Research and development in the business enterprise sector

Updated: 23 February 2021

Next update: 22 October 2021

R&D man-years
R&D man-years
2019
22 178

Selected tables and figures from this statistics

Intramural and extramural R&D expenditure and R&D man-years in business enterprise sector, by industry and size class (10+ employees). Three years.
Intramural and extramural R&D expenditure and R&D man-years in business enterprise sector, by industry and size class (10+ employees). Three years.
Intramural R&D (NOK million)Extramural R&D (NOK million)R&D man-years (number of)
201720182019201720182019201720182019
Nace (SN2007) and size class
A-N All industries31 989.832 748.235 408.17 481.07 619.67 710.421 20520 97922 178
10-19 persons employed4 022.14 041.04 022.4661.2481.0727.32 8982 7652 916
20-49 persons employed5 682.45 634.15 816.3938.6906.8906.54 1004 0994 123
50-99 persons employed3 771.54 049.74 612.8582.5680.7708.22 8522 9693 155
100-199 persons employed4 151.94 128.24 495.6686.0797.4722.82 8432 7663 236
200-499 persons employed4 156.44 335.64 785.41 416.81 379.31 373.62 7552 7812 920
500 persons employed and more10 205.610 559.511 675.63 195.93 374.43 272.05 7575 5995 828
C Manufacturing10 521.910 843.711 454.62 275.51 920.21 939.27 4677 3267 423
10-19 persons employed816.1770.7685.6233.776.268.7581554508
20-49 persons employed1 289.21 147.41 270.9171.8122.0131.6993915938
50-99 persons employed956.8988.91 039.7119.7118.178.0780761720
100-199 persons employed1 846.02 008.31 867.9383.6339.5395.51 3891 4651 398
200-499 persons employed1 540.71 628.41 975.5491.9517.2465.61 1711 2281 412
500 persons employed and more4 073.04 300.04 614.9874.9747.2799.72 5532 4042 447
G-N Services total17 790.217 831.219 679.12 763.92 998.22 907.912 02911 89912 818
10-19 persons employed2 889.22 824.83 042.2391.4387.7596.12 1872 1062 257
20-49 persons employed4 096.44 055.24 091.2704.3707.9679.02 9142 9512 959
50-99 persons employed2 175.52 425.72 920.7340.4406.3521.01 7061 8542 066
100-199 persons employed2 007.61 733.62 203.6240.9335.6244.21 2951 1041 587
200-499 persons employed2 346.12 487.82 600.4375.6473.9475.71 4641 4691 417
500 persons employed and more4 275.44 304.24 821.1711.2686.9391.92 4632 4162 534
A, B, D-F Other industries3 677.84 073.34 274.42 441.52 701.22 863.41 7091 7551 937
10-19 persons employed316.8445.5294.636.217.162.5130105151
20-49 persons employed296.8431.6454.162.576.995.9193234227
50-99 persons employed639.2635.1652.5122.3156.3109.3366354369
100-199 persons employed298.2386.2424.161.5122.383.1160198251
200-499 persons employed269.6219.5209.5549.3388.2432.31208492
500 persons employed and more1 857.21 955.42 239.61 609.81 940.32 080.4741779847
Explanation of symbols
Intramural and extramural R&D expenditure, R&D personell and man-years by Industry (10+ employees). NOK million and number of. Two years.
Intramural and extramural R&D expenditure, R&D personell and man-years by Industry (10+ employees). NOK million and number of. Two years.
Intramural R&D (NOK million)Extramural R&D (NOK million)R&D personnel (number of)R&D man-years (number of)
20182019201820192018201920182019
Nace (SN2007)
A-N All industries32 748.235 408.17 619.67 710.436 79638 84820 97922 178
A03 Fishing and aquaculture1 195.51 148.6150.4190.31 0671 054414462
B05-B09 Mining and cuarrying1 917.62 030.32 260.52 240.71 3191 300774833
B06, B09.1 Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas and support act. petroleum extraction1 847.51 974.82 256.42 232.91 2181 231749811
C Manufacturing10 828.611 534.61 808.01 954.412 50412 6077 2627 408
C10-C11 Food products and beverages1 192.71 204.6260.2225.71 9521 669812749
C13 Textiles61.357.511.89.11011074339
C14-C15 Wearing apparel, leather and leather products56.341.31.50.0101797050
C16 Wood and wood products147.3118.520.816.6331342119100
C17 Paper and paper products109.0129.512.08.71771929198
C18 Printing and reproduction104.994.88.52.823322311788
C19-C20 Refined petroleum products, chemicals and chemical products1 419.91 526.3315.3339.8967943813787
C21 Pharmaceuticals428.7430.2384.3571.0346347282284
C22 Rubber and plastic products189.8172.925.420.0264311126125
C23 Other non-metal mineral products140.6175.926.330.92822818196
C24 Basic metals494.8528.0100.5100.7567664347346
C25 Fabricated metal prod.1 149.21 182.062.962.01 016928564583
C26 Electronic and optical products2 106.42 140.774.960.71 8871 9771 6281 654
C26.3 Manuf. of communication equipment385.5351.59.010.9318318307297
C26.5 Manuf of testing instr./appliances962.2980.451.738.3884931748769
C27 Electrical equipment489.8613.060.148.5540566345404
C28 Machinery and equipment1 401.11 582.0175.1161.81 7241 875929976
C29 Motor vehicles etc.220.6214.214.613.9233239179182
C30 Other transport equipment407.1499.6122.899.6950931250302
C30.1 Building of ships and boats375.0467.5115.096.4873850229272
C31 Furniture195.9206.311.531.2333326172167
C32 Other manufacturing253.6262.9110.3137.0247227164172
C33 Repair, installation of machinery259.7354.38.914.3253381130207
D35 Electricity and gas supply307.0398.7203.7172.6651724158188
E36-E39 Water supply, sewerage and waste142.4146.221.024.527836888112
F41-F43 Construction379.9387.8160.6191.71 004947279286
G-N Services total17 977.219 761.93 015.62 936.219 97321 84812 00512 889
G46 Wholesale trade873.3782.8240.5271.61 6001 496709529
H49-H53 Transportation and storage411.6385.6101.7107.7622665212185
J58 Publishing activities2 632.42 852.4342.9329.42 8652 9192 0432 108
J58.2 Software publishing2 344.02 390.6162.7192.22 4222 3591 8331 783
J59-J60 Motion picture, TV, music prod., programming and broadcasting act.48.666.69.10.4931723867
J61 Telecommunications988.3741.298.675.6675646487431
J62 Computer programming, consultancy6 318.17 536.3425.5575.66 7698 1304 4795 219
J63 Information service activities260.4366.257.755.4399469213269
K64-K66 Financial and insurance activities1 608.01 917.1808.5500.01 3121 485821904
M70 Head offices, management consult.572.6489.965.243.8912682403337
M71 Architecture, engineering act.2 809.52 897.7323.8353.33 3313 5991 6781 747
M72 Scientific research and development1 044.41 295.7477.9573.18701 071612786
M74.9 Other professional, scientific and technical activities319.3333.111.326.5378373243240
N82.9 Other business supp. serv. act.90.897.252.723.91461406768
Explanation of symbols
Intramural R&D expenditures in Business Enterprise sector, by industry (10+ employees). NOK million
Intramural R&D expenditures in Business Enterprise sector, by industry (10+ employees). NOK million
2019
Total R&D expendituresTotal R&D current costOf this:R&D investment cost
Compensation of employeesCosts for hired personnelOther current costs
Nace (SN2007)
A-N All industries35 408.133 164.222 379.34 074.26 710.72 243.9
A03 Fishing and aquaculture1 148.6975.0420.628.6525.7173.6
B05-B09 Mining and cuarrying2 030.31 831.71 036.982.5712.3198.6
B06, B09.1 Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas and support act. petroleum extraction1 974.81 799.91 017.780.9701.3174.9
C Manufacturing11 534.610 337.17 197.6573.82 565.71 197.5
C10-C11 Food products and beverages1 204.61 119.9680.932.9406.284.7
C13 Textiles57.550.933.11.816.06.6
C14-C15 Wearing apparel, leather and leather products41.338.832.42.24.22.5
C16 Wood and wood products118.5114.185.515.113.64.3
C17 Paper and paper products129.5122.390.86.824.77.1
C18 Printing and reproduction94.887.168.27.910.97.7
C19-C20 Refined petroleum products, chemicals and chemical products1 526.31 045.3789.59.9245.9481.0
C21 Pharmaceuticals430.2418.8296.63.2119.011.4
C22 Rubber and plastic products172.9163.6113.17.842.79.3
C23 Other non-metal mineral products175.9133.287.47.738.142.8
C24 Basic metals528.0459.9377.121.561.368.1
C25 Fabricated metal prod.1 182.01 156.4594.031.9530.625.6
C26 Electronic and optical products2 140.72 012.31 626.2112.3273.8128.4
C26.3 Manuf. of communication equipment351.5350.5270.015.565.10.9
C26.5 Manuf of testing instr./appliances980.4954.5791.460.1102.925.9
C27 Electrical equipment613.0594.8380.429.4185.118.1
C28 Machinery and equipment1 582.01 410.3976.5102.6331.2171.7
C29 Motor vehicles etc.214.2196.6151.63.441.617.5
C30 Other transport equipment499.6425.1277.865.581.874.5
C30.1 Building of ships and boats467.5394.4253.965.575.073.1
C31 Furniture206.3196.6135.421.739.69.6
C32 Other manufacturing262.9261.8160.069.432.41.1
C33 Repair, installation of machinery354.3329.0241.021.067.025.3
D35 Electricity and gas supply398.7363.8212.490.660.834.8
E36-E39 Water supply, sewerage and waste146.2130.7102.410.717.515.5
F41-F43 Construction387.8380.1279.150.051.07.7
G-N Services total19 761.919 145.813 130.33 238.02 777.6616.0
G46 Wholesale trade782.8756.9496.0153.4107.526.0
H49-H53 Transportation and storage385.6320.3193.781.445.365.3
J58 Publishing activities2 852.42 760.02 089.5323.8346.792.4
J58.2 Software publishing2 390.62 306.51 776.0241.4289.184.1
J59-J60 Motion picture, TV, music prod., programming and broadcasting act.66.665.546.014.84.71.1
J61 Telecommunications741.2725.8514.9120.990.015.4
J62 Computer programming, consultancy7 536.37 426.15 333.11 231.3861.8110.2
J63 Information service activities366.2357.5248.461.547.68.7
K64-K66 Financial and insurance activities1 917.11 904.2851.9894.6157.612.9
M70 Head offices, management consult.489.9479.8391.728.659.510.1
M71 Architecture, engineering act.2 897.72 694.21 916.3201.0576.9203.5
M72 Scientific research and development1 295.71 234.3754.492.6387.361.4
M74.9 Other professional, scientific and technical activities333.1324.1223.314.186.89.0
N82.9 Other business supp. serv. act.97.297.171.220.05.90.1
Explanation of symbols
R&D personnel and R&D man-years in Business Enterprise sector, by industry (10+ employees). Number
R&D personnel and R&D man-years in Business Enterprise sector, by industry (10+ employees). Number
2019
R&D personnelOf this:R&D man-yearsOf this:
Female R&D personnelR&D personnel with higher degree education (incl. doctorate)R&D personnel with PhDR&D man-years performed by personnel with higher degree education (incl. doctorate)R&D man-years performed by personnel with PhD
NACE (SN2007)
A-N All industries38 8488 00824 1662 40422 17815 3221 846
A03 Fishing and aquaculture1 0543343859846222388
B05-B09 Mining and cuarrying1 3002731 038243833677203
B06, B09.1 Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas and support act. petroleum extraction1 2312641 008241811667201
C Manufacturing12 6072 4936 5087987 4084 450680
C10-C11 Food products and beverages1 66956462910274939184
C13 Textiles1072035139171
C14-C15 Wearing apparel, leather and leather products793732150300
C16 Wood and wood products34241792100262
C17 Paper and paper products19264971498559
C18 Printing and reproduction223306808824..
C19-C20 Refined petroleum products, chemicals and chemical products943375610173787531160
C21 Pharmaceuticals3472022919828424094
C22 Rubber and plastic products311381274125582
C23 Other non-metal mineral products281468120964412
C24 Basic metals6641382878434619170
C25 Fabricated metal prod.928973993258328524
C26 Electronic and optical products1 9772191 4811441 6541 249134
C26.3 Manuf. of communication equipment318242531629724115
C26.5 Manuf of testing instr./appliances9311296505276952046
C27 Electrical equipment566652702640420221
C28 Machinery and equipment1 8752089734797654434
C29 Motor vehicles etc.239141280182101..
C30 Other transport equipment9311455532530216411
C30.1 Building of ships and boats850134512202721426
C31 Furniture3269713021671122
C32 Other manufacturing227521037172957
C33 Repair, installation of machinery38138136152079215
D35 Electricity and gas supply7241705033718814912
E36-E39 Water supply, sewerage and waste3688019213112736
F41-F43 Construction947150331152861218
G-N Services total21 8484 50915 2091 20012 8899 629848
G46 Wholesale trade1 4963276773452928930
H49-H53 Transportation and storage66590274111851055
J58 Publishing activities2 9195331 880652 1081 41157
J58.2 Software publishing2 3593811 525651 7831 18357
J59-J60 Motion picture, TV, music prod., programming and broadcasting act.1724283167531
J61 Telecommunications6461265213043136024
J62 Computer programming, consultancy8 1301 3935 9883025 2194 073207
J63 Information service activities4695925232691392
K64-K66 Financial and insurance activities1 4855671 0122090463115
M70 Head offices, management consult.6822745756133729843
M71 Architecture, engineering act.3 5996372 7003651 7471 361227
M72 Scientific research and development1 071371886248786669197
M74.9 Other professional, scientific and technical activities373672815424019137
N82.9 Other business supp. serv. act.1402483668484
Explanation of symbols

About the statistics

The survey measures expenditures for research and development (R&D) in business enterprises, performed by own personnel or purchased services from others, and how the R&D activity is funded. In addition other aspects like type of R&D, thematic fields and co-operation are covered.

R&D comprises creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. The main criteria of R&D activities are the presence of an appreciable element of novelty and uncertainty on the outcome. Normal construction and planning activities, that follow established routines, is not R&D. Either is the introduction of known, established technology for the enterprise.

Definition of the main variables

R&D personnel

encompass all personnel directly involved in research and development, including administrative personnel, persons in supporting functions, both inside and outside the R&D department.

A R&D man-year

is the R&D work one person has performed during the year.

Intramural R&D expenditures

are all expenditures for R&D; performed within the statistical unit. Intramural R&D expenditures encompass labour costs, cost of hired personnel, other current costs and capital expenditures on R&D.

Extramural R&D expenditures

encompass R&D services purchased from others; as research institutes, other enterprises, also including units in the same enterprise group.

The statistical units are classified according to:

  • Standard Industrial Classification (SIC2007). The basis for SIC 2007 is the EU standard NACE Rev. 2 and the UN standard ISIC Rev. 3.
  • Size class by number of employees: 05-09 employees, 10-19, 20-49, 50-99, 100-199, 200-499 and 500+ employees

Name: Research and development in the business enterprise sector

Topic: Technology and innovation

22 October 2021

Division for Business Dynamics Statistics

National level, key variables by county and economic region. Main variables by county are available in Statbank; by economic region on request.

Annual. Preliminary results are published in October year t+1, final results in February year t+2.

The statistics are reported to OECD and Eurostat.

Micro data and information about sample units and population are stored permanently. For access to microdata for research purposes, see: https://www.ssb.no/en/omssb/tjenester-og-verktoy/data-til-forskning

The purpose with the R&D surveys is to monitor the national R&D activity. The R&D survey for the Business enterprise sector is performed each year by Statistics Norway on contract for the Norwegian Research Council who also contribute to the funding of the survey. Surveys on the R&D activity in the Government sector and the Higher Education sector are undertaken by Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education (NIFU). The survey, and the results, follows the recommendations given in the OECD Frascati Manual

The survey undertaken by Statistics Norway measures the expenditures of R&D in the business enterprise sector, both R&D performed by own personnel (intramural R&D) and R&D services purchased from others like research institutes, other enterprises etc. (extramural R&D) and how the R&D activity is financed (own sources, public sources etc.). The R&D activity is distributed by type of R&D, research field a.o. The content of the survey varies slightly from year to year.

Important users are public administration, like ministries and the Research Council, researchers, business organizations. The survey is important for evaluation of the R&D and innovation policy and the industrial policy in general. The statistics are also used by international organizations like EU/Eurostat and OECD.

Publishing

The national R&D Statistics are published at the same time by Statistics Norway and NIFU. Preliminary results are published in October year t+1. The variables being published are number of R&D personnel, number of R&D man-years and R&D expenditures. Final results are published in January/February year t+2. This release provides more detailed results by industry and region and several breakdowns of the main variables. Normally there are only small differences in the main variables from preliminary to final release. Both preliminary and final results are based on reported figures from the enterprises.

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 08 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar.

Exception from the principle of equal treatment:

The Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education (NIFU) has access to some of the main preliminary figures from SSBs R&D statistics for the business enterprise sector before these are published on SSB’s website. NIFU adds up the results from their sectors with data from SSB to publish the total national R&D.

For total national R&D figures the R&D survey for the business enterprise sector has to be added to NIFU’s surveys for the Government sector and the Higher Education sector. NIFU is responsible for publishing of national figures, but some main results are also available in SSB’s Statbank.

The R&D survey for the business enterprise sector was formerly carried out together with the innovation survey and data collected together in the same questionnaire. From 2013 onwards the R&D survey and the innovation survey are carried out separately. As previously the results from these surveys are published separately. R&D is one of the innovation activities, but the innovation survey covers a wider range of activities than R&D only.

Sections 2-2 and 2-3 of Act no. 54 of 16 June 1989 relating to official statistics and Statistics Norway.

European Parliament and Council Decision No. 1608/2003/EC of 22 July 2003 concerning the production and development of Community statistics on science and technology and implementing Commission Regulation No. 995/2012 of 26 October 2012 as regards statistics on science and technology.

The Business Enterprise sector. NACE-sectors 03, 05-33, 35-39, 41-43, 46, 49-53, 58-66, 70-72, 74.9, 82.9 (SN2007).

Surveys using the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises as a frame.

The survey is a census of all units with at least 50 employees. In addition are all units with10-49 employees and with considerable reported R&D activity in the previous survey included. Among the other units with 10 - 49 employees a random sample is drawn within each strata (NACE 2-digit and size class). The fraction rate is normally 30 percent, but in some strata 15 and 10 percent are used.

The sample was about 5-6000 units.

The sample was extended in the 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2015, 2017 and 2019 survey to also include enterprises with 5-9 employees. The total sample of these years is therefore larger than in the years in between. For comparability the statistics were presented both with and without this extension of the survey. The enterprises with 5-9 employees are not included in comparisons over time and international comparisons.

From 2008 onwards, enterprises with less than 20 employees in the industries Construction and Transportation and storage are not included. These groups have a large number of enterprises and a very low share of the total R&D activity in the business enterprise sector.

The statistical unit is enterprise, and with breakdown of a number of variables to establishments (local kind-of-activity unit). Until 1999 the statistical unit was the branch unit ( kind-of-activity unit) .

An enterprise is defined as the smallest combination of legal units that is an organizational unit producing goods or services. An enterprise may be a sole legal unit. An enterprise carries out one or more activities at one or more locations and may consist of one or more branch units or establishments. A establishment is geographically located in one particular place and its main activity delimited to one NACE-class. A branch unit encompasses all establishment units within the same NACE-class, but is not necessarily located to only one region. The use of branch unit/establishments gives the most detailed breakdown of the statistics by NACE. When enterprise is used as statistical unit the R&D activity is classified by NACE according to the enterprise’s main activity.

The data on R&D are collected by electronic questionnaire, more information at http://www.ssb.no/innrapportering/naeringsliv/fou. The forms are sent out 4-5 months after the end of the reference year.

Response burden

The time used to fill in the form is estimated to 30 minutes on average. This yields a total response burden of 2150 hours for the enterprises. However, the content of the questionnaire may vary from one year to another.

Editing

All forms undergo on-receipt controls (is the questionnaire filled in, is there any obvious inconsistencies etc). There are integrated a number of controls in the electronic questionaire. After the data are made available electronically, more detailed controls take part, including check with the data from the previous survey, information from the financial account etc.

Estimations

For units with less than 50 employees the survey is based on a sample of units. Total figures for this part of the survey population are estimated based on the sample units. The estimations are done within each stratum, NACE 2-digit level and size-class.

R&D expenditure are reported and published in current prices. For total R&D expenditure figures at constant prices are also calculated. A new deflator is adopted for calculating R&D expenditure at constant prices for 2013 and the period back to 1970. The base year is 2015. The new deflator is based on the price index of production in NACE 72 Research and development in the national accounts. This is a weighted cost index - an average index for the different types of expenditure. The same deflator is used for all institutional sectors in the R&D statistics. Formerly various price indices were used for the various types of expenditure (wages, operating expenditures and investments) and performing sectors. There are two main reasons for this change of index: The new index will also be used in the national accounts where R&D after the main revision of SNA is capitalized, and it will simplify fixed price calculations significantly.

Not relevant

Results are published at an aggregated level. Individual enterprises can not be identified.

The first surveys of R&D started back in 1963, from 1970 onwards in a systematic way. The statistics have been worked out on bi-annual basis since 1977, but is undertaken annually from 2001 onwards. The first surveys covered only manufacturing industry, but the service industries have gradually been included. Statistics Norway is responsible for the survey for the Business enterprise sector from 1991 onwards. In 1995 the survey was considerably extended.

From 1991 the statistical unit was the kind-of-activity unit. For 2001 this was changed to enterprise as the main statistical unit, but with a breakdown of the main variables to local kind-of-activity unit.

From 2008 a new version of the industry classification (SN2007) was implemented making it more difficult to compare with former vintages. Results from 2007 are published both by the old and the new classification, while former vintages only are published by the old classification (SN2002).

Every second year, enterprises With 5-9 employees are included in the survey.For comparability the statistics were presented both with and without this extension of the survey. The enterprises with 5-9 employees are not included in comparisons over time and international comparisons.

The concept of R&D may be difficult to distinguish from related activities.

The response rate for the survey is high, around 99 per cent, and the results should for that reason not be biased by non-respondents. In case of non-response from large R&D performers there are good routines to estimate missing data. Preliminary results have a larger degree of uncertainty than final results.

Due to controls in the electronic questionnaire, the item non-response is almost non-existent. Item non-response is in case adjusted during the revision process.

The population of enterprises is based upon the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises. The sample is stratified by NACE 2-digit and number of employees. Incomplete updating of these variables and entries and exits of enterprises may cause errors in the survey.

Not relevant





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