1851_om
/en/arbeid-og-lonn/statistikker/aku/kvartal
1851_om
statistikk
2019-04-30T08:00:00.000Z
Labour market and earnings;Labour market and earnings;Immigration and immigrants
en
true

Labour force survey

Updated

Next update

Key figures

69.9 %

labour force

Population aged 15-74, by labour force status and sex
1st quarter 20191st quarter 2018 - 1st quarter 2019
Absolute numbersPer cent1Change in absolute numbersChange in percentage points1
1The labour force is calculated as a share of the population in the same age group. Labour force = number of employed persons + number of unemployed persons. Employed persons is calculated as a share of the population in the same age group. Unemployed is calculated as a share of the labour force in the same age group.
Labour force
Both sexes2 800 00069.930 0000.4
Males1 482 00072.614 0000.3
Females1 318 00067.116 0000.4
 
Employed persons
Both sexes2 692 00067.232 0000.4
Males1 422 00069.618 0000.5
Females1 270 00064.714 0000.3
 
Unemployed
Both sexes108 0003.9-2 000-0.1
Males60 0004.0-5 000-0.4
Females48 0003.73 0000.2

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
Population aged 15-74 by labour force status (LFS) and sex. 1000

Population aged 15-74 by labour force status (LFS) and sex. 1000
Annual average4th quarter 20171st quarter 20182nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 2019
20172018
Persons, total
Both sexes3 9663 9933 9773 9833 9883 9964 0044 006
Males2 0242 0372 0302 0322 0342 0382 0422 043
Females1 9421 9561 9471 9511 9541 9571 9621 964
 
The labour force
Both sexes2 7632 8022 7582 7702 8062 8272 8072 800
Males1 4621 4871 4591 4681 4911 5061 4841 482
Females1 3021 3151 2991 3021 3151 3211 3221 318
 
Employed persons
Both sexes2 6472 6942 6522 6602 6972 7132 7082 692
Males1 3941 4271 3961 4041 4281 4411 4341 422
Females1 2531 2681 2561 2561 2691 2721 2741 270
 
Unemployed
Both sexes11710810511010911498108
Males6861636563655060
Females4947434546494848
 
Persons outside of the labour force
Both sexes1 2031 1901 2191 2131 1821 1691 1971 206
Males563549571563544532558561
Females640641649649639637639646

Table 2 
Population aged 15-74 by labour force status (LFS) and sex. Changes from the same period in the previous year. 1000

Population aged 15-74 by labour force status (LFS) and sex. Changes from the same period in the previous year. 1000
Annual average4th quarter 20171st quarter 20182nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 2019
20172018
Persons, total
Total3127282726262723
Males1513141312121211
Females1614141414141513
 
Labour force, total
In total-639132825554930
Males-625111522402514
Females1133123152316
 
Employed persons
In total947243941555632
Males633182331403818
Females31561610151814
 
Unemployed
In total-14-9-11-12-170-7-2
Males-11-7-7-7-90-13-5
Females-3-2-3-5-7053
 
Persons outside of the labour force
Total37-131401-29-22-7
Males22-143-3-9-29-13-2
Females151122110-10-3

Table 3 
Population aged 15-74 by labour force status(LFS) and sex. Per cent

Population aged 15-74 by labour force status(LFS) and sex. Per cent
Annual average4th quarter 20171st quarter 20182nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 2019
20172018
Labour force in per cent of the population
Both sexes69.770.269.369.570.470.770.169.9
Males72.273.071.972.373.373.972.772.6
Females67.067.266.766.767.367.567.467.1
 
Employed persons in per cent of the population
Both sexes66.767.566.766.867.667.967.667.2
Males68.870.068.869.170.270.770.269.6
Females64.564.864.564.465.065.064.964.7
 
Unemployed persons in per cent of the labour force
Both sexes4.23.83.84.03.94.03.53.9
Males4.64.14.34.44.24.33.44.0
Females3.83.63.33.53.53.73.73.7
 
Outside the labour force in per cent of the population
Both sexes30.329.830.730.529.629.329.930.1
Males27.827.028.127.726.726.127.327.4
Females33.032.833.333.332.732.532.632.9

Table 4 
Persons in the labour force and employed persons aged 15-74, by age and sex (LFS). 1 000

Persons in the labour force and employed persons aged 15-74, by age and sex (LFS). 1 000
Annual average4th quarter 20171st quarter 20182nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 2019
20172018
Labour force
15-74 years
Both sexes2 7632 8022 7582 7702 8062 8272 8072 800
Males1 4621 4871 4591 4681 4911 5061 4841 482
Females1 3021 3151 2991 3021 3151 3211 3221 318
 
15-24 years
Both sexes363364358350372375358357
Males188188184181193196182183
Females175176174169179179176174
 
25-66 years
Both sexes2 3562 3872 3562 3742 3842 3992 3912 387
Males1 2451 2671 2481 2581 2661 2771 2671 264
Females1 1111 1201 1081 1151 1181 1231 1241 124
 
Employed
15-74 years
Both sexes2 6472 6942 6522 6602 6972 7132 7082 692
Males1 3941 4271 3961 4041 4281 4411 4341 422
Females1 2531 2681 2561 2561 2691 2721 2741 270
 
15-24 years
Both sexes324329326320332340325321
Males165168165162169176166164
Females158161161157163164159157
 
25-66 years
Both sexes2 2782 3142 2832 2942 3152 3212 3262 316
Males1 2001 2261 2041 2131 2271 2311 2331 224
Females1 0791 0881 0791 0821 0881 0891 0931 092

Table 5 
Persons in the labour force and employed persons aged 15-74, by age and sex (LFS). In per cent of the population

Persons in the labour force and employed persons aged 15-74, by age and sex (LFS). In per cent of the population
Annual average4th quarter 20171st quarter 20182nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 2019
20172018
Persons in the labour force
15-74 years
Both sexes69.770.269.369.570.470.770.169.9
Males72.273.071.972.373.373.972.772.6
Females67.067.266.766.767.367.567.467.1
 
15-24 years
Both sexes54.555.054.052.856.256.854.254.1
Males54.655.053.652.856.557.453.353.8
Females54.455.054.452.756.056.155.254.4
 
25-66 years
Both sexes81.381.881.181.681.882.281.781.5
Males84.084.983.984.685.085.484.784.5
Females78.578.678.178.578.578.878.678.4
 
Employed persons
15-74 years
Both sexes66.767.566.766.867.667.967.667.2
Males68.870.068.869.170.270.770.269.6
Females64.564.864.564.465.065.064.964.7
 
15-24 years
Both sexes48.649.749.048.150.251.449.248.5
Males48.049.248.147.349.551.648.648.1
Females49.350.250.049.050.851.249.849.0
 
25-66 years
Both sexes78.779.378.678.979.579.579.579.1
Males81.082.181.081.582.382.382.481.9
Females76.276.476.176.176.576.576.476.2

Table 6 
Persons aged 15-74, employed by contractual/usual working hours per week and unemployed, by age and sex (LFS). 1 000

Persons aged 15-74, employed by contractual/usual working hours per week and unemployed, by age and sex (LFS). 1 0001
Annual average4th quarter 20171st quarter 20182nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 2019
20172018
1Short part-time=1-19 working hours. Long part-time=20-36 working hours, with exception of persons with 32-36 hours who classify themselves as full-time employed. Full-time = 37 or more hours, including the exceptions mentioned above.
15-74 years
Both sexes
Total3 9663 9933 9773 9833 9883 9964 0044 006
Employed persons2 6472 6942 6522 6602 6972 7132 7082 692
Short part-time319320331325325303328340
Long part-time346355336344357356362342
Full time1 9722 0091 9771 9792 0032 0462 0091 999
Not reported working hours9108111281010
Unemployed persons11710810511010911498108
 
15-19 years
Both sexes
Total322320320322319320321320
Employed persons1041031049998109106103
Short part-time6260646260576062
Long part-time101067914129
Full time3132323027373330
Not reported working hours11212011
Unemployed persons2017151321181617
 
20-24 years
Both sexes
Total343342344342343341340341
Employed persons219226222220234231219218
Short part-time7172767876617374
Long part-time3736373238383535
Full time109116107106117131110106
Not reported working hours23244222
Unemployed persons2018181719171719
 
25-54 years
Males
Total1 1131 1181 1161 1161 1171 1191 1201 121
Employed persons938958940943959964966958
Short part-time3431373331303138
Long part-time5054495553525650
Full time852870851853873880875867
Not reported working hours22222234
Unemployed persons3936374235402932
 
Females
Total1 0551 0621 0581 0601 0601 0621 0641 065
Employed persons851858852855858859862862
Short part-time8284848185828991
Long part-time169169167169172167169165
Full time597602599601598607601604
Not reported working hours23133332
Unemployed persons2929273127302829
 
55-66 years
Males
Total368374370372374376376375
Employed persons262268264269268268267266
Short part-time1718181918161818
Long part-time1618161718181918
Full time228232230233231233230229
Not reported working hours00000000
Unemployed persons65734658
 
Females
Total360363361362363362366368
Employed persons228230227227231231231230
Short part-time3635343435363634
Long part-time5355525556545652
Full time138140141138140141140144
Not reported working hours10000001
Unemployed persons33232332
 
67-74 years
Both sexes
Total404413408410413416416417
Employed persons4551444650525755
Short part-time1620181820202222
Long part-time111391012131513
Full time1718161618192019
Not reported working hours00010101
Unemployed persons00000000

Table 7 
Persons in the labour force aged 15-74, by age and sex (LFS). 1 000

Persons in the labour force aged 15-74, by age and sex (LFS). 1 000
Annual average4th quarter 20171st quarter 20182nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 2019
20172018
Both sexes
Total2 7632 8022 7582 7702 8062 8272 8072 800
15-19 years124120119113119127122120
20-24 years239244239238253248236237
25-29 years305311303309307313313312
30-39 years614628616619628633632628
40-54 years938943937943944945939942
55-66 years499506499503505507507506
67-74 years4551444650535755
 
Males
Total1 4621 4871 4591 4681 4911 5061 4841 482
15-19 years6259585661645658
20-24 years126129126125132132126126
25-29 years158160157157160164161160
30-39 years326337329333338340336334
40-54 years492497491496496499497497
55-66 years268273271273272273273273
67-74 years2932272931343535
 
Females
Total1 3021 3151 2991 3021 3151 3211 3221 318
15-19 years6261615658636662
20-24 years113115114113121116110112
25-29 years147150146152147149152152
30-39 years287291287286290293296294
40-54 years446446446447447446442445
55-66 years230233229230233234234232
67-74 years1619161719192221

Table 8 
Persons in the labour force aged 15-74, by age and sex (LFS). As per cent of all in each group

Persons in the labour force aged 15-74, by age and sex (LFS). As per cent of all in each group
Annual average4th quarter 20171st quarter 20182nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 2019
20172018
Both sexes
15-74 years69.770.269.369.570.470.770.169.9
15-19 years38.537.537.135.037.339.638.137.6
20-24 years69.671.469.669.473.872.969.469.6
25-29 years82.583.581.683.282.984.483.884.2
30-39 years87.188.087.087.288.088.588.487.4
40-54 years85.886.285.686.286.486.485.885.9
55-66 years68.568.568.368.568.568.768.368.1
67-74 years11.112.410.711.212.112.613.613.2
 
Males
15-74 years72.273.071.972.373.373.972.772.6
15-19 years37.035.935.034.037.138.734.035.1
20-24 years71.272.870.870.574.474.971.471.4
25-29 years83.784.682.882.984.686.484.384.4
30-39 years90.091.990.591.292.192.691.790.7
40-54 years87.688.587.388.388.588.888.388.2
55-66 years72.972.873.173.372.872.672.573.0
67-74 years14.515.913.714.215.616.817.216.8
 
Females
15-74 years67.067.266.766.767.367.567.467.1
15-19 years40.039.339.436.237.640.642.540.2
20-24 years68.069.868.368.373.170.767.167.6
25-29 years81.382.580.583.581.082.383.284.0
30-39 years83.983.983.382.983.684.184.883.9
40-54 years83.983.883.883.984.283.883.183.5
55-66 years64.064.163.463.664.164.763.963.1
67-74 years7.79.07.98.38.88.710.29.8

Table 9 
Employed persons aged 15-74, by sex and contractual/usual working hours per week (LFS). 1 000

Employed persons aged 15-74, by sex and contractual/usual working hours per week (LFS). 1 0001
Annual average4th quarter 20171st quarter 20182nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 2019
20172018
1Part-time = 1-36 hours, with exception of persons with 32-36 working hours who classify themselves as full-time employed. Full-time = 37 hours and over and the cases mentioned above.
Both sexes
Total2 6472 6942 6522 6602 6972 7132 7082 692
Part-time, total665675667670682659690682
Short part-time. 1-9 hours126132137137134116141152
Short part-time. 10-19 hours193188194188191187188188
Long part-time. 20-29 hours182189177185193190187180
Long part-time. 30-36 hours164166158160164166174163
Full time, total1 9722 0091 9771 9792 0032 0462 0091 999
Full time. 32-36 hours173176169168172185181183
Full-time. 37-44 hours1 6061 6441 6151 6251 6431 6681 6401 643
Full-time. 45 hours and more189185189181183191184169
Average contractual/usual working hours34.334.334.234.134.234.634.234.0
 
Males
Total1 3941 4271 3961 4041 4281 4411 4341 422
Part-time, total204208206208209199214215
Short part-time. 1-9 hours4746484747424856
Short part-time. 10-19 hours6663706765596265
Long part-time. 20-29 hours4955465457545451
Long part-time. 30-36 hours4244424141435043
Full time, total1 1871 2141 1871 1901 2131 2391 2161 203
Full time. 32-36 hours8186818285888789
Full-time. 37-44 hours9589869589709871 004982980
Full-time. 45 hours and more145140145135138145144132
Average contractual/usual working hours36.636.636.536.436.536.936.536.2
 
Females
Total1 2531 2681 2561 2561 2691 2721 2741 270
Part-time, total462468460461473460476468
Short part-time. 1-9 hours7986889087749395
Short part-time. 10-19 hours128125124121126127126124
Long part-time. 20-29 hours133134131131136136133129
Long part-time. 30-36 hours122122117119124123124120
Full time, total786795791789790808793797
Full time. 32-36 hours9291888686969394
Full-time. 37-44 hours648658656655656664658663
Full-time. 45 hours and more4444444645454138
Average contractual/usual working hours31.831.731.631.631.631.931.531.5

Table 10 
Population aged 15-74, by main activity, part-time employment and age (LFS). 1 000

Population aged 15-74, by main activity, part-time employment and age (LFS). 1 0001
Annual average4th quarter 20171st quarter 20182nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 2019
20172018
1
2The term employed here includes full-time employed persons, as well as part-time workers who consider the employment as their main activity.
15-74 years
Persons
Total3 9663 9933 9773 9833 9883 9964 0044 006
Part-time employees665675667670682659690682
Employed2
Total2 4042 4422 3982 4042 4442 4772 4442 426
Part-time employees431433421426441431435427
Attended school, studied
Total513500522521498473508523
Part-time employees156153161158152145156158
Homeworking
Total4041394043413938
Part-time employees45457534
Early retired/disabled
Total382396393381390395419406
Part-time employees2325242023263030
Retired
Total387391392395394390384393
Part-time employees1519172118182020
Other activities/Unspecified
Total241222233241220220209220
Part-time employees3640394041344644
 
15-19 years
Persons
Total322320320322319320321320
Part-time employees7270706869717271
Employed2
Total3939393732454137
Part-time employees87665887
Attended school, studied
Total266263263270270253260262
Part-time employees5856565659555556
Other activities/Unspecified
Total1818181517221920
Part-time employees67765899
 
20-24 years
Persons
Total343342344342343341340341
Part-time employees10810711311011399108110
Employed2
Total143150139138158161142139
Part-time employees3534323241303333
Attended school, studied
Total155146162155139137155160
Part-time employees6665726964616667
Homeworking
Total22333321
Part-time employees00010000
Other activities/Unspecified
Total4343414744414140
Part-time employees78889799
 
25-54 years
Persons
Total2 1692 1802 1742 1762 1762 1822 1852 185
Part-time employees336339337338340331345344
Employed2
Total1 7211 7471 7231 7281 7471 7631 7531 744
Part-time employees272275272273276276276273
Attended school, studied
Total9189979487829198
Part-time employees3231323329293535
Homeworking
Total2829272830282930
Part-time employees34235432
Early retired/disabled
Total166168171163165165178174
Part-time employees10101291091114
Other activities/Unspecified
Total163147156163147144134140
Part-time employees1818181921132120
 
55-66 years
Persons
Total728738731734737738742743
Part-time employees123126120125127124128122
Employed2
Total470474470474475474473471
Part-time employees1041039910310510010298
Homeworking
Total99999987
Part-time employees11112101
Early retired/disabled
Total189202195192199204214206
Part-time employees1215111113171815
Retired
Total3329313332262329
Part-time employees33454223
Other activities/Unspecified
Total2824262522252529
Part-time employees34454454
 
67-74 years
Persons
Total404413408410413416416417
Part-time employees2733272932333736
Employed2
Total3132292832353635
Part-time employees1314121115161616
Homeworking
Total11110110
Part-time employees00000000
Retired
Total353362359363362363360364
Part-time employees1216121514151816
Other activities/Unspecified
Total1919201919171919
Part-time employees12223133

Table 11 
Employed persons aged 15-74, by major industry division (LFS). 1 000

Employed persons aged 15-74, by major industry division (LFS). 1 0001
Annual average4th quarter 20171st quarter 20182nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 2019
20172018
1
Total2 6472 6942 6522 6602 6972 7132 7082 692
01-03 Agriculture, forestry and fishing5656545459595453
05-09 Mining and quarrying5362546162646261
10-33 Manufacturing210207208203204210212207
35-39 Power and water supply, sew./remed.act.3231333033323129
41-43 Construction210220213216220224220221
45-47 Domestic trade, car repair shops358350352347352351350347
49-53 Transportation and storage134127134129127126127126
55-56 Accomm. and food service act.8290878988949190
58-63 Information and communication10010310299105105104104
64-66 Financial and insurance act.5054535554535453
68-75 Real estate, profess., scient. and tech.act.177186179184185187188187
77-82 Adm. and support service act.122132126128130131138129
84 Public administration and defence183183183185186183177177
85 Education219222219225222218222224
86-88 Human health and social work act.540549537540549554551554
90-99 Other service act.114120115114120122123127
Unspecified72421243

Table 12 
Average number of man-weeks worked (37.5 hours), by industry division (LFS). 1 000

Average number of man-weeks worked (37.5 hours), by industry division (LFS). 1 0001
Annual average4th quarter 20171st quarter 20182nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 2019
20172018
1The time series is not adjusted for alternating holidays.
00-99 Total2 0162 0372 0812 0612 1221 8512 1132 163
01-03 Agriculture, forestry and fishing5759565566615353
05-09 Mining and quarrying4352454852545349
10-33 Manufacturing174168178169172156176183
35-39 Electricity, water supply, sewerage, waste management2627272729242827
41-43 Construction180187189185194173195198
45 Wholesale and retail trade and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles4441464344374142
46 Wholesale trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles8684878785768791
47 Retail trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles125125127123125120132126
49-53 Transportation and storage11010411010310798107105
55-56 Acommodation and food service activities5659585658606157
58-63 Information and communication8485868888759195
64-66 Financial and insurance activities4244474646374647
68-75 Real estate, professional, scientific and technical activities146149151154156132155167
77-82 Administrative and support service activities88969193989210199
84 Public adm., defence, soc. security149149156158158130149152
85 Education154157164170168121167176
86-88 Human health and social work activities369370380378388330382404
90-99 Other service activities7881817986748691

Table 13 
Employed persons aged 15-74 and absence from work during the whole reference week, by reason for absence and sex (LFS). Per cent

Employed persons aged 15-74 and absence from work during the whole reference week, by reason for absence and sex (LFS). Per cent
Annual average4th quarter 20171st quarter 20182nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 2019
20172018
Both sexes
In total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
At work83.883.786.286.989.273.085.989.8
Temporarily absent, total16.216.313.813.110.827.014.110.2
Illness3.43.43.64.23.03.03.53.8
Holiday8.38.45.13.83.620.65.62.1
Taking time off/ working time arrangement1.41.51.71.61.21.02.11.4
Laid off0.10.00.10.10.00.00.00.1
Other reason/ unspecified3.13.03.33.43.02.52.92.8
 
Males
In total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
At work85.585.387.988.590.575.287.391.6
Temporarily absent, total14.514.712.111.59.524.812.78.4
Illness2.83.03.13.72.52.82.92.9
Holiday8.28.25.23.93.519.35.82.2
Taking time off/ working time arrangement1.61.71.81.71.51.22.41.7
Laid off0.10.10.10.10.10.00.00.1
Other reason/ unspecified1.81.81.92.11.91.51.51.5
 
Females
In total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
At work81.881.984.385.287.870.584.287.9
Temporarily absent, total18.218.115.714.812.229.515.812.1
Illness4.03.94.34.73.53.14.34.7
Holiday8.58.74.93.73.622.05.21.9
Taking time off/ working time arrangement1.21.21.71.50.90.71.81.2
Laid off0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0
Other reason/ unspecified4.54.34.94.84.23.74.54.3

Table 14 
Employed persons aged 15-74 and absence from work during the whole reference week, by reason for absence and sex (LFS). 1 000

Employed persons aged 15-74 and absence from work during the whole reference week, by reason for absence and sex (LFS). 1 000
Annual average4th quarter 20171st quarter 20182nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 2019
20172018
Both sexes
In total2 6472 6942 6522 6602 6972 7132 7082 692
At work2 2172 2552 2852 3132 4071 9792 3252 418
Temporarily absent, total430439367347290734383274
Illness909296111808196101
Holiday2202271351029655815056
Taking time off/ working time arrangement3739464232265739
Laid off21121001
Other reason/ unspecified8280889180687976
 
Males
In total1 3941 4271 3961 4041 4281 4411 4341 422
At work1 1921 2181 2271 2421 2931 0831 2521 303
Temporarily absent, total202209169162135358182119
Illness3942435135414141
Holiday1141177355502788431
Taking time off/ working time arrangement2224252421183424
Laid off11121001
Other reason/ unspecified2625273028212222
 
Females
In total1 2531 2681 2561 2561 2691 2721 2741 270
At work1 0251 0381 0581 0701 1148961 0731 116
Temporarily absent, total228230198186155376201154
Illness5150535945405460
Holiday1061106247462806725
Taking time off/ working time arrangement151521181182315
Laid off00010000
Other reason/ unspecified5755616153475754

Table 15 
Employed persons aged 15-74, and average number of man-weeks worked (a 37.5 hours) per week, by sex and status. 1 000. Actual working hours, by sex and status. Hours per week

Employed persons aged 15-74, and average number of man-weeks worked (a 37.5 hours) per week, by sex and status. 1 000. Actual working hours, by sex and status. Hours per week
Annual Average4th quarter 20171st quarter 20182nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 2019
20172018
Employed persons total
Both sexes
Total2 6472 6942 6522 6602 6972 7132 7082 692
Salaried employees2 4712 5212 4812 4862 5252 5392 5342 519
Self-employed172170169171169171171170
Family workers33234343
Males
Total1 3941 4271 3961 4041 4281 4411 4341 422
Salaried employees1 2741 3071 2781 2861 3091 3221 3131 303
Self-employed118118117116117118120118
Family workers11111111
Females
Total1 2531 2681 2561 2561 2691 2721 2741 270
Salaried employees1 1971 2131 2031 2001 2151 2171 2211 216
Self-employed5453515552535152
Family workers12113122
 
Employed persons at work
Both sexes
Total2 2172 2562 2862 3122 4071 9792 3252 418
Salaried employees2 0632 1072 1332 1592 2531 8442 1712 262
Self-employed150146150151150133151154
Family workers23223232
Males
Total1 1921 2181 2271 2421 2921 0831 2531 303
Salaried employees1 0871 1151 1221 1371 1889881 1461 194
Self-employed10410210510410494106108
Family workers11111111
Females
Total1 0251 0381 0581 0701 1148961 0731 116
Salaried employees9769921 0121 0221 0658561 0251 068
Self-employed4745454747394547
Family workers12112122
 
Man-weeks worked
Both sexes
Total2 0162 0372 0802 0612 1221 8502 1132 163
Salaried employees1 8601 8871 9281 9101 9671 7101 9602 011
Self-employed154149152151154139152151
Family workers11111121
Males
Total1 1661 1851 2041 1881 2311 0881 2311 253
Salaried employees1 0531 0751 0911 0801 1189841 1171 141
Self-employed112109112108113104113112
Family workers00000010
Females
Total850852876873890762882910
Salaried employees807812836830849726842870
Self-employed4239394241353939
Family workers11111110
 
Actual working hours per week
Both sexes
Total34.133.934.133.533.135.134.133.6
Salaried employees33.833.633.933.232.734.833.933.4
Self-employed38.538.137.937.338.339.137.836.7
Family workers14.916.814.114.416.118.518.211.8
Males
Total36.736.536.835.935.737.736.936.1
Salaried employees36.436.236.535.635.337.336.635.8
Self-employed40.740.340.339.140.841.640.038.9
Family workers13.215.07.410.512.515.222.611.5
Females
Total31.130.831.130.630.031.930.930.6
Salaried employees31.030.731.030.529.931.930.830.6
Self-employed33.533.032.533.532.933.232.631.4
Family workers16.118.118.418.617.922.916.312.0

Table 16 
Employees aged 15-74 with temporary jobs, by major industry division (LFS). 1000

Employees aged 15-74 with temporary jobs, by major industry division (LFS). 1000
Annual average4th quarter 20171st quarter 20182nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 2019
20172018
Total209211202196210229209186
01-03 Agriculture, forestry and fishing33234422
05-39 Mining etc., manufacture, power and water supply131213910141311
41-43 Construction81088912119
45-47 Wholesale and retail trade: repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles2320241719252019
49-53 Transportation and storage888810865
55-56 Accommodation and food service activities111211111117119
58-63 Information and communication45336644
64-66 Financial and insurance activities11110111
68-82 Real estate, scientific, technical, administrative and support service activities2427282427292721
84 Public adm., defence, soc. security12119111013109
85 Education2829283228253128
86-88 Human health and social work activities6161585763646056
90-99 Other service activities1111101111111311

Table 17 
Employees aged 15-74 with temporary jobs, by major industry division (LFS). In per cent of all employees

Employees aged 15-74 with temporary jobs, by major industry division (LFS). In per cent of all employees
Annual average4th quarter 20171st quarter 20182nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 2019
20172018
Total8.48.48.27.98.39.08.37.4
01-03 Agriculture, forestry and fishing9.111.36.010.813.811.98.28.4
05-39 Mining etc., manufacture, power and water supply4.64.04.53.33.54.74.53.9
41-43 Construction4.65.14.04.44.75.85.44.4
45-47 Domestic trade, car repair shop6.66.17.25.25.77.45.95.8
49-53 Transportation and storage6.36.86.56.48.67.05.24.1
55-56 Accomommodation and food service activities14.214.513.012.613.718.612.910.7
58-63 Information and communication4.14.93.33.56.25.84.14.0
64-66 Financial and insurance activities2.01.21.91.90.71.01.12.2
68-82 Real estate, scientific, technical, administrative and support service activities8.99.49.98.69.510.19.37.4
84 Public adm., defence, soc. security6.86.04.85.85.57.05.65.2
85 Education13.213.313.114.612.911.714.012.9
86-88 Human health and social work activities11.711.511.211.011.812.111.310.5
90-99 Other service activities12.111.810.711.611.111.612.910.4

Table 18 
Unemployed persons aged 15-74, by sex and age (LFS). 1 000 and per cent

Unemployed persons aged 15-74, by sex and age (LFS). 1 000 and per cent
Annual average4th quarter 20171st quarter 20182nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 2019
20172018
Unemployed
Both sexes
In total11710810511010911498108
15-24 years3935333140353337
25-54 years6865647362695761
55-74 years988779810
Males
In total6861636563655060
15-24 years2320191924201620
25-54 years3936374235402932
55-74 years65734658
Females
In total4947434546494848
15-24 years1715141216161717
25-54 years2929273127302829
55-74 years33232332
 
Unemployed as per cent of the labour force
Both sexes
In total4.23.83.84.03.94.03.53.9
15-24 years10.89.69.18.810.89.59.210.3
25-54 years3.73.53.53.93.33.73.03.3
55-74 years1.71.41.51.21.21.61.51.8
Males
In total4.64.14.34.44.24.33.44.0
15-24 years12.110.510.210.512.310.18.810.7
25-54 years4.03.73.84.33.53.92.93.3
55-74 years2.11.52.21.21.51.91.72.6
Females
In total3.83.63.33.53.53.73.73.7
15-24 years9.48.78.06.99.28.79.79.8
25-54 years3.43.33.13.53.13.33.23.2
55-74 years1.11.20.71.31.01.31.20.9

Table 19 
Unemployed persons aged 15-74, by duration of job search (LFS). 1 000 and per cent

Unemployed persons aged 15-74, by duration of job search (LFS). 1 000 and per cent
Annual average4th quarter 20171st quarter 20182nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 2019
20172018
Total11710810511010911498108
1-4 weeks2424182329242123
5-13 weeks2422252219242122
14-26 weeks1817171818181419
27-39 weeks56444869
40-52 weeks1815171716151213
53 weeks and over1614181412141615
 
Total100100100100100100100100
1-4 weeks2122172127212121
5-13 weeks2120242017212120
14-26 weeks1516161617161418
27-39 weeks46444768
40-52 weeks1514161515131212
53 weeks and over1413171311121614
 
Average duration (weeks)31.534.033.331.029.429.534.031.9

Table 20 
Unemployed persons aged 15-74, by main activity (LFS). 1 000

Unemployed persons aged 15-74, by main activity (LFS). 1 000
Annual average4th quarter 20171st quarter 20182nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 2019
20172018
Total11710810511010911498108
Home working22212222
Attended school, studied3126232331262529
Unemployed7572747967786470
Other activities/Unspecified107687878

Table 21 
Unemployed and underemployed persons aged 15-74, by sex and desired working hours per week. Number of man-weeks (of 37,5 hours) supplied (LFS). 1 000

Unemployed and underemployed persons aged 15-74, by sex and desired working hours per week. Number of man-weeks (of 37,5 hours) supplied (LFS). 1 000
Annual average4th quarter 20171st quarter 20182nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 2019
20172018
1Includes the number of man-weeks desired by the unemployed persons and the desired man-weeks minus the present man-weeks of the underemployed persons
Both sexes
Unemployed persons
Total11710810511010911498108
1-19 hours2119171913222026
20-36 hours2424192033202219
37 hours or more7265707263715664
Average working hours desired (hours per week)3232333233323131
Number of man-weeks desired9992929595978289
Underemployed persons
Total6166596362657264
1-19 hours45563457
20-36 hours2425222523242724
37 hours or more3336313235374034
Average working hours desired (hours per week)3434333335343433
Desired man-weeks subtracted present man-weeks2325222324252826
 
Number of man-weeks supplied, total1122117114118119122110115
 
Males
Unemployed persons
Total6861636563655060
1-19 hours9789410612
20-36 hours12106919667
37 hours or more4743484740493741
Average working hours desired (hours per week)3334343434343432
Number of man-weeks desired6055575957594552
Underemployed persons
Total1821182119202322
1-19 hours12231123
20-36 hours56456677
37 hours or more1213131312131412
Average working hours desired (hours per week)3434343335343432
Desired man-weeks subtracted present man-weeks898988109
 
Number of man-weeks supplied, total16864656865675561
 
Women
Unemployed persons
Total4947434546494848
1-19 hours12129119121414
20-36 hours1314121114141511
37 hours or more2422222423221923
Average working hours desired (hours per week)3030313031292929
Number of man-weeks desired3938353738383737
Underemployed persons
Total4345404243455042
1-19 hours23332344
20-36 hours1919192017172017
37 hours or more2123191923242622
Average working hours desired (hours per week)3434333335343433
Desired man-weeks subtracted present man-weeks1516141416161816
 
Number of man-weeks supplied, total15454495154545553

Table 22 
Employed persons aged 15-74, by occupation and sex. Annual average. Per cent

Employed persons aged 15-74, by occupation and sex. Annual average. Per cent
20172018
Both sexesMalesFemalesBoth sexesMalesFemales
In total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
1. Managers8.510.06.98.810.76.6
2. Professionals27.121.033.827.221.233.9
3. Technicians and associate professionals16.217.814.416.117.514.5
4. Clerical support workers5.64.76.55.54.56.7
5. Service and sales workers21.012.830.021.213.330.1
6. Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers1.92.70.91.82.70.9
7. Craft and related trades workers9.216.70.99.216.60.9
8. Plant and machine operators and assemblers5.89.61.65.59.21.4
0,9. Other occupations4.84.65.04.74.45.0

Table 23 
Employed persons aged 15-74, by occupation and sex. Annual average. 1 000

Employed persons aged 15-74, by occupation and sex. Annual average. 1 000
20172018
Both sexesMalesFemalesBoth sexesMalesFemales
In total2 6471 3941 2532 6941 4271 268
1. Managers2251398623715284
2. Professionals717293424733303430
3. Technicians and associate professionals428248180433249184
4. Clerical support workers14766821486485
5. Service and sales workers555179376571189381
6. Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers493811503812
7. Craft and related trades workers2442331124823612
8. Plant and machine operators and assemblers1541342014913217
0,9. Other occupations12764631276364

Table 24 
Employed persons aged 15-74, by occupation, sector and sex. Annual average. 1000

Employed persons aged 15-74, by occupation, sector and sex. Annual average. 1000
2018
All sectorsPrivate sector and public enterprisesPublic sector
Both sexesMalesFemalesBoth sexesMalesFemalesBoth sexesMalesFemales
In total2 6941 4271 2681 8011 146656873272601
1. Managers2371528419013356471927
2. Professionals733303430318186132412116296
3. Technicians and associate professionals4332491843252071191054164
4. Clerical support workers1486485125586723617
5. Service and sales workers57118938133713320522655171
6. Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers503812483711211
7. Craft and related trades workers2482361223822711771
8. Plant and machine operators and assemblers1491321714412716431
0,9. Other occupations1276364773839472424

Table 25 
Employed persons ages 15-74, by occupation and major industry division. Annual average. 1000

Employed persons ages 15-74, by occupation and major industry division. Annual average. 1000
2018
In total1. Managers2. Professionals3. Technicians and associate professionals4. Clerical support workers5. Service and sales workers6. Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers7. Craft and related trades workers8. Plant and machine operators and assemblers0,9. Other occupations
00-99 All industries2 69423773343314857150248149127
01-02 Agriculture and forestry381010131121
03 Fishing181121011010
05-09 Oil and gas extraction, mining and quarrying62614193108101
10-33 Manufacturing207272039166053434
35-39 Electricity, gas, water supply31368310424
41-43 Construction2202011217211242410
45-47 Domestic trade3505518493015603067
49-53 Transport and storage1278421221004499
55-56 Accommodation and food service activities90102375501111
58-63 Information and communication103126021330202
64-66 Financial and insurance activities5461133210001
68-82 Real estate, tech.adm service3182794762536414634
84 Public administration and defence18320744091403122
85 Education2221116585270006
86-88 Human health and social work activities5491722164822701110
90-99 Other service activities1201431267321335

Table 26 
Employed persons aged 15-74, by sex, occupation and contractual/usual work time. Annual average

Employed persons aged 15-74, by sex, occupation and contractual/usual work time. Annual average
2018
TotalPart-timePercent Part-timeFull-timePercent Full-timeAverage working hours per week
Both sexes
In total2 69467525.12 00974.634.3
1. Managers237187.521992.538.9
2. Professionals73314519.758780.135.6
3. Technicians and associate professionals4337016.136283.535.6
4. Clerical support workers1484228.110671.732.9
5. Service and sales workers57130553.526145.728.2
6. Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers501121.53978.040.5
7. Craft and related trades workers248145.823394.037.7
8. Plant and machine operators and assemblers1491912.413087.437.5
0,9. Other occupations1275341.67357.429.4
 
Males
In total1 42720814.61 21485.136.6
1. Managers152117.014292.939.6
2. Professionals3033310.927089.037.3
3. Technicians and associate professionals2492710.922188.836.8
4. Clerical support workers641219.45180.534.6
5. Service and sales workers1897640.311158.730.7
6. Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers38717.23182.242.6
7. Craft and related trades workers236125.122494.737.9
8. Plant and machine operators and assemblers1321410.911789.038.0
0,9. Other occupations631523.84775.133.4
 
Females
In total1 26846836.979562.731.6
1. Managers8478.27791.737.6
2. Professionals43011125.931773.834.3
3. Technicians and associate professionals1844323.114076.434.0
4. Clerical support workers852934.75565.031.7
5. Service and sales workers38122960.115039.326.9
6. Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers12435.4764.333.3
7. Craft and related trades workers12219.0980.035.1
8. Plant and machine operators and assemblers17424.11375.634.3
0,9. Other occupations643859.22539.925.4

About the statistics

The purpose of the Labour Force Survey is to provide information on the development in employment and unemployment, and on the relationship to the labour market for different groups. The statistics are published quarterly, normally 4 weeks after the end of the quarter.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Concepts and definitions are in accordance with recommendations given by the International Labour Organization (ILO) and EU/Eurostat.

According to the international recommendations persons above a specified age should be classified by their attachment to the labour market in a specified, short period, either a day or a week. In the Norwegian LFS the reference period is one week, and the sample of persons are classified in relation to their situation in that reference week.

Employed persons are persons aged 15-74 who performed work for pay or profit for at least one hour in the reference week, or who were temporarily absent from work because of illness, holidays etc. Conscripts are classified as employed persons. Persons engaged by government measures to promote employment are also included if they receive wages. Persons laid off 100 per cent with a continuous duration of until three months are defined as employed, temporarily absent.

Unemployed persons are persons who were not employed in the reference week, but who had been seeking work during the preceding four weeks, and were available for work in the reference week or within the next two weeks (in 1996-2005 one should be available within two weeks following the time of interview, and until 1996 one should be able to start working in the reference week). Persons laid off 100 per cent are defined as unemployed after three continuous months of leave.

Persons in the labour force are either employed or unemployed. The remaining group of persons is labelled not in the labour force .

Man-hours worked include all actual working hours, i.e. including overtime and excluding absence from work. Persons absent from work are not included in the calculation of actual working hours per week (in average) .

Contractual/usual working hours refer to the weekly number of working hours determined by the working contract. Absence from work because of illness, holidays etc. is not subtracted, and overtime is not included. Employees, whose contractual working hours vary from week to week, give information on both the actual reference week as well as the average of their contractual working hours per week (in the tables published the average numbers are normally used). For employees without contract on working hours, for self-employed and for unpaid family workers, data on their usual weekly working hours are used (as an average of their actual working hours during the last 4 weeks).

Full-time/part-time distinction is based on the contractual/usual working hours. Part-time: 1-36 hours, with exception of persons with 32-36 hours who classify themselves as full-time employed.

Full-time: 37 hours and over, and the cases mentioned above. For persons with more jobs, the working hours in the main and the second job are summarized.

Overtime

Overtime is defined as working hours which exceed the contractual working hours for full-time employees, conducted during a specified reference week. The overtime may be compensated by payment or by time off, or be without any compensation. Up to 2006 these questions were included in the survey only during the 2nd quarter each year. As from 2006 onwards they are included each quarter. 

A major revision of the LFS in 2006 led to a significant break in the time-series for overtime, i.e. lower estimates than published earlier. This was mostly due to changes in the questionnaire concerning working time.

Statistics on overtime include employees working full-time only. For persons with more jobs, the working hours in the main and the second job are summarized in order to classify them as either part- or full-time workers, as in LFS statistics generally.

For those with more jobs, overtime hours in the main job only are included. By calculating the overtime hours as a share of the total number of man-hours worked among full-time employees, the working hours in the second job are, however, included in the denominator. Persons temporarily absent from work are included in the denominator while calculating the share of employees working overtime, mainly to avoid seasonal variations.

Employees who just had an occasional job in the reference week, and on-call workers, are not asked about overtime, but they are included in the denominator if they were full-time employed in the reference week.

As from 2007 imputation is used concerning the overtime variables in case of proxy interviews and partial non-response.

Involuntary part-time employment comprises part-time employed persons seeking longer contractual/usual working hours by registering at the Employment Offices, advertising, contacting present employer etc., and who were able to start with increased working hours within a month.

Permanence of the job

The employees are asked whether they have a permanent job (a work contract of unlimited duration) or a temporary job (a work contract of limited duration). If the person has more than one job, only the main job is classified by permanence.

There are two kinds of working arrangements outside ordinary hours (Monday to Friday from 6 am to 6 pm).

  • Shift work is usually understood as working time outside normally working hours. What counts in the survey as shift work is based on the evaluation of the respondent. For respondents who have not answered the question on shift work, the value is imputed based on the answers they have given with regard to evening, night, Saturday and Sunday work.
  • Work outside ordinary hours, not shift work. This refers to work on evenings, nights, Saturdays and Sundays which is not shift work. Evening work is defined as work between 6 pm and 10 pm. Night work is between 10 pm and 6 am. Respondents who report that they work on one or more of these working time schedules outside ordinary hours are also asked about the frequency of this kind of work during a four week period. This is done for each of the working time schedule separately. Based on this, the work outside regularly hours is divided into the categories "regularly" or "sometimes". For evening and night work, the respondent must have this kind of work on at least half of their working days in the four week period to be defined as having regularly evening work and/or regularly night work. For work on weekends, they must work 2-4 Saturdays and/or 2-4 Sundays during the four week period to be defined as having regularly Saturday and/or Sunday work. The respondents who have these kinds of working schedules, but more seldom than indicated above, are defined as sometimes having this kind of work.

Working hour arrangements outside ordinary daytime are based on the contract for the employees, and on usual working time pattern for the self-employed. Up to 2006 these questions were included in the survey only during the 2nd quarter each year. As from 2006 onwards they are included each quarter, but only for ¼ of the sample, and the results are published once a year: Labour force survey. Patterns of working time.

Course participation refers to job related courses which the respondent was paid to attend. Only courses received during a period of four weeks are included. Up to 2006 these questions were asked only during the 2nd quarter each year. As from 2006 onwards they are included each quarter to the whole sample. Labour force survey. Education and training.

As from 2006 the definition of age was changed from completed years at the end of the year to completed years at the time of the reference week.

The persons are classified by marital status as unmarried, married and previously married according to information given by the respondents. Previously married includes widows, widowers, separated and divorced persons. In the tables married women include cohabitants.

Immigrants are defined as persons born abroad by foreign-born parents who have emigrated toNorway. In statistics based on the Labour Force Survey (LFS) they are divided in two groups by country of birth:

1) Immigrants from EU/EFTA-countries,North-America,AustraliaandNew Zealand. 

2) Immigrants from Eastern Europe except EU, Asia, Africa, Latin America and Oceania except Australia and New Zealand.

Standard classifications

The industrial classification is in accordance with the Standard Industrial Classification (NOS D 383), which is based on the EU-standard of NACE Rev. 2.

The occupational classification is based on the International Standard Classification of Occupations 2008 (ISCO-08). The Norwegian standard has been named STYRK-08 (Notater 17/2011). 

The educational classification is in accordance with the Norwegian Standard Classification of Education (NOS C617).

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Labour force survey
Topic: Labour market and earnings

Next release

Responsible division

Division for Labour Market and Wage Statistics

Regional level

County and the whole country.

Frequency and timeliness

Quarterly and annual, but monthly publishing of some key figures seasonally adjusted (averages of the last 3 months). Quarterly figures are normally published 5 weeks after the end of the quarter.

International reporting

The quarterly data files are sent to Eurostat. Tables are sent each month/quarter/year to Eurostat, OECD, ILO and IMF, as well as to the Nordic Yearbook.

Microdata

The basic material (survey results from the interviewers) as well as the statistical files (on the basis of revision and estimation procedures) are stored.

Background

Background and purpose

The main purpose of the survey is to provide data on employment and unemployment, and data on the labour force participation in different sections of the population. The Norwegian LFS started in 1972. For information about the history of the survey, and about breaks in the time-series, please cf. Labour Force Survey 2001 (NOS C748).

Users and applications

The surveys give information to the Labour Market Authorities and other users about the situation on the labour market, and provide data for labour force research and forecasts, as well as for international organizations and mass media.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 08 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given inthe Statistics Release Calendar.

For more information, see Principles for equal treatment of users in releasing statistics and analyses

Coherence with other statistics

The results from the LFS are used in the National Accounts Statistics.

For statistics at regional levels (counties and municipalities), the Registerbased Employment Statistics are recommended. These statistics also give figures on employees who are immigrants.

Statistics Norway also produces statistics on selected industries based on data from the establishments, containing figures on employment, compensation of employees, value of production and capital formation etc. These statistics contain more detailed information about each industry than it is possible to give from the LFS and the National Accounts Statistics.

Statistics on unemployed persons at the Employment Offices and government measures to promote employment are compiled by NAV on the basis of registers of unemployed persons and applicants for work.

The figures on unemployment based on the LFS differ from the figures on unemployed persons registered at the Employment Offices. The LFS-figures also include unemployed persons not registered at the Employment Offices, some of the participants in government measures to promote employment and some of the disabled persons. On the other hand, some of the registered unemployed are not classified as unemployed in the LFS, on the basis of the information given on seeking and availability for work. As from 2006 persons on lay-off (until 3 months) are no longer classified as unemployed, but as employed persons (temporarily absent from work) in the LFS, while they still are classified as unemployed in the registerbased statistics. However, if the period of lay-off exceeds 3 months, they are classified as unemployed in the LFS as well.

The Population and Housing Censuses (each 10th year) give statistics on employment during the last 12 months, in addition to the situation in a specified reference week. As from 2001 onwards employment data based on administrative registers are used. Statistics on labour conflicts and working days lost are compiled by Statistics Norway on the basis of information supplied mostly by the labour and employers's organizations. The Surveys of Level of Living (by Statistics Norway) give information on physical working environment as well as organizational working conditions.

The main source to describe the situation for the immigrants on the labour market is the registerbased statistics on employment and unemployment. By using data from the LFS as a supplement we will achieve still more information regarding this group, for example on actual and desired working hours, temporary employment and patterns of working time. Moreover the LFS has more data than the registers on job seeking and desire for work.

The main problem using the LFS for statistics on immigrants is the size of the sample and the statistical uncertainty. The group of immigrants in Norway is rather heterogeneous regarding their situation on the labour market, and therefore it is required to divide among at least two groups in the presentation of statistics. A further dividing by other variables will require long time-series in order to draw any conclusions.

Legal authority

The Statistics Act §§ 2-2 and 2-3.

EEA reference

Council Regulation (EC) nos 577/98, 1991/2002 and 2257/2003, and Commission Regulation nos 1575/2000, 1897/2000, 2104/2002, 430/2005 and 377/2008.

Production

Population

The total population aged 15-74 is covered by the LFS. Up to 2006 the group was 16-74, and age defined as completed years at the end of the year. As from 2006 age is defined as completed years at the time of the reference week. Observation unit: person.

Data sources and sampling

The main source for the LFS is quarterly, representative sample surveys based on interview by telephone.

Inhabitants in all municipalities are randomly selected, on the basis of a register of family units. The sample consists of about 12 000 family units (24 000 persons) each quarter. Each family member aged 15-74 participates in the survey, answering questions about their situation during a specified reference week. As from 1996 each family participates in the survey 8 times during a period of 8 quarters (before 1996: 4 times during 6 quarters). Up to 1996 a two stage sampling procedure was applied. For more information, please cf. Labour Force Survey 2001 (NOS C748).

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Interview by telephone. Information from previous interviews are used while asking about any changes in the situation, instead of the same, comprehensive data collection every time. For the coding of industry, information from some registers is also used. Demographic data are collected from the Central Population Register, and data on education are based on a register of individual data collected by Statistics Norway from the educational institutions (but questions are also asked to get more updated information).

The respondent is usually the same person as the observation unit (but proxy interviews are done if it is not possible to get in contact with the observation unit; 14-15 per cent of the interviews are done by asking near family members). Data are collected weekly, i.e. the LFS is a continuous survey (all weeks are covered). Up to 1st quarter 1996 (from 2nd quarter 1988) the survey was based on one reference week each month, and in previous years on one week each quarter. Participation in the survey is compulsory, but compulsory fines are not used.

As the data collection is made by use of computer-assisted interviews, some procedures for electronic control of the registration of answers are included in the questionnaire, for example concerning the number of working hours during the reference week. In some cases the interviewers become a "warning" by recording an answer, in other cases maximum or minimum values have been set beforehand.

The analysis unit is person. The absolute numbers from the LFS are presented in the form of estimated total for the entire population aged 15-74. The weights or inflation factors vary, but have an average of about 195 for quarterly figures in 2017.

 The estimation method uses more demographic data and register information relevant to the connection to the labour market in order to minimize standard errors and correct more for bias in the response sample in LFS since the nonresponse is not random. New method was launched in April 2018, is also used on LFS data back to 2006 to get the most comparable time series.

The estimation method in LFS is done in several stages, and are called multiple model calibration (MMK). Initially, the main labor market status of LFS, which is employed, unemployed, outside the workforce, are modeled consistent with a multinomial logit model, explained with a number of register variables known to all in the population. The register information are registered completely unemployed, on measures and persons with disabilities at NAV, register information on disability pensioners, education level, marital status, family size and immigrant category, country of origin, gender and age, residence, and information from the A scheme and the Tax Recovery Register. The model provides predictive probabilities every month for each main labor market status in LFS for everybody in the population.

The monthly weights in LFS are calibrated using these predicted probabilities and some register variables directly[1]. This means that the weights also become consistent with the population for the number in the population register by gender, different age groups and region, as well as consistent weights for the number of full / part-time wage earners by gender and registered employed (yes/no) cross classified by immigrants in 2 groups.

Multiple model calibration provides some variance reduction, utilizing more efficiently that we have available good help information about everyone in the population from various registries that Statistics Norway has linked.

The initial weights before calibration are the ratio of the number of people in the population to the gross sample per. county (NUTS3), and takes into account that people in different counties have different probabilities of being selected to LFS sample.

For more detailed technical information about the new estimation method, please see Documents 2018/16 [https://www.ssb.no/en/arbeid-og-lonn/artikler-og-publikasjoner/new-estimation-methodology-for-the-norwegian-labour-force-survey]

Week-proportional weighting of the months in quarterly averages

LFS have continuous data collection. In order for all reference weeks to weighted evenly in quarterly averages, we now make week-proportional adjustment of monthly weights in our quarterly averages. That is, the monthly weights are multiplied by 4/13 or 5/13 depending on whether the months in the LFS contain respectively 4 or 5 whole weeks. Weekly proportional weighting of quarterly average has been made on all quarterly figures in our StatBank back to 2006. Before that is the even adjustment off all monthly weights was used, i.e. multiplied by 1/3 for all months.



[1]That the weights are consistent for a register variable, such as gender, means that the sum of the weights in the responses in the LFS equals the number of the population for each category of the register variable, such as the number of men and the number of women in the population

Seasonal adjustment

Quarterly figures from LFS are not seasonally adjusted

Confidentiality

Not relevant

Comparability over time and space

New estimation method published in April 2018 uses more registers that will reduce nonresponse bias and sample uncertainty. This leads to a slightly lower level of employed and almost correspondingly higher levels for people outside the workforce than the previous method. The total number of unemployed changes only a little. To get the most comparable figures, the time series are revised back to 2006 in our StatBank. However, the adjustments vary slightly between groups and over time.

Breaks in the series up to 2001 are described in the publication Labour Force Survey 2001 (NOS C748).

The concepts in LFS are defined in accordance with international recommendations, cf item 4.1, to ensure comparability among the countries.

As from 2006 the LFS was revised, mainly to be in accordance with the EU-requirements based on new ILO recommendations. Some definitions and parts of the questionnaire were changed, and some new variables were added. As from 2006 age is defined as completed years at the time of the reference week, instead of completed years at the end of the year, as earlier. Moreover the lower age limit to be covered by the survey was lowered from 16 to 15, in accordance with the surveys in other countries.

These changes from 2006 led to breaks in the time-series for the LFS estimates. The revised survey gives some lower estimates for unemployment (1 000 persons as an annual average for 2006) and some higher estimates for employment (8 000 in 2006). A break in the time series also occured for the estimates of actual working hours per week and man-hours worked. For more information, please cf. http://www.ssb.no/aku_en/. Quarterly data for 2006 are published according to both the revised and the unrevised LFS, in order to improve the comparability for the figures between 2006 and 2005. The breaks in the time-series were most significant for figures divided by age groups.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

In all surveys errors may occur in connection with both the collection and the processing of data. The use of proxy interviews (asking near family members instead of the observation unit) often increase the problems of measurement. As an average the employment is underestimated because of proxy interviews.

The size of the nonresponse as a percentage of the gross sample has varied widely since the LFS began in 1972. The 20 first years were generally around 10-12 percent. In the years 1992-1997 it was particularly low, only 6-8 percent. Subsequently, the nonresponse rate gradually increased to 21 per cent in 2013. After systematic work,  the nonresponse has been reduced to around 16 per cent in 2017.

 Correction for total non-response is done in the estimating procedure. Partial non-response is adjusted for some variables.

Variance

The standard error for the quarterly average for the number of unemployed aged 15-74 is around 4600 in 2017. It corresponds to a coefficient of variation of 3.9 per cent. The standard error for the quarterly average for the number of employed aged 15-74 in LFS is about 8600 people in 2017. The coefficient of variation for employment figures will then be around 0.29 percent. More calculations will later be published in our StatBank.

If the reader wants an indication of the size of the standard error for quarterly figures and annual averages for other variables or group divisions, see the table below. These indications are only guiding, and can not be interpreted as precise calculations for any variable. Changes between two surveys will usually have the same absolute uncertainty as the two figures which are compared.

 

 

Indication of the standard error for other variables than in StatBank table 09937 and 09938

 
 

Quarterly figures

 

Annual averages

 

Absolute figures

As per cent of estimated value

Absolute figures

As per cent of estimated value

 
           

5 000

800

16,0

500

10,0

 

7 000

900

12,9

600

8,6

 

10 000

1 100

11,0

700

7,0

 

20 000

1 600

8,0

1 100

5,5

 

30 000

1 900

6,3

1 300

4,3

 

40 000

2 200

5,5

1 500

3,8

 

50 000

2 500

5,0

1 700

3,4

 

60 000

2 700

4,5

1 800

3,0

 

70 000

2 900

4,1

1 900

2,7

 

100 000

3 500

3,5

2 300

2,3

 

200 000

4 800

2,4

3 200

1,6

 

300 000

5 800

1,9

3 900

1,3

 

400 000

6 600

1,7

4 400

1,1

 

500 000

7 200

1,4

4 800

1,0

 

1 000 000

9 100

0,9

6 100

0,6

 

1 700 000

9 600

0,6

6 400

0,4

 

2 000 000

9 100

0,5

6 100

0,3

 

Revision

Not relevant