.5
07 Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices39402.0357329-7.9
08 Feeding stuff for animals (not cereals)45459531.23 3553 89516.1
09 Miscellaneous edible products235219-6.81 8001 9639.1
1 Beverages and tobacco10011818.28858900.5
11 Beverages9911717.58708730.3
12 Tobacco and tobacco manufactures12102.4151711.4
2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels1 8032 18221.016 61919 89719.7
21 Hides, skins and furskins, raw232928.63293362.1
22 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits21-38.69109.8
23 Crude rubber37102.8313925.3
24 Wood, lumber and cork38446220.23 4594 15820.2
25 Pulp and waste paper252238-5.82 3862 79617.2
26 Textile fibres and their waste2421-13.1195186-4.9
27 Crude fertilizers and crude minerales3723874.13 6543 7482.6
28 Metalliferous ores and metal scrap70899840.96 2288 30233.3
29 Crude animal and vegetable materials344015.8328322-1.8
3 Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials37 196114 228207.1304 576663 508117.8
32 Coal, coke and briquettes01790.7346-82.9
33 Petroleum, petroleum products21 84738 92478.2201 841326 90062.0
334 Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (other than crude); preparations, n.e.s., containing by weight 70% or more of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparation2 4585 663130.329 61444 47550.2
34 Gas , natural and manufactured14 88974 043397.3100 596325 706223.8
342 Liquefied propane and butane1 1351 91268.511 82715 66232.4
35 Electric current4611 260173.72 10510 896417.5
4 Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes3113192.52 7902 781-0.3
41 Animal oils and fats1591664.31 6811 490-11.4
42 Fixed vegetable fats and oils, crude, refined or fractionated70756.345557426.1
43 Animal or vegetable fats and oils, processed8279-4.16537179.8
5 Chemicals and related products n.e.s.5 2495 95313.449 80358 03016.5
51 Organic chemicals1 4161 5157.113 72815 89715.8
52 Inorganic chemicals65384028.66 9697 92113.7
53 Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials176168-4.71 8281 8772.7
54 Medicinal and pharmaceutical products689584-15.36 0485 253-13.1
55 Essential oils and resinoids etc19022518.71 5801 85417.3
56 Fertilizers1 ::::::
57 Plastics in primary forms54764117.24 8216 54735.8
58 Plastics in non-primary forms13816116.71 2301 41615.1
59 Chemical materials and products, n.e.s.1 4401 81926.313 59717 26627.0
6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material7 10911 58563.071 55488 20223.3
61 Leather, leather manufactures, furskins111534.67612058.4
62 Rubber manufactures, n.e.s.58613.86456917.1
63 Cork and wood manufactures197192-2.71 6381 7828.8
64 Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof45350712.04 2214 5838.6
65 Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles17218910.01 5801 7037.8
66 Non-metallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.15317816.31 4711 66713.3
67 Iron and steel1 2091 42217.710 91013 14320.5
68 Non-ferrous metals4 1418 26999.743 91957 41830.7
69 Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.7157535.37 0947 0950.0
7 Machinery and transport equipment7 1927 163-0.469 84577 84411.5
71 Power generating machinery and equipment51566929.85 9477 58527.5
72 Machinery for special industries1 161962-17.110 0579 571-4.8
73 Metal working machinery5147-8.143348010.9
74 General industrial machinery and equipment1 5121 307-13.514 40513 218-8.2
75 Office machines, data processing machines424361-14.82 9013 58323.5
76 Telecommunications apparatus and equipment6216321.85 7075 182-9.2
77 Electrical machinery and apparatus1 3641 88338.112 37815 03621.5
78 Road vehicles929785-15.47 2757 8978.5
79 Other transport equipment including ships617517-16.110 74215 29142.3
8 Miscellaneous manufactured articles2 7152 325-14.323 58424 6674.6
81 Prefabricated buildings129121-5.71 3071 292-1.1
82 Furniture and parts thereof321301-6.12 5023 10724.2
83 Travel goods, handbags etc.1917-12.412315626.7
84 Articles of apparel and accessories216196-9.41 3311 50412.9
85 Footwear6349-22.03503541.1
87 Professional and scientific instruments1 0521 007-4.39 89710 2503.6
88 Photographic and optical goods2618-30.9215194-9.6
89 Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s888616-30.77 8597 809-0.6
9 Other commodities and transactions218168-23.01 279960-25.0
91 Postal packages not classified according to kind00.00.
93 Special transactions and commodities not classified according to kind0167 100.01111 577.2
96 Coin (other than gold coin), not being legal tender00-75.215409.4
97 Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold, ores and concentrates)218167-23.31 278943-26.2
1Due to confidentiality in commodity group 56, this group can not be published separately. This group is included in group 59.
Explanation of symbols
Mainland exports by county of production, commodity groups by the SITC. Year. NOK million
Mainland exports by county of production, commodity groups by the SITC. Year. NOK million
2020
Total mainland exportsDistribution by the SITC
Food, beverages and tobacco (SITC 0 and 1)Fish (subgroup 03 of SITC 0)Crude materials except fuels (SITC 2 and 4)Fuels (SITC 3)Chemicals and related products n.e.s (SITC 5)Manufactured goods (SITC 6)Machinery and transport equipment (SITC 7)Miscellanous manufactured articles (SITC 8)
The whole country443 428111 585101 96523 32553 65960 20786 78179 74528 125
County of production
Viken33 9692 1651053 2622210 0685 04310 4842 926
Oslo9 3276932150324 7213342 141934
Innlandet11 233189511 506133262 3274 5192 353
Agder41 193143896295911 39825 3783 190396
Rogaland38 5417 1256 0352 54013 2271 1008 9634 0431 542
Vestland73 79920 66819 6912 99627 7351 57813 5855 7021 535
Møre og Romsdal42 57920 61919 0081 8364933 0478 6145 4102 562
Trøndelag - Trööndelage28 13318 36318 1771 3471::1 4301 514
Nordland - Nordlánnda29 86616 75215 8981 7410:7 572:32
Troms og Finnmark - Romsa ja Finnmárku17 67416 03415 969423329247518627
Svalbard31100310000
Jan Mayen000000000
Norwegian goods produced in several counties14 3926 3215 6624 0942 915201269394198
Re-exports of goods produced abroad1 50 8158912185526743 9954 87130 6269 206
County not stated1 2 13 1791 3071 03661151 0161 4436 1732 624
1County of production is defined as the county for the major value added. When the exports consists of a mix of goods from different counties, and the county of production is hard to state, the definition Norwegian goods produced in several counties is used. In the case when the value of an imported intermediate good is more than doubled, the good is considered as produced in Norway. In the opposite it is considered as exports of goods produced abroad.
2County not stated implies no information about county of production is available.
Explanation of symbols
Imports and exports of goods, by trade areas, continents and countries. Year. NOK Million
Imports and exports of goods, by trade areas, continents and countries. Year. NOK Million
ExportsImportsTrade balance
202020202020
Total778 304764 78713 517
Trade areas
Nordic countries126 571142 708-16 137
EFTA7 81810 221-2 403
EU1 456 343422 70533 638
OECD592 370473 480118 889
Developing countries111 601164 366-52 766
LDC - least developed countries2 7136 084-3 371
Continents and countries
Europe602 202496 788105 414
Belgium29 83212 38117 451
Denmark32 50741 371-8 863
Estonia1 6445 381-3 737
Finland12 90217 098-4 197
France39 43423 95315 481
Greece2 2518651 386
Ireland5 3934 877516
Iceland4 3872 0322 355
Italy11 76022 979-11 219
Lithuania6 49810 510-4 012
Netherlands76 79026 06550 725
Poland21 20828 381-7 173
Portugal5 0983 0442 054
Romania1 1494 380-3 231
Russia3 14113 731-10 590
Slovakia5023 650-3 149
Spain14 33418 413-4 079
United Kingdom134 82341 74693 077
Switzerland3 4278 121-4 695
Sweden75 95081 500-5 550
Czech Republic2 0718 999-6 928
Turkey12 8468 8064 040
Germany93 97587 3526 623
Hungary7224 507-3 785
Austria2 5135 936-3 424
Other countries in Europe7 04510 710-3 665
Asia111 397159 852-48 455
Hong Kong1 509979530
India3 7445 386-1 642
Japan8 92915 104-6 175
China58 65891 942-33 284
Malaysia1 8323 105-1 273
Singapore5 3624 741621
South Korea13 43711 3432 094
Taiwan2 1015 108-3 008
Thailand2 7733 551-778
Vietnam1 8968 152-6 256
Other countries in Asia11 15610 441715
North and Central America41 51675 131-33 614
Canada6 82519 044-12 219
United States30 97851 628-20 650
Other countries in North- and Central America3 7134 459-746
South America6 55718 318-11 760
Brazil4 27812 302-8 024
Chile1 3341 480-146
Peru1291 876-1 747
Other countries in South-America8162 660-1 843
Africa14 17412 4481 726
Angola1 4131 081332
Botswana1119-118
South Africa9132 312-1 400
Other countries in Africa11 8478 9362 912
Oceania2 251207
Australia1 578527
New Zealand483-201
Other countries in Oceania190-119
1Figures for EU is without Great Britain from February 2020 on.
Explanation of symbols
Imports and exports of goods (imports excl. ships and oil platforms and mainland exports), by trade areas, continents and countries. Year. NOK Million
Imports and exports of goods (imports excl. ships and oil platforms and mainland exports), by trade areas, continents and countries. Year. NOK Million
Mainland exportsImports excluding ships and oil platformsTrade balance
202020202020
Total443 428754 107-310 679
Trade areas
Nordic countries85 110142 579-57 469
EFTA7 81810 201-2 383
EU1 260 398421 863-161 465
OECD305 393470 738-165 345
Developing countries68 276161 136-92 860
LDC - least developed countries2 6846 084-3 400
Continents and countries
Europe314 925494 045-179 121
Belgium13 40012 3811 019
Denmark28 32141 278-12 957
Estonia1 6445 381-3 737
Finland8 06717 082-9 015
France14 47423 943-9 469
Greece1 808865942
Ireland4 6094 834-225
Iceland4 3872 0122 375
Italy8 53822 979-14 441
Lithuania5 44310 495-5 051
Netherlands46 70425 79620 908
Poland19 91027 986-8 076
Portugal4 8793 0441 835
Romania1 1494 380-3 231
Russia3 07513 731-10 656
Slovakia5023 650-3 149
Spain11 48118 413-6 932
United Kingdom38 60941 657-3 048
Switzerland3 4278 121-4 695
Sweden43 51481 500-37 986
Czech Republic2 0718 999-6 928
Turkey5 7767 015-1 239
Germany33 09187 352-54 261
Hungary7224 507-3 785
Austria2 5135 936-3 424
Other countries in Europe6 81110 708-3 897
Asia70 567152 136-81 569
Hong Kong1 434979455
India3 3205 386-2 066
Japan8 55814 866-6 308
China23 37591 724-68 349
Malaysia1 8323 105-1 273
Singapore5 2363 0602 176
South Korea9 8666 7643 101
Taiwan2 1015 108-3 008
Thailand2 7733 551-778
Vietnam1 8967 151-5 255
Other countries in Asia10 17610 442-266
North and Central America35 54175 095-39 553
Canada3 80619 044-15 238
United States28 89751 628-22 731
Other countries in North- and Central America2 8384 423-1 585
South America6 26118 318-12 057
Brazil4 27812 302-8 024
Chile1 0381 480-442
Peru1291 876-1 747
Other countries in South America8162 660-1 844
Africa13 98612 4481 538
Angola1 4021 081321
Botswana1119-118
South Africa7532 312-1 559
Other countries in Africa1 3548 9362 894
Oceania2 1482 06583
Australia1 8051 578227
New Zealand282483-201
Other countries in Oceania61457
1Figures for EU is without Great Britain from February 2020 on.
Explanation of symbols
Export of fish, by species. Year
Export of fish, by species. Year1
Million NOKChange in per cent
201920202019 - 2020
Total104 052101 965-2.0
Salmon2 72 45770 078-3.3
Cod10 1349 713-4.2
Herring3 1963 79818.8
Mackerel4 2834 97516.2
Coalfish2 4892 363-5.1
Haddock1 7541 609-8.3
Trout3 6783 8685.2
Shrimps3 :::
Halibut1 045800-23.4
Ling332325-2.1
Cusk2002021.0
Redfish372368-1.1
Other fish1 7041 605-5.8
Other crustacean/ mollusc2 4072 261-6.1
1Within the SITC classification group 03 'Fish, crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates', Statistics Norway has grouped everything by species based on the product groups in the HS nomenclature. Some discrepancies may occur since not all product groups are specified by species. The group 'Other fish' is the sum of the remaining product groups under SITC 03.
2Salmon contains more than the weekly figures of exports of salmon, fillets and other prepared salmon is also included.
3Due to confidentiality in group “Shrimps” from 2013 on, exports in this group can not be published separately. This group is therefore included in commodity group “Other crustaceous animals except shrimps and mollusk”.
Explanation of symbols
First revision of yearly figures of imports and exports. Commodity groups by SITC
First revision of yearly figures of imports and exports. Commodity groups by SITC
ImportsExports
NOK MillionChange in per centNOK MillionChange in per cent
2020
TOTAL
Of which:764 7870.7778 3040.7
Crude oil9 1833.1207 790-0.6
Natural gas, whether or not liquefied790.0118 1544.1
Natural gas condensates2572.43 5360.0
Ships and oil platforms10 68026.25 39613.8
Goods excl. ships and oil platforms754 1070.07730.6
Mainland exports..443 4280.3
0 Food and live animals54 5330.0110 5370.0
00 Live animals other than animals of div.03223-0.1750.0
01 Meat and meat preparations1 8330.02910.0
02 Dairy products and birds' eggs1 8100.06640.0
03 Fish, crustaceans, molluscs and prep. thereof5 2390.0101 9650.0
04 Cereals and cereal preparations6 9680.05100.0
05 Vegetables and fruit14 2330.1214-0.6
06 Sugars, sugar prepatations and honey1 8500.0440.0
07 Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices4 881-0.34160.0
08 Feeding stuff for animals (not cereals)12 22021.94 1110.0
09 Miscellaneous edible products5 275-29.52 246-0.1
1 Beverages and tobacco13 8880.01 0490.0
11 Beverages8 848-0.11 0300.0
12 Tobacco and tobacco manufactures5 0410.0180.0
2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels48 5090.019 9320.0
21 Hides, skins and furskins, raw370.04020.0
22 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits2 088-0.1120.0
23 Crude rubber1540.0380.0
24 Wood, lumber and cork5 4180.04 1330.2
25 Pulp and waste paper4060.02 8910.0
26 Textile fibres and their waste1510.4232-0.3
27 Crude fertilizers and crude minerales3 800-0.14 3890.0
28 Metalliferous ores and metal scrap32 8670.07 4430.0
29 Crude animal and vegetable materials3 5870.0391-0.2
3 Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials34 7941.0383 1390.9
32 Coal, coke and briquettes2 2400.034877.2
33 Petroleum, petroleum products31 0201.1246 812-0.5
334 Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (other than crude); preparations, n.e.s., containing by weight 70% or more of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparation18 4960.435 1260.2
34 Gas , natural and manufactured8970.0133 4013.7
342 Liquefied propane and butane7400.014 1920.5
35 Electric current6370.02 8910.0
4 Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes10 300-0.33 3940.0
41 Animal oils and fats4 476-0.81 9560.0
42 Fixed vegetable fats and oils, crude, refined or fractionated5 5500.06190.0
43 Animal or vegetable fats and oils, processed2740.08190.0
5 Chemicals and related products n.e.s.78 3460.060 207-0.2
51 Organic chemicals7 8000.016 7700.0
52 Inorganic chemicals5 629-0.18 521-0.2
53 Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials4 2120.02 1610.0
54 Medicinal and pharmaceutical products22 6460.07 284-0.1
55 Essential oils and resinoids etc9 423-0.11 952-0.9
56 Fertilizers1 3 1800.0::
57 Plastics in primary forms4 977-0.15 876-0.2
58 Plastics in non-primary forms7 037-0.21 4640.0
59 Chemical materials and products, n.e.s.13 4430.08 171-0.1
6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material106 947-0.186 781-0.1
61 Leather, leather manufactures, furskins5880.0970.1
62 Rubber manufactures, n.e.s.6 2440.07620.0
63 Cork and wood manufactures8 2590.01 9800.0
64 Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof8 2800.05 0480.0
65 Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles10 3870.11 9130.3
66 Non-metallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.10 152-0.91 7450.0
67 Iron and steel19 7960.013 4230.0
68 Non-ferrous metals8 5420.053 411-0.1
69 Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.34 698-0.18 402-0.3
7 Machinery and transport equipment303 5700.683 6060.9
71 Power generating machinery and equipment18 0630.07 3150.0
72 Machinery for special industries29 810-0.311 9150.3
73 Metal working machinery1 997-0.1502-0.6
74 General industrial machinery and equipment39 549-0.117 3530.0
75 Office machines, data processing machines19 8330.03 7270.0
76 Telecommunications apparatus and equipment30 718-0.27 0020.3
77 Electrical machinery and apparatus45 1150.015 0110.1
78 Road vehicles85 9650.08 806-0.8
79 Other transport equipment including ships32 5207.211 9766.5
8 Miscellaneous manufactured articles112 472-0.128 1254.0
81 Prefabricated buildings9 7820.01 528-0.1
82 Furniture and parts thereof17 3260.03 1580.0
83 Travel goods, handbags etc.1 9250.014923.2
84 Articles of apparel and accessories23 2960.41 645105.8
85 Footwear5 5740.0427193.8
87 Professional and scientific instruments18 124-0.411 863-0.5
88 Photographic and optical goods3 3960.72571.2
89 Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s33 050-0.39 098-0.2
9 Other commodities and transactions1 4270.01 5350.0
91 Postal packages not classified according to kind00.000.0
93 Special transactions and commodities not classified according to kind1960.020.0
96 Coin (other than gold coin), not being legal tender400.010.0
97 Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold, ores and concentrates)1 1910.01 5320.0
1Due to confidentiality commodity group 56 is included in commodity group 59.
Explanation of symbols

Norwegian import and export - all countries and commodity numbers 1988-2020.

Complete datasets corresponding to Statbank table 08801 for download as CSV.


About the statistics

The external trade statistics comprise the development in Norway's trade with other countries in terms of value and volume figures. Aggregated as well as detailed imports and exports figures between Norway and partner countries, trade regions and continents are provided.

Imports and exports

Imports comprise mainly foreign manufactured goods entering Norway. This can also include re-importation of originally Norwegian-produced goods and processed goods. Exports comprise domestically produced goods sent out of Norway, i.e. the Norwegian statistical territory as defined in Section of population. Also included are reexportation of originally foreign-produced goods and processed goods.

Trade in goods is based on the physical movement of goods across borders, but for some items, such as ships, oil platforms and aircraft, trading often takes place without the occurrence of such movement. Whether there has been an import or export of such goods is therefore determined based on whether a change in economic ownership has taken place cf. also described in the Section of population. Economic ownership is defined as the person entitled to claim the economic benefit and who has the legal responsibility for the risk of the item.

Mainland exports

As from March 2013, the statistics on external trade in goods will use the term mainland exports on the exportation of goods other than crude oil, natural gas, natural gas condensates, ships and oil platforms. Previously, we also used the term traditional goods for these exports, as well as for imports excluding ships and oil platforms. (Balance of payments and the research department still use the term traditional goods. The balance of payments also includes items such as naphtha, propane and butane in its collective term crude oil and natural gas, external trade in goods does not.)

Country

Country of origin is used for imports. With regard to exports, the country of destination is used.

For raw materials, the country of origin is determined according to where the goods are produced. For manufactured goods (processed and refined goods), this is the country in which the goods have obtained the form they have at the time of import. The country of destination is defined as the country, which, on the date of export, is the last known country for which the goods are intended.

For more specific principles in relation to country of origin, the rule for ships, aircraft and oil platforms is that country of origin is the country that previously owned the goods (economic ownership). For Norwegian-produced goods sold abroad and subsequently bought in Norway, the country from which the goods are imported shall be given as the country of origin (manufacturing country).

Mode of transport

Mode of transport is defined as the means of transportation used when goods cross the border, either by import or export (in the Database for Standard Classifications there is a detailed description of mode of transport).

Quantity

For most goods, the quantity is expressed in kilograms (weight excluding packaging), except for ships and electricity, which are measured by gross tonnes and kWh respectively. However, for many goods, the quantity is also available in a different unit of measurement, such as pieces, barrels, cubic metres, carat, litres, pairs etc.

Statistical value

Statistical value is the value when crossing the Norwegian border. Duties, VAT and other taxes are not included in the statistical value.

Upon import, the value should be set to the CIF (Cost Insurance Freight) value, i.e. the value of the goods at the Norwegian border, including the costs associated with the delivery of goods to the border, transport costs and insurance. Similarly, for exports it is the value at the Norwegian border, including the costs associated with transporting it there, called FOB (Free On Board) value. CIF and FOB are two types of delivery terms called Incoterms. The delivery terms are an agreement between buyer and seller as to who bears the risk, responsibility and cost of transportation of the goods to the agreed place. In the Database for Standard Classifications there is an overview of the different delivery terms.

For crude oil exported by ship directly from installations on the Norwegian continental shelf, the value upon departure from the installation is used. In the case of crude oil and natural gas that is piped abroad, this value is determined based onon when it leaves the Norwegian continental shelf. The value of transport in international waters and into a terminal abroad is regarded as export of services.

The statistical value of exports and imports of ships is the transfer value including takeover of debt. With regard toto fish landed abroad (exported) by Norwegian vessels and caught outside the Norwegian customs border, the statistical value is the value of the fish paid to the fishing operator upon the sale of stock (minus the sales organisation fee).

County of production

The county of production is defined as the county in which the added value is greatest.

Classification of goods

The classification by HS (the international customs and statistics nomenclature, the Harmonized System) is a 6-digit grouping of goods organised primarily according to the material characteristics of goods at the time of crossing the border. Only in exceptional cases is the later use of the goods of any significance to the classification. The WCO (World Customs Organization) is responsible for this nomenclature.

The Norwegian customs tariff is based on the HS, but has two more digits, which are national codes. The 7th digit reflects national customs divisions/tariff rates (bound in the WTO - World Trade Organization). The 8th digit is used to cover the national statistical needs and and among others the interests of the Norwegian Agricultural Authority and Ministry of Foreign Affairs interests with regard to import and export regulations. In some cases, the 8th digit is also used to distinguish between goods subject to duties and/or fees. The Norwegian version is published annually on our website along with a text version of the nomenclature developed by Statistics Norway. The detailed commodity list, which includes all commodity numbers, also provides information about the validity of each commodity number.

Due to technological developments and changes in international trade, the HS nomenclature is normally updated every 5 years – with the most recent implementation on 1 January 2012. In addition, minor changes are made in the Norwegian customs tariff every year. The EU also uses the nomenclature of the HS in its publication of foreign trade figures. However, the EU version; the Combined Nomenclature (CN) - which also has eight digits - is more detailed than the Norwegian version. As mentioned previously, only the first 6 digits are common internationally.

When publishing external trade figures, the UN Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) is mainly used. Here the goods are grouped by level of processing (raw materials, semi-finished and finished goods). As from 1988 to 2006, the SITC-Rev.3 is used, but as of 2007 theSITC-Rev. 4 is used.

The classification BEC (Broad Economic Categories); the UN classification of commodities by end use, which is based on the SITC, is also used to some extent. This classification is not considered to be a "standard classification" in the same way as for example the SITC, and it is officially acknowledged that countries may have their own version of this grouping in order to satisfy national needs. In the Database for Standard Classifications the Norwegian version of this classification is found.

The various nomenclatures are listed on the UN’s website, as well as correspondence tables between the different nomenclatures HS, SITC and BEC and their different versions.

The product classification CPA divides goods by industry group, and in external trade we use extracts from this. CPA (Statistical Classification of Productivity by Activity in the European Community) is the EU's central Product by Activity classification. It is a product group that is closely linked to industry, i.e. distinctive products within each activity can be linked to the activity classification NACE Rev.2.

Grouping by country

The Norwegian list of countries used follows the international standard ISO-3166. EU countries use the same standard, except for some deviations of less importance.

In the external trade publications these country groupings are frequently used:

Nordic countries - trade with Sweden, Denmark, Greenland, Faroe Islands, Finland, Åland and Iceland

EFTA - trade with Iceland, Switzerland and Liechtenstein

EU – in the Database for standard classifications current member states at any given time is available

OECD - for current member states at any given time see the OECD's website

Developing countries – as from 2007, the figures are according to the OECD’s DAC (DAC stands for Development Assistance Committee) for definitions of countries at any given time that are recognised as recipients of official foreign aid. The DAC list also includes a section on LDCs (Least Developed Countries - defined by the UN) - which we also use in the statistics.

(Until 2006, these countries were defined as developing countries in the Norwegian trade statistics: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), Croatia, Macedonia, Malta, Slovenia - Africa except South Africa - Asia excluding Japan, North and South America except USA, Canada and Greenland - Oceania except Australia and New Zealand.)

Name: External trade in goods

Topic: External economy

15 December 2021

Division for External Trade Statistics

Statistics on imports and exports of goods are published at country level. Export figures are also given by county of production.

Monthly figures are released on the 15th of the month after the observation period (the previous month), or the first subsequent working day. With every new release, all the previous monthly figures are updated in every publication.

For more information about Revisions, please see Accuracy and Reliability.

Reports are sent to the EU statistical office (Eurostat), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization (WTO), International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the United Nations (UN).

Non-revised and revised micro data are stored in accordance with Statistics Norway's guidelines for storing computer files (DataDok).

The purpose of the external trade statistics is to provide information about the commodity flows between Norway and other countries. Exports and imports are important economic indicators both in describing structural changes and in monitoring the economic trends. The monthly statistics of external trade in goods have been published since 1913 (value figures were published for the first time in 1866).

With regard to essential changes in the statistics, the commodity classification in line with the Harmonised System that was introduced in 1988 entailed a comprehensive restructuring of the distribution at a detailed level in relation to the earlier CCCN nomenclature (the Customs Cooperation Council Nomenclature).

The statistics are mainly financed from State assignments, but also rely to some extent on market income.

The external trade statistics are a part of the national and international statistical system, and are used in the compilation of the national accounts and the balance of payment statistics in Statistics Norway. The statistics are aimed at covering the business sector’s need for data in this area for their planning of production, marketing and sales.

The statistics are also intended for prognoses and analyses performed by public authorities, research institutions and private organisations. International organisations such as the UN´s statistical office, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the statistical office of the EU (Eurostat) and others make use of the information provided in the external trade statistics.

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.

The figures for external trade statistics are an important part of the quarterly balance of payments and national accounts and the annual national accounts.

The balance of payments also collects estimates of trade in goods which are transported directly from abroad to the Norwegian continental shelf, imports of fuel and other oil products to Norwegian ships, aircraft and units abroad. Moreover the external account interprets some of the goods from the external trade statistics in goods as a service, such as computer games, software and licenses.

In the publication of the figures for external trade we give figures for crude oil, natural gas and condensates, while the balance of payments use the collective term “crude oil and natural gas”. Terms in foreign accounts also encompass items such as naphtha, propane and butane, while the external trade statistics do not.

In addition to the statistics mentioned, external trade figures are included in many of the other statistics published by Statistics Norway, for example:

- Exports of salmon, weekly figures of salmon exports are published in addition to the regular monthly trade figures

- Indices of volume and price of external trade in goods mainly use external trade data as the basis for calculating figures. In addition, the total number of imports and exports, as well as fish and some selected commodity numbers for waste paper and scrap metal, are used as basic data in the producer price index and the price index of first-hand domestic sales

- External trade data are also used as basic data for statistics on fishery and emissions of greenhouse gases.

Mirror statistics

Mirror statistics, in the context of external trade statistics, refer to a comparison between the statistics of two or more countries: exports of goods from one country should in principle equal the imports of the same goods in the partner country.

However, discrepancies are often identified in these figures for several reasons. Although there are international guidelines for the production of external trade statistics, there may still be differences in what the countries include. An example is differences in the usage of statistical trade systems, general or special trade, which causes delimitations to the statistics content. Countries may also have different methods for data collecting and processing, which can create distortions. Furthermore, some countries collect data from customs authorities and others directly from companies.

Basically, there should be a certain difference in value between the countries, as the exporting country provides the FOB-value while the importing country in addition to this adds costs for insurance and freight all the way to the location of delivery, the CIF-value (see Definitions). Some countries collect data from customs authorities, others directly from companies. A common source of error between countries is caused by different information about which is the country of destination. Different threshold-values for inclusion of data can also create distortions, f.ex. in Norwegian external trade statistics, declarations with value less than NOK 1 000 are excluded from the import statistics. Other countries may have other delimitations. Different practise of confidentiality and demands for confidentiality, inaccurate definitions of certain commodities as well as conscious and unconscious misuse of codes can lead to use of different classification codes between countries.

From a Norwegian point of view, there is a need for comparing external trade data with the corresponding statistics of our main trading partners, principally European countries. It is in this context important to have knowledge of the rules practiced by the individual partners.

The Statistical Office of the European Union, Eurostat, publishes external trade data for EU countries, totally for the Union and separate for each member country. This statistics are produced according to EU regulations, which defines external trade as trade between the European Union trade and third countries. As a consequence of this, exports to countries in the EU from a non EU-member state are recorded as imported to EU in the first country where the goods cross the borders of the European Union. When forwarding the goods to the country of destination, the good is recorded as an item dispatched from the EU-country that first received the goods. Information about the country of origin of the commodity is not included in the records. Several of the EU-countries publishes in addition to the data presented in the Eurostat database, Comext, separately external trade statistics produced after national methodology. For information about this, consult Eurostat's annual report: Quality report on International trade statistics.

The Statistics Act §§ 2-1, 2-2 and 3-2

EU regulations incorporated into the EEA agreement comprise contractual obligations pursuant toto EC regulations onon data collection and distribution of data to the EU’s statistical office, Eurostat. The current regulations are as follows:

Regulation (EC) No. 471/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 on Community statistics relating to external trade with non-member countries and repealing of Council Regulation (EC) No 1172/95

Commission Regulation (EU) No. 92/2010 of 2 February 2010 implementing Regulation (EC) No. 471/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Community statistics relating to external trade with non-member countries, as regards data exchange between customs authorities and national statistical authorities, compilation of statistics and quality assessment

Commission Regulation (EU) No. 113/2010 of 9 February 2010 implementing Regulation (EC) No. 471/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Community statistics relating to external trade with non-member countries, as regards trade coverage, definition of the data, compilation of statistics on trade by business characteristics and by invoicing currency, and specific goods or movements

Commission Regulation (EU) No. 1106/2012 of 27 November 2012 implementing Regulation (EC) No. 471/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Community statistics relating to external trade with non-member countries, as regards the update of the nomenclature of countries and territories

Statistics area and the economic territory

The scope of foreign trade statistics is based on international guidelines from the United Nations Statistical Commission.

The general recommendation is that the statistics should include all goods which add to or subtract from the stock of material resources of a country by entering (imports) or leaving (exports) its economic territory. In addition to the geographical dimension, a country's economic territory also includes ships, aircraft and oil platforms owned by national corporations. These are goods that are not necessarily located within the geographic area, but are still viewed as part of the material resources of a country. For these goods external trade is measured by the change of economic ownership.

There are two different statistical trade systems - the general trade system and the special trade system. UN recommends using the general trade system where a country's statistical area coincides with its economic territory. This implies that goods are recorded at the time they enter or leave the economic territory. The special trade system is used when the statistical area covers only a part of the economic territory. Statistics Norway follows, with a few exceptions, the general trade system.

The Norwegian economic territory consists of mainland Norway, Svalbard, Jan Mayen, Norwegian dependencies, territorial waters, including the airspace above these, the economic zone, the Norwegian part of the continental shelf, territorial enclaves abroad (embassies, consulates, military bases, research stations) and Norwegian ships, aircraft and oil platforms.

External trade statistics is mainly based on information drawn from customs declarations. However, the responsible area of the customs authorities only covers mainland Norway and its territorial waters. As a supplement, data on important trade in goods to and from the remaining areas of the economic territory are collected directly from respondents and registers.

The following are defined as statistical area:

Mainland Norway and its territorial waters

Customs declarations contain information on physical flows of goods crossing the customs border. Imports and export that are exempted from ordinary declaration are referred to in the Customs Act §§ 4-10 and 4-11. According to the recommendations from the UN, some flows of goods should be excluded from the statistics. This includes trade in Norwegian goods between the customs area and other parts of the Norwegian economic territory. To the extent possible, trade in foreign goods to and from foreign enclaves, ships, aircraft and oil platforms located in Norway are omitted. To distinguish this type of transactions customs procedure codes from the declarations are used. In general, trade transactions are recorded at the time when the goods enter or leave the customs territory. However there are some exceptions, cf. the treatment of goods in customs warehouses.

There are four different types of customs warehouses. Goods waiting on declearance,can be stored in either a general or a central warehouse. For imports the time of recording is set when the goods are taken out of the warehouse and not when they arrived in the economic territory. This means that the statistical processing of these data follows the special trade principle. However, in practice the time difference between storage and withdrawals from warehouses is usually so small that the statistical processing is considered to be approximately equal to the general trade principle. For the remaining two types of customs warehouse; duty free and storage for further processing, the statistical treatment is according to the general trade system.

Customs declarations of exports and imports of electric current do not provide enough information for statistical purposes, and data is therefore obtained directly from the respondent.

Svalbard and Jan Mayen

Import transported through the Norwegian mainland to Svalbard and Jan Mayen should be declared by customs. Data on exports of coal transported directly from Svalbard are collected directly from the respondents.

The Norwegian part of the continental shelf

Imports via the Norwegian mainland to Norwegian owned installations and vessels that operate on the continental shelf should be declared by customs. Exports of crude oil and natural gas delivered directly from the continental shelf are based on data from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate and the different operators.

Norwegian owned ships, aircraft and oil platforms

Exports and imports of ships, aircraft and oil platforms are based on information from Norwegian ship registers as well as from different respondents. Export of Norwegian goods (excluding bunkers) to foreign ships and aircraft in Norwegian ports and airports are covered by customs declarations.

Data on exports of fish caught by Norwegian fishing vessels outside the customs area and landed abroad is obtained from the Directorate of Fisheries.

In accordance with the UN recommendations the following trade in goods are not included in the statistics:

  • Goods in transit, ie goods attending the Norwegian economic territory to be directly transported to a recipient outside this area
  • Goods traded through intermediate trade, ie goods transported between two foreign countries without entering the Norwegian economic territory
  • Goods physically crossing the country border, but defined as a service (including newspaper subscriptions, accompanied baggage, household goods)
  • Content delivered electronically (including e-books, downloadable games, etc.), defined purely as a service
  • Issued banknotes, securities and monetary gold
  • Samples, gifts and promotional material etc. with a low value
  • Goods for repair or return after repair
  • Goods in unaltered condition in return to vendor (claims etc.) and waste containers, replacement deliveries and free repairs (warranty)
  • Items for temporary use, that are returned within 12 months (exhibition, demonstration, scientific research, loan, professional equipment, transport vehicles in international traffic, containers, equipment in use for the press, radio and television equipment, etc.)
  • Change in ownership of non-financial assets
  • Goods that are damaged on the journey to and from the Norwegian economic territory
  • Satellites equipment moved to and launched in other countries without any change of ownership
  • Goods functioning as means of transport (ship, aircraft, packaging, etc.
  • Waste and scrap without any commercial value

Furthermore goods totalling less than NOK 1 000 are omitted, these goods amounts to less than one per cent of the import and about 0.04 per cent of the export. Imports of goods for less than NOK 200 and exports of goods less than NOK 5.000 (except from goods that are subject to taxes and restrictions) are not subject to declaration by the Customs.

The statistics are mainly based on administrative information obtained from TVINN, which is the Norwegian Customs’ electronic information system for the exchange of customs declarations between businesses and Norwegian Customs. Some data is, however, obtained from other sources, and more information on this can be found in the paragraph on data collection.

Sampling is not not relevant as external trade is a total count of the goods defined in the population.

Data collection

The vast majority of the data is, as mentioned, collected through the Customs’ TVINN register and transmitted electronically to Statistics Norway. However, some additional data, as shown below, is obtained separately.

Exports of crude oil and natural gas in gaseous state

Preliminary and final figures for exported volumes of crude oil and natural gas in gaseous state are collected through monthly reports from the operators and the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The prices, however, are obtained via various sources depending on whether they relate to crude oil or natural gas, and whether the data is being collected to compile preliminary or final figures.



From 2013 on, the development in the in gas prices from the producer price index (PPI) used to calculate the preliminary gas prices for foreign trade, while the level will be based on the value determined from the last registered price. PPI obtain figures for natural gas from the journal World Gas Intelligence (WGI).

Preliminary oil prices are based on the reference price of Brent Blend for the current month.

For crude oil, the final prices: quarterly surveys from the licensees, as well as information from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy and the operators.

For natural gas, final prices: a quarterly average price based on information from a selection of licensees and operators.

Due to insufficient information about country of destination there are from 2013 on changes in the dissemination of the figures of exports of natural gas in gaseous state. From 2013, country of destination according to these figures will be based on the landing point of the pipelines with natural gas from the Norwegian continental shelf.

Exports of crude oil in pipelines to Great Britain

All exports of Norwegian crude oil that are transported by pipeline to Teeside are registered in the official statistics with the UK as the country of destination. The ownership is Norwegian until the oil is processed in Great Britain, but because a commodity is registered as exported when it physically has crossed the Norwegian border.

After this unstabilized crude oil has gone through a fractionation process, where it is separated into the components of stabilized crude oil, ethane, propane and butane, it is shipped onwards, thus giving a new country distribution. Crude oil has to be stabilized in order to be transported by ship.

Only those shipments regarded as genuine importation into Great Britain is regarded are included in the statistics of Great Britain. All other flows are regarded as being in transit, and therefore excluded.

The figures by country in Statbank table 12780 for “Crude oil, incl. oil by pipelines after processing in Great Britain” shows reallocated figures after country of destination for oil exports by pipe lines (to Great Britain) and by ship to all countries.

Only those shipments regarded as genuine importation into Great Britain is regarded are included in the statistics of Great Britain. All other flows are regarded as being in transit, and therefore excluded.

The fractionation process implies that some of the crude oil disappears, thereby different total figures.

Imports and exports of ships and oil platforms

The data collection for vessels is based on current information from the Norwegian ship registers the Norwegian Ordinary Ship Register (NOR) and the Norwegian International Ship Register (NIS).

When it comes to oil platforms, information is collected from the Norwegian ship registers, the Customs’ TVINN register and importer/exporter.

Imports and exports of electricity

Information is received from Statnett. The volume of imports and exports of electricity is measured by the net transfer of the power grid junction point towards foreign countries and is registered every hour and aggregated at a monthly level. The monthly price from Nord Pool is applied for imports and exports with all countries Norway has transmission of electricity with.

Imports and exports of aircraft

For some aircrafts, monthly reports are received from Statistics Sweden, while the rest are obtained through regular declarations in the TVINN system.

Exports of coal from Svalbard

Reports on the export of coal from Svalbard are received monthly from the exporter.

Exports of fish caught by Norwegian vessels outside the Norwegian customs border

Since July 2010, the figures have been obtained from the Directorate of Fisheries (FDIR). Prior to that, the information was gathered through TVINN.

Data editing

Information from customs declarations is subject to statistical controls in the Customs declaration system (TVINN). The controls to check the estimated price, quantity and country were developed by the Customs in cooperation with Statistics Norway.

Data controls at Statistics Norway take place at different levels - some as soon as the data is loaded into the system (automatic recoding of variables). The manual part of the revision consists of different types of validity and probability tests. The former are controls of absolute errors, such as missing transport code, while the other type of test may check unlikely country codes or unreasonably high quantities for a specific type of good. The system aims to intercept the most serious errors in the data. Data collected from sources other than the Customs also undergo similar checks.

Estimations

External trade is based on a total count but some items are excluded, cf. section of population. There is no need for any statistical estimations of current figures, only aggregations, in order to enable us to publish in a timely manner.

The seasonal adjustment method, which is used for the foreign trade monthly value series and the quarterly volume series, consists of pre-treatment of the values for the individual series using the seasonal adjustment programme X12-ARIMA. It was developed by the US Bureau of the Census, and is one of the most internationally known methods for seasonal adjustment. The purpose of the seasonally-adjusted figures is to show the real economic trends by eliminating interference caused by seasonal variations. There are two important corrections: one method adjusts for the number of weekdays of different kinds in each month. This can be important, since it is probable that exports and imports are distributed unevenly throughout the week. The second important correction is for the Easter holidays, since Easter can fall in different months and different quarters of the year. We assume that both imports and exports are affected the week before Easter, in the Easter week itself and the week after Easter. No special corrections are made for other holidays in the year.

The Statistics Act § 2-6 covers the disclosure of information.

The requirements for confidentiality in external trade of goods are practised so that data is suppressed only when the establishment/enterprise has a valid reason for confidential treatment and actively asks for it. Exporters/importers can demand suppression when there are 3 or fewer companies that import or export an item type to a given country, or when a company has a market share of over 90 per cent, or if two firms have a market share of over 95 per cent.This is called "passive confidentiality" and is in line with UN recommendations. This method is used by most countries..

Since Norway has a number of major manufacturers that are dominant in some product areas, some suppression of information exists on the export side. Between 5 and 10 per cent of mainland exports are affected by confidentiality. For imports, it is far less; around 1 per cent. Some commodity areas are more problematic with regard to dissemination, since suppression on highly aggregated levels must be carried out.

The six-digit HS-based commodity classification is subject to revisions due to technological development and also development in the commodity spectres of the international trade. These adjustments are normally made every five years. The most recent HS revision was implemented on 1 January 2012. Furthermore, national adjustments are made every year at the national eight-digit level. These revisions can create breaks in the time series for some commodity numbers. Detailed information about this is available in the yearly Commodity List External Trade. Correspondence tables between the different editions of the HS are available on the UN website.

With regard to the divisions according to the SITC, the current SITC-Rev.4 was introduced in January 2007, when it replaced the previous SITC-Rev.3 (1988-2006). The relation between the figures for the years before and after 2007 can be misleading for some commodity numbers. The degree of influence depends on the value of the commodity numbers that now have a different group affiliation. Correspondence tables between the different editions of the SITC are also available on the UN website.

For the tables that use the CPA nomenclature, the 2008 edition is used for the whole series.

Other elements influencing the comparability over time: The imports and exports of ships and oil platforms in the statistics were extended in 1991 to include transactions that concern vessels under a foreign flag with a Norwegian-registered holding company. Furthermore, the definition of developing countries was changed in 2007, which affects the figures slightly.

Collection errors can occur from incorrect values, incomplete information or misinterpretation of data on customs declarations. Examples of this are use of wrong commodity number, country code, county of production or incorrect quantity.

Other sources of error include late updates, which sometimes occur for the trade with ships and oil platforms.It is also difficult to intercept the transit trade, i.e. the buying and selling of commodities in foreign territory where a Norwegian company is one of the partners. Neither do we have a good data basis to estimate the processing exports for the preparation of goods abroad or imports for processing in Norway.

The rules for customs clearance, which entail exemption from the duty to declare for exports of goods when the value is below NOK 5 000 and exemption for imports of goods when the value is below NOK 200, lead to lower figures than the real trade. This is not the best solution for preparation of the national accounts, where these lacking figures are estimated separately.

The calculation of seasonally-adjusted data beyond the usual seasonal effects is adjusted for the fact that trade is distributed unevenly across the week and taking into account the effect of Easter, as described in the section of estimations. However, beyond this nothing in particular is done. Therefore it would be natural to assume that the seasonally-adjusted December figures should be interpreted more cautiously because of the Christmas holidays.

The export trade statistics is a full count, so there are therefore no non-response errors or sampling errors.

When publishing statistics for a new month of measurement, figures for the previous months in the same year are also revised. Furthermore, the figures for all months of the year are revised twice more: First time in May the following year (year t + 1), before final figures are published in May one year later (year t + 2). See https://www.ssb.no/en/statbank/list/muh in the Statbank for more information about the size of the revisions.

At the aggregate level, the difference between preliminary monthly figures and revised figures published in May year t + 1 will normally be small for imports and mainland exports. At a detailed level and for individual months, the revisions can be of greater importance, relatively speaking. For oil and gas, larger audits can be experienced, in particular, related to the calculation of oil and gas prices. The revisions of the final publication in year t + 2 will normally be of minor importance, but in some cases relatively significant corrections can also be uncovered in this time perspective.





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