369361
/en/arbeid-og-lonn/statistikker/aku/kvartal
369361
statistikk
2019-10-24T08:00:00.000Z
Labour market and earnings;Labour market and earnings;Immigration and immigrants
en
aku, Labour force survey, LFS, labour market, employees, unemployed, economically active, labour force, labour force status, employees by industry, underemployment, part-time work, hours of work, temporary staffEmployment , Unemployment , Labour market and earnings, Labour market and earnings, Immigration and immigrants
true

Labour force survey

Updated

Next update

Key figures

71.3 %

in labour force

Population aged 15-74, by labour force status and sex
3rd quarter 20193rd quarter 2018 - 3rd quarter 2019
Absolute numbersPer cent1Change in absolute numbersChange in percentage points1
1The labour force is calculated as a share of the population in the same age group. Labour force = number of employed persons + number of unemployed persons. Employed persons is calculated as a share of the population in the same age group. Unemployed is calculated as a share of the labour force in the same age group.
Labour force
Both sexes2 864 00071.337 0000.6
Males1 523 00074.317 0000.4
Females1 342 00068.121 0000.6
 
Employed persons
Both sexes2 755 00068.642 0000.7
Males1 464 00071.423 0000.7
Females1 291 00065.619 0000.6
 
Unemployed
Both sexes109 0003.8-5 000-0.2
Males59 0003.9-6 000-0.4
Females50 0003.71 0000.0

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
Population aged 15-74 by labour force status (LFS) and sex. 1000

Population aged 15-74 by labour force status (LFS) and sex. 1000
Annual average2nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 2019
20172018
Persons, total
Both sexes3 9663 9933 9883 9964 0044 0064 0124 018
Males2 0242 0372 0342 0382 0422 0432 0462 048
Females1 9421 9561 9541 9571 9621 9641 9661 969
 
The labour force
Both sexes2 7632 8022 8062 8272 8072 8002 8162 864
Males1 4621 4871 4911 5061 4841 4821 4931 523
Females1 3021 3151 3151 3211 3221 3181 3231 342
 
Employed persons
Both sexes2 6472 6942 6972 7132 7082 6922 7192 755
Males1 3941 4271 4281 4411 4341 4221 4361 464
Females1 2531 2681 2691 2721 2741 2701 2831 291
 
Unemployed
Both sexes1171081091149810897109
Males6861636550605659
Females4947464948484050
 
Persons outside of the labour force
Both sexes1 2031 1901 1821 1691 1971 2061 1961 153
Males563549544532558561553526
Females640641639637639646643627

Table 2 
Population aged 15-74 by labour force status (LFS) and sex. Changes from the same period in the previous year. 1000

Population aged 15-74 by labour force status (LFS) and sex. Changes from the same period in the previous year. 1000
Annual average2nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 2019
20172018
Persons, total
Total3127262627232422
Males1513121212111210
Females1614141415131212
 
Labour force, total
In total-639255549301037
Males-62522402514217
Females1133152316821
 
Employed persons
In total947415556322242
Males63331403818823
Females315101518141419
 
Unemployed
In total-14-9-170-7-2-12-5
Males-11-7-90-13-5-7-6
Females-3-2-7053-61
 
Persons outside of the labour force
Total37-131-29-22-714-16
Males22-14-9-29-13-29-6
Females151110-10-34-10

Table 3 
Population aged 15-74 by labour force status(LFS) and sex. Per cent

Population aged 15-74 by labour force status(LFS) and sex. Per cent
Annual average2nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 2019
20172018
Labour force in per cent of the population
Both sexes69.770.270.470.770.169.970.271.3
Males72.273.073.373.972.772.673.074.3
Females67.067.267.367.567.467.167.368.1
 
Employed persons in per cent of the population
Both sexes66.767.567.667.967.667.267.868.6
Males68.870.070.270.770.269.670.271.4
Females64.564.865.065.064.964.765.265.6
 
Unemployed persons in per cent of the labour force
Both sexes4.23.83.94.03.53.93.43.8
Males4.64.14.24.33.44.03.83.9
Females3.83.63.53.73.73.73.13.7
 
Outside the labour force in per cent of the population
Both sexes30.329.829.629.329.930.129.828.7
Males27.827.026.726.127.327.427.025.7
Females33.032.832.732.532.632.932.731.9

Table 4 
Persons in the labour force and employed persons aged 15-74, by age and sex (LFS). 1 000

Persons in the labour force and employed persons aged 15-74, by age and sex (LFS). 1 000
Annual average2nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 2019
20172018
Labour force
15-74 years
Both sexes2 7632 8022 8062 8272 8072 8002 8162 864
Males1 4621 4871 4911 5061 4841 4821 4931 523
Females1 3021 3151 3151 3211 3221 3181 3231 342
 
15-24 years
Both sexes363364372375358357363389
Males188188193196182183183202
Females175176179179176174180187
 
25-66 years
Both sexes2 3562 3872 3842 3992 3912 3872 3982 422
Males1 2451 2671 2661 2771 2671 2641 2761 286
Females1 1111 1201 1181 1231 1241 1241 1231 137
 
Employed
15-74 years
Both sexes2 6472 6942 6972 7132 7082 6922 7192 755
Males1 3941 4271 4281 4411 4341 4221 4361 464
Females1 2531 2681 2691 2721 2741 2701 2831 291
 
15-24 years
Both sexes324329332340325321324352
Males165168169176166164163183
Females158161163164159157161168
 
25-66 years
Both sexes2 2782 3142 3152 3212 3262 3162 3412 350
Males1 2001 2261 2271 2311 2331 2241 2391 246
Females1 0791 0881 0881 0891 0931 0921 1011 105

Table 5 
Persons in the labour force and employed persons aged 15-74, by age and sex (LFS). In per cent of the population

Persons in the labour force and employed persons aged 15-74, by age and sex (LFS). In per cent of the population
Annual average2nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 2019
20172018
Persons in the labour force
15-74 years
Both sexes69.770.270.470.770.169.970.271.3
Males72.273.073.373.972.772.673.074.3
Females67.067.267.367.567.467.167.368.1
 
15-24 years
Both sexes54.555.056.256.854.254.155.159.0
Males54.655.056.557.453.353.853.959.5
Females54.455.056.056.155.254.456.458.4
 
25-66 years
Both sexes81.381.881.882.281.781.581.782.4
Males84.084.985.085.484.784.585.085.6
Females78.578.678.578.878.678.478.279.1
 
Employed persons
15-74 years
Both sexes66.767.567.667.967.667.267.868.6
Males68.870.070.270.770.269.670.271.4
Females64.564.865.065.064.964.765.265.6
 
15-24 years
Both sexes48.649.750.251.449.248.549.253.4
Males48.049.249.551.648.648.148.153.9
Females49.350.250.851.249.849.050.452.7
 
25-66 years
Both sexes78.779.379.579.579.579.179.780.0
Males81.082.182.382.382.481.982.682.9
Females76.276.476.576.576.476.276.776.9

Table 6 
Persons aged 15-74, employed by contractual/usual working hours per week and unemployed, by age and sex (LFS). 1 000

Persons aged 15-74, employed by contractual/usual working hours per week and unemployed, by age and sex (LFS). 1 0001
Annual average2nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 2019
20172018
1Short part-time=1-19 working hours. Long part-time=20-36 working hours, with exception of persons with 32-36 hours who classify themselves as full-time employed. Full-time = 37 or more hours, including the exceptions mentioned above.
15-74 years
Both sexes
Total3 9663 9933 9883 9964 0044 0064 0124 018
Employed persons2 6472 6942 6972 7132 7082 6922 7192 755
Short part-time319320325303328340327315
Long part-time346355357356362342356364
Full time1 9722 0092 0032 0462 0091 9992 0272 066
Not reported working hours9101281010911
Unemployed persons1171081091149810897109
 
15-19 years
Both sexes
Total322320319320321320320318
Employed persons10410398109106103100121
Short part-time6260605760626162
Long part-time10109141291115
Full time3132273733302642
Not reported working hours11201112
Unemployed persons2017211816171918
 
20-24 years
Both sexes
Total343342343341340341339341
Employed persons219226234231219218224231
Short part-time7172766173747467
Long part-time3736383835353940
Full time109116117131110106109122
Not reported working hours23422222
Unemployed persons2018191717192019
 
25-54 years
Males
Total1 1131 1181 1171 1191 1201 1211 1221 123
Employed persons938958959964966958968970
Short part-time3431313031383736
Long part-time5054535256505353
Full time852870873880875867877879
Not reported working hours22223423
Unemployed persons3936354029323134
 
Females
Total1 0551 0621 0601 0621 0641 0651 0661 068
Employed persons851858858859862862864870
Short part-time8284858289918484
Long part-time169169172167169165163171
Full time597602598607601604614613
Not reported working hours23333232
Unemployed persons2929273028291928
 
55-66 years
Males
Total368374374376376375378379
Employed persons262268268268267266271275
Short part-time1718181618181615
Long part-time1618181819182020
Full time228232231233230229235239
Not reported working hours00000011
Unemployed persons65465856
 
Females
Total360363363362366368369369
Employed persons228230231231231230237235
Short part-time3635353636343633
Long part-time5355565456525653
Full time138140140141140144145148
Not reported working hours10000110
Unemployed persons33233224
 
67-74 years
Both sexes
Total404413413416416417417420
Employed persons4551505257555453
Short part-time1620202022222018
Long part-time1113121315131312
Full time1718181920192022
Not reported working hours00010111
Unemployed persons00000000

Table 7 
Persons in the labour force aged 15-74, by age and sex (LFS). 1 000

Persons in the labour force aged 15-74, by age and sex (LFS). 1 000
Annual average2nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 2019
20172018
Both sexes
Total2 7632 8022 8062 8272 8072 8002 8162 864
15-19 years124120119127122120119138
20-24 years239244253248236237244250
25-29 years305311307313313312309318
30-39 years614628628633632628632641
40-54 years938943944945939942942943
55-66 years499506505507507506515520
67-74 years4551505357555553
 
Males
Total1 4621 4871 4911 5061 4841 4821 4931 523
15-19 years6259616456585569
20-24 years126129132132126126128133
25-29 years158160160164161160159165
30-39 years326337338340336334338341
40-54 years492497496499497497502499
55-66 years268273272273273273276281
67-74 years2932313435353435
 
Females
Total1 3021 3151 3151 3211 3221 3181 3231 342
15-19 years6261586366626469
20-24 years113115121116110112116117
25-29 years147150147149152152150154
30-39 years287291290293296294294300
40-54 years446446447446442445440444
55-66 years230233233234234232239239
67-74 years1619191922212118

Table 8 
Persons in the labour force aged 15-74, by age and sex (LFS). As per cent of all in each group

Persons in the labour force aged 15-74, by age and sex (LFS). As per cent of all in each group
Annual average2nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 2019
20172018
Both sexes
15-74 years69.770.270.470.770.169.970.271.3
15-19 years38.537.537.339.638.137.637.343.4
20-24 years69.671.473.872.969.469.671.973.5
25-29 years82.583.582.984.483.884.283.185.8
30-39 years87.188.088.088.588.487.487.688.4
40-54 years85.886.286.486.485.885.986.186.1
55-66 years68.568.568.568.768.368.168.869.5
67-74 years11.112.412.112.613.613.213.112.7
 
Males
15-74 years72.273.073.373.972.772.673.074.3
15-19 years37.035.937.138.734.035.133.742.1
20-24 years71.272.874.474.971.471.472.975.6
25-29 years83.784.684.686.484.384.483.586.9
30-39 years90.091.992.192.691.790.791.591.6
40-54 years87.688.588.588.888.388.289.488.8
55-66 years72.972.872.872.672.573.072.974.2
67-74 years14.515.915.616.817.216.816.516.9
 
Females
15-74 years67.067.267.367.567.467.167.368.1
15-19 years40.039.337.640.642.540.241.144.9
20-24 years68.069.873.170.767.167.670.871.2
25-29 years81.382.581.082.383.284.082.784.7
30-39 years83.983.983.684.184.883.983.685.0
40-54 years83.983.884.283.883.183.582.683.3
55-66 years64.064.164.164.763.963.164.664.7
67-74 years7.79.08.88.710.29.89.78.6

Table 9 
Employed persons aged 15-74, by sex and contractual/usual working hours per week (LFS). 1 000

Employed persons aged 15-74, by sex and contractual/usual working hours per week (LFS). 1 0001
Annual average2nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 2019
20172018
1Part-time = 1-36 hours, with exception of persons with 32-36 working hours who classify themselves as full-time employed. Full-time = 37 hours and over and the cases mentioned above.
Both sexes
Total2 6472 6942 6972 7132 7082 6922 7192 755
Part-time, total665675682659690682683679
Short part-time. 1-9 hours126132134116141152144131
Short part-time. 10-19 hours193188191187188188183184
Long part-time. 20-29 hours182189193190187180190196
Long part-time. 30-36 hours164166164166174163166168
Full time, total1 9722 0092 0032 0462 0091 9992 0272 066
Full time. 32-36 hours173176172185181183191199
Full-time. 37-44 hours1 6061 6441 6431 6681 6401 6431 6481 663
Full-time. 45 hours and more189185183191184169183198
Average contractual/usual working hours34.334.334.234.634.234.034.234.5
 
Males
Total1 3941 4271 4281 4411 4341 4221 4361 464
Part-time, total204208209199214215214215
Short part-time. 1-9 hours4746474248565150
Short part-time. 10-19 hours6663655962656163
Long part-time. 20-29 hours4955575454515758
Long part-time. 30-36 hours4244414350434543
Full time, total1 1871 2141 2131 2391 2161 2031 2191 244
Full time. 32-36 hours81868588878992100
Full-time. 37-44 hours9589869871 004982980987992
Full-time. 45 hours and more145140138145144132138149
Average contractual/usual working hours36.636.636.536.936.536.236.536.6
 
Females
Total1 2531 2681 2691 2721 2741 2701 2831 291
Part-time, total462468473460476468470463
Short part-time. 1-9 hours7986877493959281
Short part-time. 10-19 hours128125126127126124122121
Long part-time. 20-29 hours133134136136133129134138
Long part-time. 30-36 hours122122124123124120121124
Full time, total786795790808793797808822
Full time. 32-36 hours92918696939499100
Full-time. 37-44 hours648658656664658663661671
Full-time. 45 hours and more4444454541384549
Average contractual/usual working hours31.831.731.631.931.531.531.732.1

Table 10 
Population aged 15-74, by main activity, part-time employment and age (LFS). 1 000

Population aged 15-74, by main activity, part-time employment and age (LFS). 1 0001
Annual average2nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 2019
20172018
1
2The term employed here includes full-time employed persons, as well as part-time workers who consider the employment as their main activity.
15-74 years
Persons
Total3 9663 9933 9883 9964 0044 0064 0124 018
Part-time employees665675682659690682683679
Employed2
Total2 4042 4422 4442 4772 4442 4262 4532 494
Part-time employees431433441431435427427428
Attended school, studied
Total513500498473508523520479
Part-time employees156153152145156158162161
Homeworking
Total4041434139384240
Part-time employees45753464
Early retired/disabled
Total382396390395419406413395
Part-time employees2325232630303026
Retired
Total387391394390384393392394
Part-time employees1519181820202018
Other activities/Unspecified
Total241222220220209220191215
Part-time employees3640413446443941
 
15-19 years
Persons
Total322320319320321320320318
Part-time employees7270697172717277
Employed2
Total3939324541373351
Part-time employees87588779
Attended school, studied
Total266263270253260262268247
Part-time employees5856595555565962
Other activities/Unspecified
Total1818172219201820
Part-time employees67589976
 
20-24 years
Persons
Total343342343341340341339341
Part-time employees10810711399108110113107
Employed2
Total143150158161142139144152
Part-time employees3534413033333530
Attended school, studied
Total155146139137155160153147
Part-time employees6665646166676968
Homeworking
Total22332111
Part-time employees00000010
Other activities/Unspecified
Total4343444141404140
Part-time employees78979999
 
25-54 years
Persons
Total2 1692 1802 1762 1822 1852 1852 1882 191
Part-time employees336339340331345344337343
Employed2
Total1 7211 7471 7471 7631 7531 7441 7631 773
Part-time employees272275276276276273271281
Attended school, studied
Total9189878291989683
Part-time employees3231292935353431
Homeworking
Total2829302829303228
Part-time employees34543233
Early retired/disabled
Total166168165165178174179173
Part-time employees10101091114119
Other activities/Unspecified
Total163147147144134140119135
Part-time employees1818211321201719
 
55-66 years
Persons
Total728738737738742743748748
Part-time employees123126127124128122127122
Employed2
Total470474475474473471480484
Part-time employees1041031051001029810197
Homeworking
Total999987810
Part-time employees11210111
Early retired/disabled
Total189202199204214206209200
Part-time employees1215131718151816
Retired
Total3329322623292626
Part-time employees33422333
Other activities/Unspecified
Total2824222524292928
Part-time employees34445444
 
67-74 years
Persons
Total404413413416416417417420
Part-time employees2733323337363430
Employed2
Total3132323536353334
Part-time employees1314151616161312
Homeworking
Total11011000
Part-time employees00000000
Retired
Total353362362363360364365368
Part-time employees1216141518161716
Other activities/Unspecified
Total1919181719191917
Part-time employees12313333

Table 11 
Employed persons aged 15-74, by major industry division (LFS). 1 000

Employed persons aged 15-74, by major industry division (LFS). 1 0001
Annual average2nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 2019
20172018
1
Total2 6472 6942 6972 7132 7082 6922 7192 755
01-03 Agriculture, forestry and fishing5656595954535656
05-09 Mining and quarrying5362626462616160
10-33 Manufacturing210207204210212207208211
35-39 Power and water supply, sew./remed.act.3231333231292930
41-43 Construction210220220224220221222232
45-47 Domestic trade, car repair shops358350352351350347358364
49-53 Transportation and storage134127127126127126124126
55-56 Accomm. and food service act.8290889491909197
58-63 Information and communication100103105105104104105110
64-66 Financial and insurance act.5054545354535050
68-75 Real estate, profess., scient. and tech.act.177186185187188187183185
77-82 Adm. and support service act.122132130131138129133140
84 Public administration and defence183183186183177177175175
85 Education219222222218222224232228
86-88 Human health and social work act.540549549554551554567566
90-99 Other service act.114120120122123127117121
Unspecified72124375

Table 12 
Average number of man-weeks worked (37.5 hours), by industry division (LFS). 1 000

Average number of man-weeks worked (37.5 hours), by industry division (LFS). 1 0001
Annual average2nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 2019
20172018
1The time series is not adjusted for alternating holidays.
00-99 Total2 0162 0372 1221 8512 1132 1632 0531 839
01-03 Agriculture, forestry and fishing5759666153536159
05-09 Mining and quarrying4352525453495243
10-33 Manufacturing174168172156176183172146
35-39 Electricity, water supply, sewerage, waste management2627292428272422
41-43 Construction180187194173195198181170
45 Wholesale and retail trade and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles4441443741423936
46 Wholesale trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles8684857687918876
47 Retail trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles125125125120132126124126
49-53 Transportation and storage1101041079810710510596
55-56 Acommodation and food service activities5659586061576259
58-63 Information and communication8485887591958881
64-66 Financial and insurance activities4244463746473936
68-75 Real estate, professional, scientific and technical activities146149156132155167150131
77-82 Administrative and support service activities88969892101999893
84 Public adm., defence, soc. security149149158130149152139121
85 Education154157168121167176159118
86-88 Human health and social work activities369370388330382404386347
90-99 Other service activities7881867486918375

Table 13 
Employed persons aged 15-74 and absence from work during the whole reference week, by reason for absence and sex (LFS). Per cent

Employed persons aged 15-74 and absence from work during the whole reference week, by reason for absence and sex (LFS). Per cent
Annual average2nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 2019
20172018
Both sexes
In total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
At work83.883.789.273.085.989.886.371.9
Temporarily absent, total16.216.310.827.014.110.213.728.1
Illness3.43.43.03.03.53.83.52.9
Holiday8.38.43.620.65.62.15.220.8
Taking time off/ working time arrangement1.41.51.21.02.11.42.01.4
Laid off0.10.00.00.00.00.10.00.0
Other reason/ unspecified3.13.03.02.52.92.83.12.9
 
Males
In total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
At work85.585.390.575.287.391.687.973.6
Temporarily absent, total14.514.79.524.812.78.412.126.4
Illness2.83.02.52.82.92.92.72.5
Holiday8.28.23.519.35.82.25.020.2
Taking time off/ working time arrangement1.61.71.51.22.41.72.31.8
Laid off0.10.10.10.00.00.10.00.1
Other reason/ unspecified1.81.81.91.51.51.52.11.9
 
Females
In total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
At work81.881.987.870.584.287.984.470.0
Temporarily absent, total18.218.112.229.515.812.115.630.0
Illness4.03.93.53.14.34.74.33.5
Holiday8.58.73.622.05.21.95.421.4
Taking time off/ working time arrangement1.21.20.90.71.81.21.61.0
Laid off0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0
Other reason/ unspecified4.54.34.23.74.54.34.24.1

Table 14 
Employed persons aged 15-74 and absence from work during the whole reference week, by reason for absence and sex (LFS). 1 000

Employed persons aged 15-74 and absence from work during the whole reference week, by reason for absence and sex (LFS). 1 000
Annual average2nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 2019
20172018
Both sexes
In total2 6472 6942 6972 7132 7082 6922 7192 755
At work2 2172 2552 4071 9792 3252 4182 3461 981
Temporarily absent, total430439290734383274373774
Illness90928081961019481
Holiday2202279655815056140573
Taking time off/ working time arrangement3739322657395440
Laid off21100111
Other reason/ unspecified8280806879768480
 
Males
In total1 3941 4271 4281 4411 4341 4221 4361 464
At work1 1921 2181 2931 0831 2521 3031 2621 077
Temporarily absent, total202209135358182119174387
Illness3942354141413936
Holiday11411750278843171296
Taking time off/ working time arrangement2224211834243326
Laid off11100111
Other reason/ unspecified2625282122223027
 
Females
In total1 2531 2681 2691 2721 2741 2701 2831 291
At work1 0251 0381 1148961 0731 1161 083904
Temporarily absent, total228230155376201154200387
Illness5150454054605645
Holiday10611046280672569277
Taking time off/ working time arrangement151511823152113
Laid off00000000
Other reason/ unspecified5755534757545452

Table 15 
Employed persons aged 15-74, and average number of man-weeks worked (a 37.5 hours) per week, by sex and status. 1 000. Actual working hours, by sex and status. Hours per week

Employed persons aged 15-74, and average number of man-weeks worked (a 37.5 hours) per week, by sex and status. 1 000. Actual working hours, by sex and status. Hours per week
Annual Average2nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 2019
20172018
Employed persons total
Both sexes
Total2 6472 6942 6972 7132 7082 6922 7192 755
Salaried employees2 4712 5212 5252 5392 5342 5192 5402 573
Self-employed172170169171171170174178
Family workers33434344
Males
Total1 3941 4271 4281 4411 4341 4221 4361 464
Salaried employees1 2741 3071 3091 3221 3131 3031 3111 337
Self-employed118118117118120118123125
Family workers11111121
Females
Total1 2531 2681 2691 2721 2741 2701 2831 291
Salaried employees1 1971 2131 2151 2171 2211 2161 2301 236
Self-employed5453525351525152
Family workers12312223
 
Employed persons at work
Both sexes
Total2 2172 2562 4071 9792 3252 4182 3461 981
Salaried employees2 0632 1072 2531 8442 1712 2622 1821 834
Self-employed150146150133151154158143
Family workers23323244
Males
Total1 1921 2181 2921 0831 2531 3031 2631 077
Salaried employees1 0871 1151 1889881 1461 1941 147972
Self-employed10410210494106108114104
Family workers11111121
Females
Total1 0251 0381 1148961 0731 1161 083904
Salaried employees9769921 0658561 0251 0681 036862
Self-employed4745473945474539
Family workers12212222
 
Man-weeks worked
Both sexes
Total2 0162 0372 1221 8502 1132 1632 0531 837
Salaried employees1 8601 8871 9671 7101 9602 0111 8941 689
Self-employed154149154139152151156146
Family workers11112122
Males
Total1 1661 1851 2311 0881 2311 2531 1891 070
Salaried employees1 0531 0751 1189841 1171 1411 071959
Self-employed112109113104113112117110
Family workers00001011
Females
Total850852890762882910864767
Salaried employees807812849726842870824730
Self-employed4239413539393936
Family workers11111011
 
Actual working hours per week
Both sexes
Total34.133.933.135.134.133.632.834.8
Salaried employees33.833.632.734.833.933.432.634.6
Self-employed38.538.138.339.137.836.737.038.4
Family workers14.916.816.118.518.211.816.522.6
Males
Total36.736.535.737.736.936.135.337.3
Salaried employees36.436.235.337.336.635.835.037.1
Self-employed40.740.340.841.640.038.938.739.9
Family workers13.215.012.515.222.611.516.530.6
Females
Total31.130.830.031.930.930.629.931.9
Salaried employees31.030.729.931.930.830.629.831.8
Self-employed33.533.032.933.232.631.432.734.4
Family workers16.118.117.922.916.312.016.519.2

Table 16 
Employees aged 15-74 with temporary jobs, by major industry division (LFS). 1000

Employees aged 15-74 with temporary jobs, by major industry division (LFS). 1000
Annual average2nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 2019
20172018
Total209211210229209186198225
01-03 Agriculture, forestry and fishing33442233
05-39 Mining etc., manufacture, power and water supply1312101413111316
41-43 Construction8109121191014
45-47 Wholesale and retail trade: repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles2320192520192426
49-53 Transportation and storage881086568
55-56 Accommodation and food service activities111211171191014
58-63 Information and communication45664424
64-66 Financial and insurance activities11011112
68-82 Real estate, scientific, technical, administrative and support service activities2427272927212124
84 Public adm., defence, soc. security1211101310999
85 Education2829282531283128
86-88 Human health and social work activities6161636460565963
90-99 Other service activities111111111311911

Table 17 
Employees aged 15-74 with temporary jobs, by major industry division (LFS). In per cent of all employees

Employees aged 15-74 with temporary jobs, by major industry division (LFS). In per cent of all employees
Annual average2nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 2019
20172018
Total8.48.48.39.08.37.47.88.7
01-03 Agriculture, forestry and fishing9.111.313.811.98.28.410.89.7
05-39 Mining etc., manufacture, power and water supply4.64.03.54.74.53.94.55.4
41-43 Construction4.65.14.75.85.44.45.07.0
45-47 Domestic trade, car repair shop6.66.15.77.45.95.86.97.6
49-53 Transportation and storage6.36.88.67.05.24.15.26.8
55-56 Accomommodation and food service activities14.214.513.718.612.910.711.115.6
58-63 Information and communication4.14.96.25.84.14.02.43.6
64-66 Financial and insurance activities2.01.20.71.01.12.22.24.1
68-82 Real estate, scientific, technical, administrative and support service activities8.99.49.510.19.37.47.48.4
84 Public adm., defence, soc. security6.86.05.57.05.65.25.05.4
85 Education13.213.312.911.714.012.913.612.5
86-88 Human health and social work activities11.711.511.812.111.310.510.811.7
90-99 Other service activities12.111.811.111.612.910.49.510.9

Table 18 
Unemployed persons aged 15-74, by sex and age (LFS). 1 000 and per cent

Unemployed persons aged 15-74, by sex and age (LFS). 1 000 and per cent
Annual average2nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 2019
20172018
Unemployed
Both sexes
In total1171081091149810897109
15-24 years3935403533373937
25-54 years6865626957615162
55-74 years9879810710
Males
In total6861636550605659
15-24 years2320242016202019
25-54 years3936354029323134
55-74 years65465856
Females
In total4947464948484050
15-24 years1715161617171918
25-54 years2929273028291928
55-74 years33233224
 
Unemployed as per cent of the labour force
Both sexes
In total4.23.83.94.03.53.93.43.8
15-24 years10.89.610.89.59.210.310.79.5
25-54 years3.73.53.33.73.03.32.73.3
55-74 years1.71.41.21.61.51.81.21.8
Males
In total4.64.14.24.33.44.03.83.9
15-24 years12.110.512.310.18.810.710.89.3
25-54 years4.03.73.53.92.93.33.13.4
55-74 years2.11.51.51.91.72.61.71.9
Females
In total3.83.63.53.73.73.73.13.7
15-24 years9.48.79.28.79.79.810.69.7
25-54 years3.43.33.13.33.23.22.23.1
55-74 years1.11.21.01.31.20.90.71.6

Table 19 
Unemployed persons aged 15-74, by duration of job search (LFS). 1 000 and per cent

Unemployed persons aged 15-74, by duration of job search (LFS). 1 000 and per cent
Annual average2nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 2019
20172018
Total1171081091149810897109
1-4 weeks2424292421232029
5-13 weeks2422192421222123
14-26 weeks1817181814191813
27-39 weeks56486977
40-52 weeks1815161512131114
53 weeks and over1614121416151312
 
Total100100100100100100100100
1-4 weeks2122272121212127
5-13 weeks2120172121202221
14-26 weeks1516171614181912
27-39 weeks46476876
40-52 weeks1514151312121113
53 weeks and over1413111216141311
 
Average duration (weeks)31.534.029.429.534.031.930.827.9

Table 20 
Unemployed persons aged 15-74, by main activity (LFS). 1 000

Unemployed persons aged 15-74, by main activity (LFS). 1 0001
Annual average2nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 2019
20172018
1The distribution on main activity is based on the respondents’ self-perception regarding their situation. For example, a lot of unemployed people are attending education as their main activity.
Total11171081091149810897109
Home working122222212
Attended school, studied13126312625293127
Unemployed17572677864705866
Other activities/Unspecified11077878614

Table 21 
Unemployed and underemployed persons aged 15-74, by sex and desired working hours per week. Number of man-weeks (of 37,5 hours) supplied (LFS). 1 000

Unemployed and underemployed persons aged 15-74, by sex and desired working hours per week. Number of man-weeks (of 37,5 hours) supplied (LFS). 1 000
Annual average2nd quarter 20183rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 2019
20172018
1Includes the number of man-weeks desired by the unemployed persons and the desired man-weeks minus the present man-weeks of the underemployed persons
Both sexes
Unemployed persons
Total1171081091149810897109
1-19 hours2119132220261320
20-36 hours2424332022192123
37 hours or more7265637156646366
Average working hours desired (hours per week)3232333231313332
Number of man-weeks desired9992959782898692
Underemployed persons
Total6166626572647076
1-19 hours45345753
20-36 hours2425232427242428
37 hours or more3336353740344044
Average working hours desired (hours per week)3434353434333434
Desired man-weeks subtracted present man-weeks2325242528262629
 
Number of man-weeks supplied, total1122117119122110115112121
 
Males
Unemployed persons
Total6861636550605659
1-19 hours9741061235
20-36 hours1210196671010
37 hours or more4743404937414345
Average working hours desired (hours per week)3334343434323534
Number of man-weeks desired6055575945525353
Underemployed persons
Total1821192023222125
1-19 hours12112322
20-36 hours56667757
37 hours or more1213121314121415
Average working hours desired (hours per week)3434353434323434
Desired man-weeks subtracted present man-weeks898810989
 
Number of man-weeks supplied, total16864656755616162
 
Women
Unemployed persons
Total4947464948484050
1-19 hours12129121414915
20-36 hours1314141415111113
37 hours or more2422232219232022
Average working hours desired (hours per week)3030312929293129
Number of man-weeks desired3938383837373339
Underemployed persons
Total4345434550424951
1-19 hours23234441
20-36 hours1919171720171921
37 hours or more2123232426222629
Average working hours desired (hours per week)3434353434333335
Desired man-weeks subtracted present man-weeks1516161618161819
 
Number of man-weeks supplied, total15454545455535158

Table 22 
Employed persons aged 15-74, by occupation and sex. Annual average. Per cent

Employed persons aged 15-74, by occupation and sex. Annual average. Per cent
20172018
Both sexesMalesFemalesBoth sexesMalesFemales
In total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
1. Managers8.510.06.98.810.76.6
2. Professionals27.121.033.827.221.233.9
3. Technicians and associate professionals16.217.814.416.117.514.5
4. Clerical support workers5.64.76.55.54.56.7
5. Service and sales workers21.012.830.021.213.330.1
6. Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers1.92.70.91.82.70.9
7. Craft and related trades workers9.216.70.99.216.60.9
8. Plant and machine operators and assemblers5.89.61.65.59.21.4
0,9. Other occupations4.84.65.04.74.45.0

Table 23 
Employed persons aged 15-74, by occupation and sex. Annual average. 1 000

Employed persons aged 15-74, by occupation and sex. Annual average. 1 000
20172018
Both sexesMalesFemalesBoth sexesMalesFemales
In total2 6471 3941 2532 6941 4271 268
1. Managers2251398623715284
2. Professionals717293424733303430
3. Technicians and associate professionals428248180433249184
4. Clerical support workers14766821486485
5. Service and sales workers555179376571189381
6. Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers493811503812
7. Craft and related trades workers2442331124823612
8. Plant and machine operators and assemblers1541342014913217
0,9. Other occupations12764631276364

Table 24 
Employed persons aged 15-74, by occupation, sector and sex. Annual average. 1000

Employed persons aged 15-74, by occupation, sector and sex. Annual average. 1000
2018
All sectorsPrivate sector and public enterprisesPublic sector
Both sexesMalesFemalesBoth sexesMalesFemalesBoth sexesMalesFemales
In total2 6941 4271 2681 8011 146656873272601
1. Managers2371528419013356471927
2. Professionals733303430318186132412116296
3. Technicians and associate professionals4332491843252071191054164
4. Clerical support workers1486485125586723617
5. Service and sales workers57118938133713320522655171
6. Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers503812483711211
7. Craft and related trades workers2482361223822711771
8. Plant and machine operators and assemblers1491321714412716431
0,9. Other occupations1276364773839472424

Table 25 
Employed persons ages 15-74, by occupation and major industry division. Annual average. 1000

Employed persons ages 15-74, by occupation and major industry division. Annual average. 1000
2018
In total1. Managers2. Professionals3. Technicians and associate professionals4. Clerical support workers5. Service and sales workers6. Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers7. Craft and related trades workers8. Plant and machine operators and assemblers0,9. Other occupations
00-99 All industries2 69423773343314857150248149127
01-02 Agriculture and forestry381010131121
03 Fishing181121011010
05-09 Oil and gas extraction, mining and quarrying62614193108101
10-33 Manufacturing207272039166053434
35-39 Electricity, gas, water supply31368310424
41-43 Construction2202011217211242410
45-47 Domestic trade3505518493015603067
49-53 Transport and storage1278421221004499
55-56 Accommodation and food service activities90102375501111
58-63 Information and communication103126021330202
64-66 Financial and insurance activities5461133210001
68-82 Real estate, tech.adm service3182794762536414634
84 Public administration and defence18320744091403122
85 Education2221116585270006
86-88 Human health and social work activities5491722164822701110
90-99 Other service activities1201431267321335

Table 26 
Employed persons aged 15-74, by sex, occupation and contractual/usual work time. Annual average

Employed persons aged 15-74, by sex, occupation and contractual/usual work time. Annual average
2018
TotalPart-timePercent Part-timeFull-timePercent Full-timeAverage working hours per week
Both sexes
In total2 69467525.12 00974.634.3
1. Managers237187.521992.538.9
2. Professionals73314519.758780.135.6
3. Technicians and associate professionals4337016.136283.535.6
4. Clerical support workers1484228.110671.732.9
5. Service and sales workers57130553.526145.728.2
6. Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers501121.53978.040.5
7. Craft and related trades workers248145.823394.037.7
8. Plant and machine operators and assemblers1491912.413087.437.5
0,9. Other occupations1275341.67357.429.4
 
Males
In total1 42720814.61 21485.136.6
1. Managers152117.014292.939.6
2. Professionals3033310.927089.037.3
3. Technicians and associate professionals2492710.922188.836.8
4. Clerical support workers641219.45180.534.6
5. Service and sales workers1897640.311158.730.7
6. Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers38717.23182.242.6
7. Craft and related trades workers236125.122494.737.9
8. Plant and machine operators and assemblers1321410.911789.038.0
0,9. Other occupations631523.84775.133.4
 
Females
In total1 26846836.979562.731.6
1. Managers8478.27791.737.6
2. Professionals43011125.931773.834.3
3. Technicians and associate professionals1844323.114076.434.0
4. Clerical support workers852934.75565.031.7
5. Service and sales workers38122960.115039.326.9
6. Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers12435.4764.333.3
7. Craft and related trades workers12219.0980.035.1
8. Plant and machine operators and assemblers17424.11375.634.3
0,9. Other occupations643859.22539.925.4

About the statistics

The purpose of the Labour Force Survey is to provide information on the development in employment and unemployment, and on the relationship to the labour market for different groups. The statistics are published quarterly, normally 4 weeks after the end of the quarter.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Concepts and definitions are in accordance with recommendations given by the International Labour Organization (ILO) and EU/Eurostat.

According to the international recommendations persons above a specified age should be classified by their attachment to the labour market in a specified, short period, either a day or a week. In the Norwegian LFS the reference period is one week, and the sample of persons are classified in relation to their situation in that reference week.

Employed persons are persons aged 15-74 who performed work for pay or profit for at least one hour in the reference week, or who were temporarily absent from work because of illness, holidays etc. Conscripts are classified as employed persons. Persons engaged by government measures to promote employment are also included if they receive wages. Persons laid off 100 per cent with a continuous duration of until three months are defined as employed, temporarily absent.

Unemployed persons are persons who were not employed in the reference week, but who had been seeking work during the preceding four weeks, and were available for work in the reference week or within the next two weeks (in 1996-2005 one should be available within two weeks following the time of interview, and until 1996 one should be able to start working in the reference week). Persons laid off 100 per cent are defined as unemployed after three continuous months of leave.

Persons in the labour force are either employed or unemployed. The remaining group of persons is labelled not in the labour force.

Main activity

In addition to the measurement of employment and unemployment according to the international recommendations and definitions, it is also asked a single question in the LFS to all non-employed persons, and to the part-time employed persons, about their main activity. This variable gives the perons' self-perception regarding their activity or status. The purpose is to estimate how many people are in education, homemakers, pensioners etc., and how many have a part-time job besides. We also gain figures on how many of the unemployed people who are attending education. In the tables for those outside the labour force, i.e. neither employed nor unemployed, a group called "looking for work" is specified. They do not satisfy all the requirements to be classified as unemployed, but consider themselves as unemployed. 

Man-hours worked include all actual working hours, i.e. including overtime and excluding absence from work. Persons absent from work are not included in the calculation of actual working hours per week (in average) .

Contractual/usual working hours refer to the weekly number of working hours determined by the working contract. Absence from work because of illness, holidays etc. is not subtracted, and overtime is not included. Employees, whose contractual working hours vary from week to week, give information on both the actual reference week as well as the average of their contractual working hours per week (in the tables published the average numbers are normally used). For employees without contract on working hours, for self-employed and for unpaid family workers, data on their usual weekly working hours are used (as an average of their actual working hours during the last 4 weeks).

Full-time/part-time distinction is based on the contractual/usual working hours. Part-time: 1-36 hours, with exception of persons with 32-36 hours who classify themselves as full-time employed.

Full-time: 37 hours and over, and the cases mentioned above. For persons with more jobs, the working hours in the main and the second job are summarized.

Overtime

Overtime is defined as working hours which exceed the contractual working hours for full-time employees, conducted during a specified reference week. The overtime may be compensated by payment or by time off, or be without any compensation. Up to 2006 these questions were included in the survey only during the 2nd quarter each year. As from 2006 onwards they are included each quarter. 

A major revision of the LFS in 2006 led to a significant break in the time-series for overtime, i.e. lower estimates than published earlier. This was mostly due to changes in the questionnaire concerning working time.

Statistics on overtime include employees working full-time only. For persons with more jobs, the working hours in the main and the second job are summarized in order to classify them as either part- or full-time workers, as in LFS statistics generally.

For those with more jobs, overtime hours in the main job only are included. By calculating the overtime hours as a share of the total number of man-hours worked among full-time employees, the working hours in the second job are, however, included in the denominator. Persons temporarily absent from work are included in the denominator while calculating the share of employees working overtime, mainly to avoid seasonal variations.

Employees who just had an occasional job in the reference week, and on-call workers, are not asked about overtime, but they are included in the denominator if they were full-time employed in the reference week.

As from 2007 imputation is used concerning the overtime variables in case of proxy interviews and partial non-response.

Involuntary part-time employment comprises part-time employed persons seeking longer contractual/usual working hours by registering at the Employment Offices, advertising, contacting present employer etc., and who were able to start with increased working hours within a month.

Permanence of the job

The employees are asked whether they have a permanent job (a work contract of unlimited duration) or a temporary job (a work contract of limited duration). If the person has more than one job, only the main job is classified by permanence.

There are two kinds of working arrangements outside ordinary hours (Monday to Friday from 6 am to 6 pm).

  • Shift work is usually understood as working time outside normally working hours. What counts in the survey as shift work is based on the evaluation of the respondent. For respondents who have not answered the question on shift work, the value is imputed based on the answers they have given with regard to evening, night, Saturday and Sunday work.
  • Work outside ordinary hours, not shift work. This refers to work on evenings, nights, Saturdays and Sundays which is not shift work. Evening work is defined as work between 6 pm and 10 pm. Night work is between 10 pm and 6 am. Respondents who report that they work on one or more of these working time schedules outside ordinary hours are also asked about the frequency of this kind of work during a four week period. This is done for each of the working time schedule separately. Based on this, the work outside regularly hours is divided into the categories "regularly" or "sometimes". For evening and night work, the respondent must have this kind of work on at least half of their working days in the four week period to be defined as having regularly evening work and/or regularly night work. For work on weekends, they must work 2-4 Saturdays and/or 2-4 Sundays during the four week period to be defined as having regularly Saturday and/or Sunday work. The respondents who have these kinds of working schedules, but more seldom than indicated above, are defined as sometimes having this kind of work.

Working hour arrangements outside ordinary daytime are based on the contract for the employees, and on usual working time pattern for the self-employed. Up to 2006 these questions were included in the survey only during the 2nd quarter each year. As from 2006 onwards they are included each quarter, but only for ¼ of the sample, and the results are published once a year: Labour force survey. Patterns of working time.

Course participation refers to job related courses which the respondent was paid to attend. Only courses received during a period of four weeks are included. Up to 2006 these questions were asked only during the 2nd quarter each year. As from 2006 onwards they are included each quarter to the whole sample. Labour force survey. Education and training.

As from 2006 the definition of age was changed from completed years at the end of the year to completed years at the time of the reference week.

The persons are classified by marital status as unmarried, married and previously married according to information given by the respondents. Previously married includes widows, widowers, separated and divorced persons. In the tables married women include cohabitants.

Immigrants are defined as persons born abroad by foreign-born parents who have emigrated toNorway. In statistics based on the Labour Force Survey (LFS) they are divided in two groups by country of birth:

1) Immigrants from EU/EFTA-countries,North-America,AustraliaandNew Zealand. 

2) Immigrants from Eastern Europe except EU, Asia, Africa, Latin America and Oceania except Australia and New Zealand.

Standard classifications

The industrial classification is in accordance with the Standard Industrial Classification (NOS D 383), which is based on the EU-standard of NACE Rev. 2.

The occupational classification is based on the International Standard Classification of Occupations 2008 (ISCO-08). The Norwegian standard has been named STYRK-08 (Notater 17/2011). 

The educational classification is in accordance with the Norwegian Standard Classification of Education (NOS C617).

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Labour force survey
Topic: Labour market and earnings

Next release

Responsible division

Division for Labour Market and Wage Statistics

Regional level

County and the whole country.

Frequency and timeliness

Quarterly and annual, but monthly publishing of some key figures seasonally adjusted (averages of the last 3 months). Quarterly figures are normally published 5 weeks after the end of the quarter.

International reporting

The quarterly data files are sent to Eurostat. Tables are sent each month/quarter/year to Eurostat, OECD, ILO and IMF, as well as to the Nordic Yearbook.

Microdata

The basic material (survey results from the interviewers) as well as the statistical files (on the basis of revision and estimation procedures) are stored.

Background

Background and purpose

The main purpose of the survey is to provide data on employment and unemployment, and data on the labour force participation in different sections of the population. The Norwegian LFS started in 1972. For information about the history of the survey, and about breaks in the time-series, please cf. Labour Force Survey 2001 (NOS C748).

Users and applications

The surveys give information to the Labour Market Authorities and other users about the situation on the labour market, and provide data for labour force research and forecasts, as well as for international organizations and mass media.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 08 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given inthe Statistics Release Calendar.

For more information, see Principles for equal treatment of users in releasing statistics and analyses

Coherence with other statistics

The results from the LFS are used in the National Accounts Statistics.

For statistics at regional levels (counties and municipalities), the Registerbased Employment Statistics are recommended. These statistics also give figures on employees who are immigrants.

Statistics Norway also produces statistics on selected industries based on data from the establishments, containing figures on employment, compensation of employees, value of production and capital formation etc. These statistics contain more detailed information about each industry than it is possible to give from the LFS and the National Accounts Statistics.

Statistics on unemployed persons at the Employment Offices and government measures to promote employment are compiled by NAV on the basis of registers of unemployed persons and applicants for work.

The figures on unemployment based on the LFS differ from the figures on unemployed persons registered at the Employment Offices. The LFS-figures also include unemployed persons not registered at the Employment Offices, some of the participants in government measures to promote employment and some of the disabled persons. On the other hand, some of the registered unemployed are not classified as unemployed in the LFS, on the basis of the information given on seeking and availability for work. As from 2006 persons on lay-off (until 3 months) are no longer classified as unemployed, but as employed persons (temporarily absent from work) in the LFS, while they still are classified as unemployed in the registerbased statistics. However, if the period of lay-off exceeds 3 months, they are classified as unemployed in the LFS as well.

The Population and Housing Censuses (each 10th year) give statistics on employment during the last 12 months, in addition to the situation in a specified reference week. As from 2001 onwards employment data based on administrative registers are used. Statistics on labour conflicts and working days lost are compiled by Statistics Norway on the basis of information supplied mostly by the labour and employers's organizations. The Surveys of Level of Living (by Statistics Norway) give information on physical working environment as well as organizational working conditions.

The main source to describe the situation for the immigrants on the labour market is the registerbased statistics on employment and unemployment. By using data from the LFS as a supplement we will achieve still more information regarding this group, for example on actual and desired working hours, temporary employment and patterns of working time. Moreover the LFS has more data than the registers on job seeking and desire for work.

The main problem using the LFS for statistics on immigrants is the size of the sample and the statistical uncertainty. The group of immigrants in Norway is rather heterogeneous regarding their situation on the labour market, and therefore it is required to divide among at least two groups in the presentation of statistics. A further dividing by other variables will require long time-series in order to draw any conclusions.

Legal authority

The Statistics Act §§ 2-2 and 2-3.

EEA reference

Council Regulation (EC) nos 577/98, 1991/2002 and 2257/2003, and Commission Regulation nos 1575/2000, 1897/2000, 2104/2002, 430/2005 and 377/2008.

Production

Population

The total population aged 15-74 is covered by the LFS. Up to 2006 the group was 16-74, and age defined as completed years at the end of the year. As from 2006 age is defined as completed years at the time of the reference week. Observation unit: person.

Data sources and sampling

The main source for the LFS is quarterly, representative sample surveys based on interview by telephone.

Inhabitants in all municipalities are randomly selected, on the basis of a register of family units. The sample consists of about 12 000 family units (24 000 persons) each quarter. Each family member aged 15-74 participates in the survey, answering questions about their situation during a specified reference week. As from 1996 each family participates in the survey 8 times during a period of 8 quarters (before 1996: 4 times during 6 quarters). Up to 1996 a two stage sampling procedure was applied. For more information, please cf. Labour Force Survey 2001 (NOS C748).

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Interview by telephone. Information from previous interviews are used while asking about any changes in the situation, instead of the same, comprehensive data collection every time. For the coding of industry, information from some registers is also used. Demographic data are collected from the Central Population Register, and data on education are based on a register of individual data collected by Statistics Norway from the educational institutions (but questions are also asked to get more updated information).

The respondent is usually the same person as the observation unit (but proxy interviews are done if it is not possible to get in contact with the observation unit; 14-15 per cent of the interviews are done by asking near family members). Data are collected weekly, i.e. the LFS is a continuous survey (all weeks are covered). Up to 1st quarter 1996 (from 2nd quarter 1988) the survey was based on one reference week each month, and in previous years on one week each quarter. Participation in the survey is compulsory, but compulsory fines are not used.

As the data collection is made by use of computer-assisted interviews, some procedures for electronic control of the registration of answers are included in the questionnaire, for example concerning the number of working hours during the reference week. In some cases the interviewers become a "warning" by recording an answer, in other cases maximum or minimum values have been set beforehand.

The analysis unit is person. The absolute numbers from the LFS are presented in the form of estimated total for the entire population aged 15-74. The weights or inflation factors vary, but have an average of about 195 for quarterly figures in 2017.

 The estimation method uses more demographic data and register information relevant to the connection to the labour market in order to minimize standard errors and correct more for bias in the response sample in LFS since the nonresponse is not random. New method was launched in April 2018, is also used on LFS data back to 2006 to get the most comparable time series.

The estimation method in LFS is done in several stages, and are called multiple model calibration (MMK). Initially, the main labor market status of LFS, which is employed, unemployed, outside the workforce, are modeled consistent with a multinomial logit model, explained with a number of register variables known to all in the population. The register information are registered completely unemployed, on measures and persons with disabilities at NAV, register information on disability pensioners, education level, marital status, family size and immigrant category, country of origin, gender and age, residence, and information from the A scheme and the Tax Recovery Register. The model provides predictive probabilities every month for each main labor market status in LFS for everybody in the population.

The monthly weights in LFS are calibrated using these predicted probabilities and some register variables directly[1]. This means that the weights also become consistent with the population for the number in the population register by gender, different age groups and region, as well as consistent weights for the number of full / part-time wage earners by gender and registered employed (yes/no) cross classified by immigrants in 2 groups.

Multiple model calibration provides some variance reduction, utilizing more efficiently that we have available good help information about everyone in the population from various registries that Statistics Norway has linked.

The initial weights before calibration are the ratio of the number of people in the population to the gross sample per. county (NUTS3), and takes into account that people in different counties have different probabilities of being selected to LFS sample.

For more detailed technical information about the new estimation method, please see Documents 2018/16 [https://www.ssb.no/en/arbeid-og-lonn/artikler-og-publikasjoner/new-estimation-methodology-for-the-norwegian-labour-force-survey]

Week-proportional weighting of the months in quarterly averages

LFS have continuous data collection. In order for all reference weeks to weighted evenly in quarterly averages, we now make week-proportional adjustment of monthly weights in our quarterly averages. That is, the monthly weights are multiplied by 4/13 or 5/13 depending on whether the months in the LFS contain respectively 4 or 5 whole weeks. Weekly proportional weighting of quarterly average has been made on all quarterly figures in our StatBank back to 2006. Before that is the even adjustment off all monthly weights was used, i.e. multiplied by 1/3 for all months.



[1]That the weights are consistent for a register variable, such as gender, means that the sum of the weights in the responses in the LFS equals the number of the population for each category of the register variable, such as the number of men and the number of women in the population

Seasonal adjustment

Quarterly figures from LFS are not seasonally adjusted

Confidentiality

Not relevant

Comparability over time and space

New estimation method published in April 2018 uses more registers that will reduce nonresponse bias and sample uncertainty. This leads to a slightly lower level of employed and almost correspondingly higher levels for people outside the workforce than the previous method. The total number of unemployed changes only a little. To get the most comparable figures, the time series are revised back to 2006 in our StatBank. However, the adjustments vary slightly between groups and over time.

Breaks in the series up to 2001 are described in the publication Labour Force Survey 2001 (NOS C748).

The concepts in LFS are defined in accordance with international recommendations, cf item 4.1, to ensure comparability among the countries.

As from 2006 the LFS was revised, mainly to be in accordance with the EU-requirements based on new ILO recommendations. Some definitions and parts of the questionnaire were changed, and some new variables were added. As from 2006 age is defined as completed years at the time of the reference week, instead of completed years at the end of the year, as earlier. Moreover the lower age limit to be covered by the survey was lowered from 16 to 15, in accordance with the surveys in other countries.

These changes from 2006 led to breaks in the time-series for the LFS estimates. The revised survey gives some lower estimates for unemployment (1 000 persons as an annual average for 2006) and some higher estimates for employment (8 000 in 2006). A break in the time series also occured for the estimates of actual working hours per week and man-hours worked. For more information, please cf. http://www.ssb.no/aku_en/. Quarterly data for 2006 are published according to both the revised and the unrevised LFS, in order to improve the comparability for the figures between 2006 and 2005. The breaks in the time-series were most significant for figures divided by age groups.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

In all surveys errors may occur in connection with both the collection and the processing of data. The use of proxy interviews (asking near family members instead of the observation unit) often increase the problems of measurement. As an average the employment is underestimated because of proxy interviews.

The size of the nonresponse as a percentage of the gross sample has varied widely since the LFS began in 1972. The 20 first years were generally around 10-12 percent. In the years 1992-1997 it was particularly low, only 6-8 percent. Subsequently, the nonresponse rate gradually increased to 21 per cent in 2013. After systematic work,  the nonresponse has been reduced to around 14 per cent in 2018.

 Correction for total non-response is done in the estimating procedure. Partial non-response is adjusted for some variables.

Variance

The standard error for the quarterly average for the number of unemployed aged 15-74 is around 4600 in 2017. It corresponds to a coefficient of variation of 3.9 per cent. The standard error for the quarterly average for the number of employed aged 15-74 in LFS is about 8600 people in 2017. The coefficient of variation for employment figures will then be around 0.29 percent. More calculations will later be published in our StatBank.

If the reader wants an indication of the size of the standard error for quarterly figures and annual averages for other variables or group divisions, see the table below. These indications are only guiding, and can not be interpreted as precise calculations for any variable. Changes between two surveys will usually have the same absolute uncertainty as the two figures which are compared.

 

 

Indication of the standard error for other variables than in StatBank table 09937 and 09938

 
 

Quarterly figures

 

Annual averages

 

Absolute figures

As per cent of estimated value

Absolute figures

As per cent of estimated value

 
           

5 000

800

16,0

500

10,0

 

7 000

900

12,9

600

8,6

 

10 000

1 100

11,0

700

7,0

 

20 000

1 600

8,0

1 100

5,5

 

30 000

1 900

6,3

1 300

4,3

 

40 000

2 200

5,5

1 500

3,8

 

50 000

2 500

5,0

1 700

3,4

 

60 000

2 700

4,5

1 800

3,0

 

70 000

2 900

4,1

1 900

2,7

 

100 000

3 500

3,5

2 300

2,3

 

200 000

4 800

2,4

3 200

1,6

 

300 000

5 800

1,9

3 900

1,3

 

400 000

6 600

1,7

4 400

1,1

 

500 000

7 200

1,4

4 800

1,0

 

1 000 000

9 100

0,9

6 100

0,6

 

1 700 000

9 600

0,6

6 400

0,4

 

2 000 000

9 100

0,5

6 100

0,3

 

Revision

Not relevant