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statistikk
2017-12-13T08:00:00.000Z
Income and consumption;Immigration and immigrants
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ifhus, Income and wealth statistics for households, income statistics, household income, wealth statistics, wealth, household types (for example single, couples with children, couples without children), income accounts, income from employment, capital income, transfers (for example pension, supplementary benefit, cash for care), debts, poverty, low income, child poverty,Income and wealth, Income and consumption, Immigration and immigrants, Income and consumption
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Income and wealth statistics for households

Updated

Next update

Not yet determined

Key figures

-2.2 %

yearly percentage change of median income after tax for all households (fixed prices)

Income after tax for households by type of household, Median1
After tax median incomePer cent2
20162015 - 20162011 - 2016
1Students not included
2In constant prices
All households497 600-2.23.9
Singles under 45 years285 700-1.64.2
Singles 45-64 years321 100-1.74.9
Singles 65 years and older258 600-1.66.9
Couples without children, oldest person under 45 years586 800-1.9-1.7
Couples without children, oldest person 45-64 years742 100-1.48.9
Couples without children, oldest person 65 years and older556 400-1.68.2
Couples with children 0-6 years743 600-2.52.6
Couples with children 7-17 years864 500-2.05.5
Couples with children, oldest child 18 years and older963 300-1.97.4
Single mother/father with children 0-17 years401 800-2.40.6
Single mother/father with children 18 years and older532 400-1.64.4

See more tables on this subject

Table 1 
Registered incomes for households by type of household. Average in NOK.

Registered incomes for households by type of household. Average in NOK.123
2016
All householdsLiving alone, person under 30 yearsLiving alone, person 30-44 yearsLiving alone, person 45-66 yearsLiving alone, person 67 years and olderCouple without resident children, oldest person under 30 yearsCouple without resident children, oldest person 30-44 yearsCouple without resident children, oldest person 45-66 yearsCouple without resident children, oldest person 67 years and olderCouples with children 0-5 yearsCouples with children 6-17 yearsCouples with children 18 years and olderSingle mother/father with children 0-5 yearSingle mother/father with children 6-17 yearSingle mother/father with children 18 year and olderTwo or more-familiy households
1Private households consiting of single persons living alone under the age of 18 are not included.
2Couples included married couples, cohabiting couples and registered partners.
3Students not included.
4For recipients of new transitional benefits for single mothers/fathers from April 2014, the benefits will be taxed as wage. From the income year 2015, the benefits are included in Social security benefits.
5Includes recipients of the former private contractual pension scheme (AFP).
6Sickness benfits from the National Insurance Scheme. Holiday payments from sickness benefits are included.
7Other taxable transfers include benefits such as parental benefit, annuity, introduction benefits for newly arrived refugees and qualification benefits (from 2008).
8Other tax-free transfers benefits such as childcare benefit to single parents, lump sum maternity grants, compensation for work injury, education benefit to single parents and received child support managed by public arrangement. Various benefits received by people attending job creating programs are included from 2009. From 2014, extra compensation for recipients of contractual pension (AFP) is included.
9Negative transfers include paid child support managed by public arrangement, paid annuity and mandatory contribution to private pension plan.
Income from work (NOK)539 200277 900368 800326 50022 100641 200813 800840 400134 500835 5001 120 9001 122 100219 100425 200528 800701 500
Wages and salaries (NOK)506 100270 100351 400305 10018 200625 300782 400783 700115 400791 4001 048 3001 046 300210 700406 100497 700651 100
Net income from self-employment (NOK)33 0007 80017 40021 4003 90015 80031 40056 70019 10044 10072 60075 8008 40019 10031 10050 400
 
Property income (NOK)42 7005 30012 10026 30021 30011 10024 80084 10062 60040 10082 20090 00011 50020 50028 40046 300
Interest received (NOK)4 8001 6001 7003 1005 1004 1004 3007 20010 7003 9004 5008 0001 2001 9004 6005 300
Share dividends received (NOK)25 0002 3006 40015 1008 3003 50010 90054 20031 80023 70055 30056 7007 20012 80015 30022 000
Realised capital gains (NOK)11 3001 1003 5007 9007 5002 6007 20021 20019 30010 00016 80021 7002 6005 6007 50015 800
Realised capital losses (NOK)4 1006001 5003 1002 7001 2002 6007 8007 6003 3006 0007 4008002 4003 2004 900
Other capital incomes (NOK)5 8009002 1003 3003 2002 1005 0009 3008 3005 80011 60010 9001 4002 6004 2008 100
 
Transfers received (NOK)210 60045 60068 800142 800304 80052 40072 900236 600580 100177 600123 600234 400201 400140 400203 000303 200
Taxable transfers (NOK)193 90034 40059 400136 100302 30035 50063 900232 700577 300137 80090 000223 400123 30084 800188 500271 100
Social security benefits (NOK)4129 10020 60037 40097 200235 20016 70032 000144 300438 50021 00046 800147 90073 10052 900135 900185 200
Old-age pensions (NOK)80 1000011 000231 7000041 300411 5003002 40057 50010070050 20098 400
Disability benefits (NOK)32 6009 20022 70069 1002 9004 30014 40081 80024 2006 20022 50062 0006 90021 50055 90055 200
Work assessment allowance (NOK)14 40011 30014 60014 70020012 40017 50020 6002 50013 20021 20028 00016 80021 10025 80026 000
Service pensions etc. (NOK)27 70020060014 00062 60020070034 400116 9001 3006 60027 1001 0004 90021 00030 100
Contractual pension (NOK)4 100004 4001 3000016 90013 40003005 80001001 9003 800
Contractual pension (AFP) in public sector (NOK)52 800003 0008000011 30010 00001003 700001 3002 600
Contractual pension (AFP) in private sector (NOK)1 300001 300500005 6003 40001002 100007001 200
Unemployment benefits (NOK)6 3004 3008 3005 3001006 40011 2007 30080011 6008 30010 1006 6005 2007 50011 700
Sickness benefits (NOK)616 2004 90010 10014 20040010 00017 20028 8003 80028 30026 00030 70015 70019 20020 00024 600
Other taxable transfers (NOK)710 4004 4003 0001 0002 7002 2002 9001 1003 90075 5002 0001 80026 9002 5002 20015 700
 
Tax-free transfers (NOK)16 70011 2009 5006 7002 50016 9009 0003 9002 80039 80033 60011 00078 10055 60014 60032 100
Familiy allowances (NOK)6 3001001 4004000100400100021 40021 0001 00024 80024 1001 6009 800
Dwelling support (kr)1 3002 2002 0001 6008009009002001001 4007003009 9004 0001 2001 700
Scholarships (NOK)2 1002 9003000012 3004 100002 9003 9004 2004 1003 8003 2007 400
Social assistance (NOK)2 4004 5004 3002 9002002 0002 1006001003 2001 8001 40014 1006 1003 7004 300
Basic and attendance benefits (NOK)1 4005006009001 1006006001 0001 4001 6003 2001 8001 5003 1001 7002 500
Cash for care (NOK)6001002000000005 200003 800001 300
Other tax-free transfers (NOK)82 5009005009004001 1009001 8001 3004 1003 0002 20019 80014 5003 1005 100
 
Total income (NOK)792 400328 700449 700495 500348 200704 700911 5001 161 100777 2001 053 2001 326 6001 446 500431 900586 100760 2001 050 900
 
Total assessed taxed and negative transfers (NOK)203 80074 400116 400134 80062 800162 500240 500337 400162 200273 200378 000398 10072 800129 500184 400247 200
Assessed taxes (NOK)199 10072 800112 600130 80062 600158 700234 200330 200161 200265 900369 100389 40070 200125 000179 500241 100
Negative transfers (NOK)94 6001 6003 8004 0002003 8006 3007 3001 0007 3008 9008 7002 6004 5005 0006 100
 
After-tax income (NOK)588 600254 300333 400360 800285 400542 300671 000823 700615 000780 000948 6001 048 400359 100456 600575 800803 800
 
Number of households2 341 292159 620196 106296 125263 40548 76561 771213 425230 548231 825256 213115 98727 63785 34160 74793 777

Table 2 
Property account for households

Property account for households
20162015 - 2016
Average for households with different property holdings (NOK)Share of households with different property holdings (per cent)NOK millionPercentage change (NOK million)
Estimated real capital3 416 30082.06 560 7228.3
Estimated market value primary dwelling3 409 10069.05 508 3559.2
Estimated market value secondary dwelling2 608 60010.3629 8028.0
Taxable gross financial capital1 112 10099.02 578 3388.4
Bank deposits477 00099.01 105 5325.1
Shares and other securities2 121 30021.31 059 24912.8
Share of unit trusts, bond and money market funds230 80031.7171 2948.2
Foreign taxable wealth excl. real properties443 4003.940 9865.9
Estimated gross wealth3 938 80099.19 139 0608.3
Debt1 591 60084.83 160 7985.9
Study debt226 70024.7131 3005.6
Estimated net wealth2 566 90099.55 978 2629.7
Positive net wealth3 264 20081.56 226 1509.4
Negative net wealth-588 00018.0-247 8881.9
Property taxes40 50014.213 4998.3

Table 3 
Percentage share of total estimated net wealth, average net wealth and lowest value in decile for households, by deciles

Percentage share of total estimated net wealth, average net wealth and lowest value in decile for households, by deciles1
2016
Share of total net wealth (per cent)Average estimated net wealth (NOK)Lowest value in decile (NOK)
1Students not included
Total100.02 553 400..
Decile 1-3.9-990 600..
Decile 2-0.3-68 000-215 900
Decile 30.376 7003 700
Decile 41.9479 400219 000
Decile 54.21 060 300762 700
Decile 66.61 683 8001 363 000
Decile 79.42 391 1002 017 900
Decile 812.93 283 3002 792 900
Decile 918.34 682 8003 843 500
Decile 1050.712 935 0005 795 500
Top 5 per cent37.319 055 6008 211 000
Top 1 per cent19.850 521 80018 045 200
Top 0,1 per cent9.2235 183 30075 374 200

Table 4 
Measures of income dispersion. Household equivalent income (EU-scale) between persons

Measures of income dispersion. Household equivalent income (EU-scale) between persons1
Total populationTotal population excluding persons in student households
Gini coefficientStandard error of the Gini coefficientP90/P102S80/S203Gini coefficientStandard error of the Gini coefficientP90/P102S80/S203
1Negative amounts have been set to zero.
2Percentile ratio of the 9th and the 1st decile cut-offs.
3The ratio of the share of income held by the top 20 per cent of the distribution and the bottom 20 per cent of the distribution.
19930.2290.0042.63.20.2260.0042.63.2
19940.2410.0022.83.50.2350.0022.73.3
19950.2360.0032.73.40.2310.0032.63.2
19960.2450.0042.73.50.2400.0042.63.4
19970.2490.0042.73.50.2430.0042.63.4
19980.2380.0032.73.40.2330.0032.63.2
19990.2420.0042.73.40.2360.0042.63.3
20000.2620.0042.73.70.2570.0042.63.6
20010.2290.0022.63.20.2230.0022.53.1
20020.2640.0042.73.80.2580.0042.63.6
20030.2740.0032.83.90.2670.0032.73.7
20040.283..2.74.10.276..2.63.8
20050.327..2.84.80.319..2.74.5
20060.243..2.83.50.235..2.63.3
20070.252..2.83.70.244..2.73.5
20080.248..2.83.60.240..2.73.4
20090.241..2.83.50.231..2.63.3
20100.245..2.83.60.236..2.63.3
20110.247..2.83.60.237..2.73.4
20120.249..2.93.70.239..2.73.4
20130.250..2.93.70.241..2.73.4
20140.256..2.93.80.247..2.83.5
20150.271..3.04.00.263..2.83.8
20160.261..3.03.90.252..2.83.6

Table 5 
Registered incomes for residents. Number of persons with amount. Amount in NOK million.

Registered incomes for residents. Number of persons with amount. Amount in NOK million.
20152016
Number of persons with amountNOK millionNumber of persons with amountNOK million
1For recipients of new transitional benefits for single mothers/fathers from April 2014, the benefits will be taxed as wage. From the income year 2015, the benefits are included in Social security benefits.
2Includes recipients of the former private contractual pension scheme (AFP).
3Sickness benfits from the National Insurance Scheme. Holiday payments from sickness benefits are included.
4Other taxable transfers include benefits such as parental benefit, annuity, introduction benefits for newly arrived refugees and qualification benefits (from 2008).
5Other tax-free transfers benefits such as childcare benefit to single parents, lump sum maternity grants, compensation for work injury, education benefit to single parents and received child support managed by public arrangement. Various benefits received by people attending job creating programs are included from 2009. From 2014, extra compensation for recipients of contractual pension (AFP) is included.
6Negative transfers include paid child support managed by public arrangement, paid annuity and mandatory contribution to private pension plan
INCOME FROM WORK3 096 4571 245 076.03 107 5721 271 867.2
Wages and salaries2 995 9831 170 509.02 996 8951 194 290.5
Net income from self-employment329 70174 567.9326 20777 576.7
 
PROPERTY INCOME4 058 896133 409.14 088 921101 032.1
Interest received4 049 27117 983.94 077 69211 570.5
Share dividends received529 43483 204.9506 27858 967.5
Realised capital gains254 65629 570.9242 04726 621.7
Realised capital losses146 9379 727.4162 5349 795.7
Other capital incomes1 427 87912 376.71 449 53113 668.0
 
TRANSFERS RECEIVED3 060 835486 220.63 077 615506 084.1
TAXABLE TRANSFERS2 206 617443 763.62 221 717463 013.9
Social security benefits11 338 684295 780.21 359 718309 601.3
Old-age pensions825 337182 670.7848 901193 391.8
Disability benefits327 24674 204.7330 19277 684.3
Work Assessment Allowance197 44533 934.8192 92333 900.2
Service pensions etc804 87963 595.8824 30666 126.9
Contractual pension (AFP)85 0699 152.490 9179 570.0
Contractual pension (AFP) in public sector236 9696 694.433 6926 600.0
Contractual pension (AFP) in private sector48 1152 458.057 2442 970.0
Unemployment benefits178 35513 393.4165 08414 988.4
Sickness benefits3744 84338 896.7736 77238 153.8
Other taxable transfers4230 88722 945.2247 81224 573.4
 
TAX-FREE TRANSFERS1 537 46242 457.01 535 55643 070.1
Familiy allowances708 30314 842.8708 03514 788.9
Dwelling support139 1782 889.9137 4303 132.0
Scholarships399 4598 013.1389 6548 051.7
Social assistance124 5855 787.6127 6276 091.4
Basic and attendance benefits171 0003 415.4168 2253 477.9
Cash for care49 2891 576.247 2951 508.3
Other tax-free transfers5267 9875 932.1272 1406 020.0
 
TOTAL INCOME4 309 1361 864 706.04 345 1201 878 983.4
 
Assessed taxes and negative transfers3 726 483476 994.23 765 335479 925.0
Assessed taxes3 696 243466 286.93 734 884468 977.0
Negative transfers61 194 00710 707.31 207 11910 948.0
 
AFTER-TAX INCOME4 309 3991 387 712.04 345 3471 399 058.4
 
NUMBER OF RESIDENTS5 213 985..5 258 317..

About the statistics

Income and wealth statistics for households provide figures for the level, composition, development and distribution of income. The survey comprises all monetary income, both taxable and tax-exempt, as well as wealth and debt. The statistics present the general developments of income and wealth as well as its distribution between household types and groups.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Total income is the sum of wages and salaries, property income and transfers.

After-tax income is calulated as the sum of wages and salaries, income from self-employment, property income and transfers received minus total assessed taxes and negative transfers.

Income from work is the sum of employee income and net income from self-employment during the calendar year.

Property income is the sum of interest received, share dividends received, realised capital gains (or losses) and other income received during the calendar year.

Taxable transfers is the sum of pensions and benefits from the social security scheme, service pension, unemployment benefits and some minor taxable benefits.

Tax-free transfers consist of child allowance, dwelling support, student grants, social assistance, basic and attendance benefit and more.

After-tax income per consumption unit (equivalent income) is the household after-tax income "corrected" for differences in household size and household composition. When comparing the level of income and living standards for households of varying size, income is often adjusted with the help of equivalence scales or consumption units. An equivalence scale, for instance, provides an indication of how much income a household of four must have in order to achieve the same standard of living as a single person.

EU-equivalence scale: This is the ‘OECD-modified equivalence scale’ which assigns a value of 1 to the household head, of 0.5 to each additional adult member and of 0.3 to each child under the age of 17.

Median income is the exact income amount that splits a distribution in two equally sized groups, when income is sorted ascending (or descending). The number of persons with income over the median income will be the same as the number of persons with income under the median income.

Low-income threshold. Defined as an equivalent income lower than different percentages of the median income, e.g. 50, 60 or 70 per cent of median income for all persons.

Low-income group. Persons with yearly equivalent income lower than the low-income threshold.

A household is regarded as all persons who live permanently in the same dwelling and having common housekeeping. The statistics include only persons in private households.

The main income earner is the person in the household who has the highest gross income of the income earners in the household. In those cases where there is no income earner in the household, the oldest person is the main income earner.

Person with economic activity
A person that has income from employment or self-employment that is greater than twice the basic amount of the National insurance scheme (so-called "G", or "grunnbeløpet"). For the income year 2010 and earlier, persons with income from employment or self-employment greater than the minimum pension for single people were regarded as economically active.

Single parents
Persons in the household type "mother/father with children aged 0-17 years".

Couples with children aged 0-17 years in the lowest income class
Couples with children aged 0-17 years where the equivalent after-tax income (EU-scale) is in the lowest decile.

Children under 18 years of age
People in households with children less than 18 years of age.

Old-age pensioners
People in households where the main income earner, according to the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation (previously the National Insurance Service), receives old age pension from the social security system.

Disability pensioners
People in households where the main income earner, according to the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation, receives disability pension from the social security system.

Pensioners within the Voluntary Early Retirement Scheme :
People in households where the main income earner, according to the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation, has used the opportunity for early retirement

Receivers of survivor's benefits
People in households where the main income earner, according to the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation, receives survivor's benefit (after deceased spouse) from the social security system.

Single pensioner, receiver of the minimum state pension
People living alone according to Statistics Norway's Income Statistics for Households and recipient of special allowance from the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation

Longstanding illness
People in households where the main income earner is registered with longstanding illness. Included are people in receipt of rehabilitation allowances, persons incapable of full employment but partaking in labour market schemes, and others. Up until 2005, persons who were incapable of full employment but who were taking part in programmes initiated by the National Insurance Scheme (e.g. school and work placements), and persons who were receiving vocational rehabilitation allowances, were not included in the statistics.

Long-term unemployed
People in households where the main income earner has been registered as unemployed for 6 consecutive months or more during the year.

Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents
People in households where the main income earner is born abroad by two foreign-born parents (first-generation immigrant) or born in Norway by two foreign-born parents.

Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents from non-western countries
People in households where the main income earner is an immigrant from Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, Central and South America or Turkey.

Refugees
People in households where the main income earner is a person with refugee background.

People on social assistance
People in households where the main income earner has received social assistance during the year.

Single people under 35 years of age
Single people according to Statistics Norway's Income Statistics for Households. Single students are excluded. The definition of student is a person without any economic activity and without social security benefits, but who does receive a student loan.

The senior population
People in households where the main income earner is in the age group 50 - 66 years.

Standard classifications

Types of household are in conformance with standard classifications. 

Socio-economic standard

A person with economic actitvity has income from employment or self-employment that is greater than twice the basic amount of the National insurance scheme (so-called "G", or "grunnbeløpet"). For the income year 2010 and earlier, persons with income from employment or self-employment greater than the minimum pension for single people were regarded as economically active.

The economically active population is divided into self-employed and employees. If income from self-employment is greater than income from employment, the person is classified as self-employed, and vice versa.

We have the following socio-economic groups:

Working

Self-employed

Self-employed in agriculture, forestry and fishing

Self-employed in other industries.

Employee

Non-working

Pensioners and National Insurance recipients

Other non-working

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Income and wealth statistics for households
Topic: Income and consumption

Responsible division

Division for Income and Wage Statistics

Regional level

National level, counties and municipalities.

Frequency and timeliness

Annually. During last quarter one year after the current income year.

International reporting

Income data is used in Eurostat's structural indicators on low income and income distribution. Micro data for selected years are also included in the database Luxembourg Income Study (LIS). Income data is also included in the Nordic publication "Social security in the Nordic countries" by the Nordic social committee, and in reports published by the OECD.

Microdata

A full survey of Statistics Norway's income statistics is available under subject 05.01 at Statistics Norway's website.

Data files with individual income data that have gone through the linkage and statistics files are stored.

Background

Background and purpose

The purpose of the statistics is to present income measurements as living standard indicators and data that measure the economic resources households have for saving and consumption. Additionally, the statistics presents general income trends and income distribution among different types of households.

The Income Distribution Survey was conducted annually from 1986 to 2004 based on a representative sample survey. Information on the household composition was collected from various Living Condition Surveys and Household Budget Surveys. Up until 1992, the income data was obtained in the form of paper forms from the local tax offices. In addition, tax-free transfers were obtained electronically from other government agencies. Beginning with the survey for the 1993 income year, it was possible to obtain all income data from the personal tax return in electronic form. From 2005 we have also established household composition by using registers. This means that we are now able to produce a totally register-based household income statistics.

Users and applications

The main users are the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Labour and Social Inclusion, Ministry of Children and Equality, Directorate for Health and Social Affairs, and research institutes in the areas of household economics, tax research and living conditions in general.

The tax model LOTTE is updated annually with data from the Income and Property Survey for households.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given inthe Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.

Coherence with other statistics

Data from the Tax Return is the basis for all of Statistics Norway's statistics on income for persons. The tax return statistics include data on types of taxable income, and is obtained for all persons residing in the country. The statistics was first available for the year 1993.

Legal authority

Statistics Act §§ 2-1 and 3-2.

EEA reference

None

Production

Population

All persons residing in Norway and resident in private households as of 31st December of the current income year.

The totally register-based income statistics as of 2004 is a total census. Households are derived at after performing certain adjustments to the formal households (formal adress according to the Central Population Register). These adjustments include omitting people living in institutions and removing students, that no longer reside with their parents, into single person households. Surveys suggest that less than 10 per cent of the students in Norway actually live at home. In addition, other administrative sources are used to identify more cohabitating couples that belong to the same household.

Data sources and sampling

Income data are received by linking different administrative registers and statistical data sources for the whole population as of 31st of December of the income year. Income and biographical data are collected from the following sources:

Data from tax returns (wages and salaries, entrepreneurial income, pensions etc.)

The Tax Register (taxes)

End of the Year Certificate Register (unemployment benefit, various tax-free transfers)

Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation (family allowances, basic and additional amounts, cash benefit etc.)

Ministry of Labour and Social Inclusion (social assistance)

State Educational Loan Fund (loans to students, scholarships)

State Housing Bank (dwelling support)

Education statistics from Statistics Norway (highest level of completed education etc.)

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Data are collected from various administrative registers. 

Consistency controls are undertaken by comparing information from different sources.

The population of the Income Distribution Survey (1986-2004) was weighted by the use of a calibration program. This method of estimation permits the population to show the same aggregates familiar from the register statistics (for the population) for selected variables. This applies to the different personal incomes and net wealth.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant

Confidentiality

The use of collected data will be in accordance with the standards of the Statistics Act. The information are kept in a responsible way.

Comparability over time and space

The Income Distribution Survey has gone through several significant changes up through the years. This is due in part to changes in the analysis unit (1982) and in part to changes in the income concept as a result of changes in the tax system and access to new income components from registers.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

Data from the Tax Returns may contain errors made by the individual taxpayer that fills out the form. A number of the errors are discovered and corrected by the Tax Offices. Errors that do not have any practical significance for the Tax Return are often not corrected by the Tax Offices, causing discrepancies in the material. In particular, small amounts under the tax-free limit are frequently left uncorrected even though they are not filled out properly.

Some data collection and processing errors are unavoidable. These include coding errors, revision errors, data processing errors, etc. Comprehensive efforts have been made to minimize these errors, and we regard these types of errors to be relatively insignificant.

From and including the income year 2005, this statistics is a total census and will not be affected by variance and bias. For previous years with survey based statistics the following is of relevance:

All sample surveys are subject to a certain amount of uncertainty. In general; the fewer observations the more uncertain the results. Results based on less than 20 observations are therefore not published.

Groups based on relatively few observations will be very strongly influenced by extreme observations, i.e. observations that deviate greatly from the average. In this statistics, extreme observations in most cases are included, but an attempt has been made to reduce the effect of such observations by adjustments (reduction) of the household weights.

Bias can occur when the distribution between certain groups in the population is not the same as the corresponding distribution in the total population. Sample bias of this type can occur through non-response. Most of the data for the Income Distribution Survey was obtained from administrative registers. Non-response is not a problem for this part of the material. The household composition was based on interviews, where there will always be non-response. Non-response is adjusted by replacing household data with data on family composition from registers.

Revision

Not relevant

Contact