268365
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268365
Weaker income growth among Norwegian households
statistikk
2016-12-16T08:00:00.000Z
Income and consumption;Immigration and immigrants
en
ifhus, Income and wealth statistics for households, income statistics, household income, wealth statistics, wealth, household types (for example single, couples with children, couples without children), income accounts, income from employment, capital income, transfers (for example pension, supplementary benefit, cash for care), debts, poverty, low income, child poverty,Income and wealth, Income and consumption, Immigration and immigrants, Income and consumption
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Norwegian households generally had a weak growth in income from 2014 to 2015. While some households experienced a rise in household income, others experienced a decline in income. Even in the two previous years households experienced a slow income growth.

Income and wealth statistics for households

Updated

Next update

Key figures

0.4 %

Yearly percentage change of median income after tax for all households (fixed prices)

Income after tax for households by type of household, Median1
After tax median incomePer cent2
20152014 - 20152010 - 2015
1Students not included
2In constant prices
All households491 1000.410.1
Singles under 45 years280 200-0.27.3
Singles 45-64 years315 400-0.19.9
Singles 65 years and older253 7000.014.4
Couples without children, oldest person under 45 years577 400-0.72.2
Couples without children, oldest person 45-64 years726 5000.515.4
Couples without children, oldest person 65 years and older546 0000.318.0
Couples with children 0-6 years735 800-0.27.8
Couples with children 7-17 years851 6000.311.1
Couples with children, oldest child 18 years and older947 7000.413.1
Single mother/father with children 0-17 years397 500-0.65.2
Single mother/father with children 18 years and older522 300-0.48.9

See more tables on this subject

Table 1 
Registered incomes for households by type of household. Average in NOK.

Registered incomes for households by type of household. Average in NOK.123
2015
All householdsLiving alone, person under 30 yearsLiving alone, person 30-44 yearsLiving alone, person 45-66 yearsLiving alone, person 67 years and olderCouple without resident children, oldest person under 30 yearsCouple without resident children, oldest person 30-44 yearsCouple without resident children, oldest person 45-66 yearsCouple without resident children, oldest person 67 years and olderCouples with children 0-5 yearsCouples with children 6-17 yearsCouples with children 18 years and olderSingle mother/father with children 0-5 yearSingle mother/father with children 6-17 yearSingle mother/father with children 18 year and olderTwo or more-familiy households
1Private households consiting of single persons living alone under the age of 18 are not included.
2Couples included married couples, cohabiting couples and registered partners.
3Students not included.
4For recipients of new transitional benefits for single mothers/fathers from April 2014, the benefits will be taxed as wage. From the income year 2015, the benefits are included in Social security benefits.
5Includes recipients of the former private contractual pension scheme (AFP).
6Sickness benfits from the National Insurance Scheme. Holiday payments from sickness benefits are included.
7Other taxable transfers include benefits such as parental benefit, annuity, introduction benefits for newly arrived refugees and qualification benefits (from 2008).
8Other tax-free transfers benefits such as childcare benefit to single parents, lump sum maternity grants, compensation for work injury, education benefit to single parents and received child support managed by public arrangement. Various benefits received by people attending job creating programs are included from 2009. From 2014, extra compensation for recipients of contractual pension (AFP) is included.
9Negative transfers include paid child support managed by public arrangement, paid annuity and mandatory contribution to private pension plan.
Income from work (NOK)533 300276 600366 900321 00021 500632 700812 100819 800132 400828 1001 102 3001 107 500212 000416 100516 300690 600
Wages and salaries (NOK)501 200269 400349 700300 20017 800618 200781 600765 200113 900786 7001 031 1001 031 500204 200397 500487 800642 200
Net income from self-employment (NOK)32 1007 30017 20020 8003 70014 40030 50054 60018 50041 40071 20075 9007 80018 60028 50048 300
 
Property income (NOK)57 0007 80015 80037 80029 40014 20030 500116 10082 10055 000105 000120 90014 10026 70043 30051 200
Interest received (NOK)7 6002 1002 4005 1008 9005 2005 80011 40017 5005 6006 80012 4001 7003 2007 1008 500
Share dividends received (NOK)35 7003 5009 10023 70012 4004 50014 40079 00040 40035 80078 50081 9009 60017 10024 30026 500
Realised capital gains (NOK)12 6001 8003 4008 9008 2003 6008 10024 20023 90010 80017 90023 8002 5006 10010 70013 800
Realised capital losses (NOK)4 1004001 4003 4002 9001 0002 5007 4007 2003 5006 4007 6001 1002 2003 0004 300
Other capital incomes (NOK)5 3009002 4003 4002 8001 9004 8008 9007 6006 5008 20010 5001 4002 5004 2006 800
 
Transfers received (NOK)204 20042 30066 200140 700296 40050 60069 200231 100563 400174 900121 600225 700202 600139 700200 000295 100
Taxable transfers (NOK)187 60031 70056 900133 800294 00034 10060 500227 300560 900135 40088 100214 600125 00084 000184 500263 200
Social security benefits (NOK)4124 40018 90036 10095 700228 70015 30029 700141 500425 30020 70045 700142 50074 70051 700132 500179 000
Old-age pensions (NOK)76 3000010 500225 2000039 900397 5002002 30055 00010060049 00093 500
Disability benefits (NOK)31 4008 10021 50067 3003 1003 80012 80079 60024 8005 70021 10058 9006 50019 90053 20053 000
Work assessment allowance (NOK)14 60010 70014 60015 10010011 30016 80021 3002 50013 10021 50028 00016 80021 40026 00026 400
Service pensions etc. (NOK)26 90020060014 10061 40020070033 800115 0001 3006 50025 8001 0004 70020 80029 100
Contractual pension (NOK)3 900004 2001 3000016 00013 50002005 50001001 7003 700
Contractual pension (AFP) in public sector (NOK)52 900003 0001 0000010 70011 20001003 700001 2002 600
Contractual pension (AFP) in private sector (NOK)1 100001 300300005 4002 20001001 800005001 000
Unemployment benefits (NOK)5 7004 2007 6004 8001006 00010 1006 10070010 2007 1008 8006 5005 1007 20011 100
Sickness benefits (NOK)616 7005 20010 20014 10040010 80017 50029 0003 90029 90027 00030 50016 80020 00020 60025 700
Other taxable transfers (NOK)79 9003 2002 5008002 1001 8002 5009002 70073 3001 6001 50026 0002 4001 80014 600
 
Tax-free transfers (NOK)16 70010 6009 2006 9002 30016 5008 7003 8002 50039 40033 50011 20077 60055 80015 50031 900
Familiy allowances (NOK)6 4001001 5004000100500100021 40021 0001 00025 10024 3001 60010 100
Dwelling support (kr)1 2002 0001 9001 6009008008002001001 2006003008 9003 5001 2001 500
Scholarships (NOK)2 2002 8003000012 0003 900002 8004 0004 6003 6004 6004 2007 600
Social assistance (NOK)2 3004 3004 2002 7001002 1002 1006001003 0001 7001 40012 8005 7003 7004 000
Basic and attendance benefits (NOK)1 4005006001 0001 1006006001 0001 4001 5003 2001 8001 5003 1001 7002 400
Cash for care (NOK)7001002000000005 400004 100001 400
Other tax-free transfers (NOK)82 5008005001 1003009008001 8001 0004 1003 1002 10021 70014 6003 1004 900
 
Total income (NOK)794 400326 800448 900499 400347 200697 500911 8001 167 000777 9001 058 0001 328 9001 454 100428 800582 500759 6001 036 900
 
Total assessed taxed and negative transfers (NOK)204 60075 200117 000135 90063 000162 100242 200337 800163 200274 500377 600401 20070 100127 300183 900243 200
Assessed taxes (NOK)200 00073 700113 200131 90062 800158 400235 900330 700162 300267 300368 900392 70067 500122 900179 100237 100
Negative transfers (NOK)94 6001 5003 8004 0002003 7006 3007 1001 0007 1008 7008 5002 6004 4004 9006 100
 
After-tax income (NOK)589 900251 600331 900363 600284 200535 400669 600829 200614 600783 500951 3001 052 900358 700455 300575 700793 700
 
Number of households2 317 361159 902194 989291 603257 84448 32360 295214 535222 809232 685254 492113 99828 44984 55859 11993 760

Table 2 
Property account for households

Property account for households
20152014 - 2015
Average for households with different property holdings (NOK)Share of households with different property holdings (per cent)NOK millionPercentage change (NOK million)
Estimated real capital3 180 80082.26 056 6058.3
Estimated market value primary dwelling3 180 00068.55 046 0118.7
Estimated market value secondary dwelling2 424 00010.4583 2218.3
Taxable gross financial capital1 037 00099.02 378 24711.1
Bank deposits458 80098.91 051 7296.4
Shares and other securities1 920 60021.1939 40715.5
Share of unit trusts, bond and money market funds217 10031.5158 36118.2
Foreign taxable wealth excl. real properties449 4003.738 6978.7
Estimated gross wealth3 674 60099.18 434 8529.1
Debt1 525 70084.42 985 4775.9
Study debt219 30024.5124 3556.5
Estimated net wealth2 363 70099.55 449 37411.0
Positive net wealth3 023 10081.35 692 63310.2
Negative net wealth-575 90018.2-243 259-3.8
Property taxes35 20015.312 465-5.7

Table 3 
Percentage share of total estimated net wealth, average net wealth and lowest value in decile for households, by deciles

Percentage share of total estimated net wealth, average net wealth and lowest value in decile for households, by deciles1
2015
Share of total net wealth (per cent)Average estimated net wealth (NOK)Lowest value in decile (NOK)
1Students not included
Total100.02 351 500..
Decile 1-4.2-980 500..
Decile 2-0.3-69 100-215 000
Decile 30.368 2002 600
Decile 41.9435 800195 800
Decile 54.2976 100697 900
Decile 66.61 559 9001 258 800
Decile 79.52 224 4001 874 100
Decile 813.03 056 3002 601 400
Decile 918.54 349 0003 575 900
Decile 1050.611 895 3005 368 700
Top 5 per cent37.217 501 1007 543 400
Top 1 per cent19.846 604 20016 381 900
Top 0,1 per cent9.4221 338 80068 418 600

Table 4 
Measures of income dispersion. Household equivalent income (EU-scale) between persons

Measures of income dispersion. Household equivalent income (EU-scale) between persons1
Total populationTotal population excluding persons in student households
Gini coefficientStandard error of the Gini coefficientP90/P102S80/S203Gini coefficientStandard error of the Gini coefficientP90/P102S80/S203
1Negative amounts have been set to zero.
2Percentile ratio of the 9th and the 1st decile cut-offs.
3The ratio of the share of income held by the top 20 per cent of the distribution and the bottom 20 per cent of the distribution.
19920.2230.0032.73.20.2190.0032.63.1
19930.2290.0042.63.20.2260.0042.63.2
19940.2410.0022.83.50.2350.0022.73.3
19950.2360.0032.73.40.2310.0032.63.2
19960.2450.0042.73.50.2400.0042.63.4
19970.2490.0042.73.50.2430.0042.63.4
19980.2380.0032.73.40.2330.0032.63.2
19990.2420.0042.73.40.2360.0042.63.3
20000.2620.0042.73.70.2570.0042.63.6
20010.2290.0022.63.20.2230.0022.53.1
20020.2640.0042.73.80.2580.0042.63.6
20030.2740.0032.83.90.2670.0032.73.7
20040.283..2.74.10.276..2.63.8
20050.327..2.84.80.319..2.74.5
20060.243..2.83.50.235..2.63.3
20070.252..2.83.70.244..2.73.5
20080.248..2.83.60.240..2.73.4
20090.241..2.83.50.231..2.63.3
20100.245..2.83.60.236..2.63.3
20110.247..2.83.60.237..2.73.4
20120.249..2.93.70.239..2.73.4
20130.250..2.93.70.241..2.73.4
20140.256..2.93.80.247..2.83.5
20150.271..3.04.00.263..2.83.8

Table 5 
Registered incomes for residents. Number of persons with amount. Amount in NOK million.

Registered incomes for residents. Number of persons with amount. Amount in NOK million.
20142015
Number of persons with amountNOK millionNumber of persons with amountNOK million
1For recipients of new transitional benefits for single mothers/fathers from April 2014, the benefits will be taxed as wage. From the income year 2015, the benefits are included in Social security benefits.
2Includes recipients of the former private contractual pension scheme (AFP).
3Sickness benfits from the National Insurance Scheme. Holiday payments from sickness benefits are included.
4Other taxable transfers include benefits such as parental benefit, annuity, introduction benefits for newly arrived refugees and qualification benefits (from 2008).
5Other tax-free transfers benefits such as childcare benefit to single parents, lump sum maternity grants, compensation for work injury, education benefit to single parents and received child support managed by public arrangement. Various benefits received by people attending job creating programs are included from 2009. From 2014, extra compensation for recipients of contractual pension (AFP) is included.
6Negative transfers include paid child support managed by public arrangement, paid annuity and mandatory contribution to private pension plan
INCOME FROM WORK3 077 5131 209 215.03 096 4571 245 076.0
Wages and salaries2 963 4451 135 138.02 995 9831 170 509.0
Net income from self-employment326 81774 076.6329 70174 567.9
 
PROPERTY INCOME4 025 83896 416.84 058 896133 409.1
Interest received4 019 46526 323.54 049 27117 983.9
Share dividends received520 72542 605.2529 43483 204.9
Realised capital gains276 48524 789.7254 65629 570.9
Realised capital losses179 0517 610.0146 9379 727.4
Other capital incomes926 90010 308.41 427 87912 376.7
 
TRANSFERS RECEIVED2 935 906455 412.43 060 835486 220.6
TAXABLE TRANSFERS2 162 788413 280.32 206 617443 763.6
Social security benefits11 310 391272 438.61 338 684295 780.2
Old-age pensions795 547171 615.7825 337182 670.7
Disability benefits323 74261 714.4327 24674 204.7
Work Assessment Allowance207 40134 436.1197 44533 934.8
Service pensions etc784 38060 706.6804 87963 595.8
Contractual pension (AFP)80 8629 613.885 0699 152.4
Contractual pension (AFP) in public sector242 1837 714.036 9696 694.4
Contractual pension (AFP) in private sector38 6831 899.748 1152 458.0
Unemployment benefits158 57311 364.7178 35513 393.4
Sickness benefits3737 00037 783.2744 84338 896.7
Other taxable transfers4225 24321 373.5230 88722 945.2
 
TAX-FREE TRANSFERS1 450 08942 132.11 537 46242 457.0
Familiy allowances707 75814 886.0708 30314 842.8
Dwelling support141 6942 928.5139 1782 889.9
Scholarships402 6657 903.7399 4598 013.1
Social assistance122 8325 503.1124 5855 787.6
Basic and attendance benefits172 6843 432.9171 0003 415.4
Cash for care50 6431 337.849 2891 576.2
Other tax-free transfers5217 9346 140.2267 9875 932.1
 
TOTAL INCOME4 191 2471 761 044.04 309 1361 864 706.0
 
Assessed taxes and negative transfers3 668 296444 329.13 726 483476 994.2
Assessed taxes3 642 826434 012.83 696 243466 286.9
Negative transfers61 185 50110 316.31 194 00710 707.3
 
AFTER-TAX INCOME4 191 4981 316 715.04 309 3991 387 712.0
 
NUMBER OF RESIDENTS5 165 802..5 213 985..

About the statistics

Income and wealth statistics for households provide figures for the level, composition, development and distribution of income. The survey comprises all monetary income, both taxable and tax-exempt, as well as wealth and debt. The statistics present the general developments of income and wealth as well as its distribution between household types and groups.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Total income is the sum of wages and salaries, property income and transfers.

After-tax income is calulated as the sum of wages and salaries, income from self-employment, property income and transfers received minus total assessed taxes and negative transfers.

Income from work is the sum of employee income and net income from self-employment during the calendar year.

Property income is the sum of interest received, share dividends received, realised capital gains (or losses) and other income received during the calendar year.

Taxable transfers is the sum of pensions and benefits from the social security scheme, service pension, unemployment benefits and some minor taxable benefits.

Tax-free transfers consist of child allowance, dwelling support, student grants, social assistance, basic and attendance benefit and more.

After-tax income per consumption unit (equivalent income) is the household after-tax income "corrected" for differences in household size and household composition. When comparing the level of income and living standards for households of varying size, income is often adjusted with the help of equivalence scales or consumption units. An equivalence scale, for instance, provides an indication of how much income a household of four must have in order to achieve the same standard of living as a single person.

EU-equivalence scale: This is the ‘OECD-modified equivalence scale’ which assigns a value of 1 to the household head, of 0.5 to each additional adult member and of 0.3 to each child under the age of 17.

Median income is the exact income amount that splits a distribution in two equally sized groups, when income is sorted ascending (or descending). The number of persons with income over the median income will be the same as the number of persons with income under the median income.

Low-income threshold. Defined as an equivalent income lower than different percentages of the median income, e.g. 50, 60 or 70 per cent of median income for all persons.

Low-income group. Persons with yearly equivalent income lower than the low-income threshold.

A household is regarded as all persons who live permanently in the same dwelling and having common housekeeping. The statistics include only persons in private households.

The main income earner is the person in the household who has the highest gross income of the income earners in the household. In those cases where there is no income earner in the household, the oldest person is the main income earner.

Person with economic activity
A person that has income from employment or self-employment that is greater than twice the basic amount of the National insurance scheme (so-called "G", or "grunnbeløpet"). For the income year 2010 and earlier, persons with income from employment or self-employment greater than the minimum pension for single people were regarded as economically active.

Single parents
Persons in the household type "mother/father with children aged 0-17 years".

Couples with children aged 0-17 years in the lowest income class
Couples with children aged 0-17 years where the equivalent after-tax income (EU-scale) is in the lowest decile.

Children under 18 years of age
People in households with children less than 18 years of age.

Old-age pensioners
People in households where the main income earner, according to the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation (previously the National Insurance Service), receives old age pension from the social security system.

Disability pensioners
People in households where the main income earner, according to the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation, receives disability pension from the social security system.

Pensioners within the Voluntary Early Retirement Scheme :
People in households where the main income earner, according to the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation, has used the opportunity for early retirement

Receivers of survivor's benefits
People in households where the main income earner, according to the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation, receives survivor's benefit (after deceased spouse) from the social security system.

Single pensioner, receiver of the minimum state pension
People living alone according to Statistics Norway's Income Statistics for Households and recipient of special allowance from the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation

Longstanding illness
People in households where the main income earner is registered with longstanding illness. Included are people in receipt of rehabilitation allowances, persons incapable of full employment but partaking in labour market schemes, and others. Up until 2005, persons who were incapable of full employment but who were taking part in programmes initiated by the National Insurance Scheme (e.g. school and work placements), and persons who were receiving vocational rehabilitation allowances, were not included in the statistics.

Long-term unemployed
People in households where the main income earner has been registered as unemployed for 6 consecutive months or more during the year.

Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents
People in households where the main income earner is born abroad by two foreign-born parents (first-generation immigrant) or born in Norway by two foreign-born parents.

Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents from non-western countries
People in households where the main income earner is an immigrant from Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, Central and South America or Turkey.

Refugees
People in households where the main income earner is a person with refugee background.

People on social assistance
People in households where the main income earner has received social assistance during the year.

Single people under 35 years of age
Single people according to Statistics Norway's Income Statistics for Households. Single students are excluded. The definition of student is a person without any economic activity and without social security benefits, but who does receive a student loan.

The senior population
People in households where the main income earner is in the age group 50 - 66 years.

Standard classifications

Types of household are in conformance with standard classifications. 

Socio-economic standard

A person with economic actitvity has income from employment or self-employment that is greater than twice the basic amount of the National insurance scheme (so-called "G", or "grunnbeløpet"). For the income year 2010 and earlier, persons with income from employment or self-employment greater than the minimum pension for single people were regarded as economically active.

The economically active population is divided into self-employed and employees. If income from self-employment is greater than income from employment, the person is classified as self-employed, and vice versa.

We have the following socio-economic groups:

Working

Self-employed

Self-employed in agriculture, forestry and fishing

Self-employed in other industries.

Employee

Non-working

Pensioners and National Insurance recipients

Other non-working

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Income and wealth statistics for households
Topic: Income and consumption

Next release

Responsible division

Division for Income and Wage Statistics

Regional level

National level, counties and municipalities.

Frequency and timeliness

Annually. During last quarter one year after the current income year.

International reporting

Income data is used in Eurostat's structural indicators on low income and income distribution. Micro data for selected years are also included in the database Luxembourg Income Study (LIS). Income data is also included in the Nordic publication "Social security in the Nordic countries" by the Nordic social committee, and in reports published by the OECD.

Microdata

A full survey of Statistics Norway's income statistics is available under subject 05.01 at Statistics Norway's website.

Data files with individual income data that have gone through the linkage and statistics files are stored.

Background

Background and purpose

The purpose of the statistics is to present income measurements as living standard indicators and data that measure the economic resources households have for saving and consumption. Additionally, the statistics presents general income trends and income distribution among different types of households.

The Income Distribution Survey was conducted annually from 1986 to 2004 based on a representative sample survey. Information on the household composition was collected from various Living Condition Surveys and Household Budget Surveys. Up until 1992, the income data was obtained in the form of paper forms from the local tax offices. In addition, tax-free transfers were obtained electronically from other government agencies. Beginning with the survey for the 1993 income year, it was possible to obtain all income data from the personal tax return in electronic form. From 2005 we have also established household composition by using registers. This means that we are now able to produce a totally register-based household income statistics.

Users and applications

The main users are the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Labour and Social Inclusion, Ministry of Children and Equality, Directorate for Health and Social Affairs, and research institutes in the areas of household economics, tax research and living conditions in general.

The tax model LOTTE is updated annually with data from the Income and Property Survey for households.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given inthe Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.

Coherence with other statistics

Data from the Tax Return is the basis for all of Statistics Norway's statistics on income for persons. The tax return statistics include data on types of taxable income, and is obtained for all persons residing in the country. The statistics was first available for the year 1993.

Legal authority

Statistics Act §§ 2-1 and 3-2.

EEA reference

None

Production

Population

All persons residing in Norway and resident in private households as of 31st December of the current income year.

The totally register-based income statistics as of 2004 is a total census. Households are derived at after performing certain adjustments to the formal households (formal adress according to the Central Population Register). These adjustments include omitting people living in institutions and removing students, that no longer reside with their parents, into single person households. Surveys suggest that less than 10 per cent of the students in Norway actually live at home. In addition, other administrative sources are used to identify more cohabitating couples that belong to the same household.

Data sources and sampling

Income data are received by linking different administrative registers and statistical data sources for the whole population as of 31st of December of the income year. Income and biographical data are collected from the following sources:

Data from tax returns (wages and salaries, entrepreneurial income, pensions etc.)

The Tax Register (taxes)

End of the Year Certificate Register (unemployment benefit, various tax-free transfers)

Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation (family allowances, basic and additional amounts, cash benefit etc.)

Ministry of Labour and Social Inclusion (social assistance)

State Educational Loan Fund (loans to students, scholarships)

State Housing Bank (dwelling support)

Education statistics from Statistics Norway (highest level of completed education etc.)

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Data are collected from various administrative registers. 

Consistency controls are undertaken by comparing information from different sources.

The population of the Income Distribution Survey (1986-2004) was weighted by the use of a calibration program. This method of estimation permits the population to show the same aggregates familiar from the register statistics (for the population) for selected variables. This applies to the different personal incomes and net wealth.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant

Confidentiality

The use of collected data will be in accordance with the standards of the Statistics Act. The information are kept in a responsible way.

Comparability over time and space

The Income Distribution Survey has gone through several significant changes up through the years. This is due in part to changes in the analysis unit (1982) and in part to changes in the income concept as a result of changes in the tax system and access to new income components from registers.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

Data from the Tax Returns may contain errors made by the individual taxpayer that fills out the form. A number of the errors are discovered and corrected by the Tax Offices. Errors that do not have any practical significance for the Tax Return are often not corrected by the Tax Offices, causing discrepancies in the material. In particular, small amounts under the tax-free limit are frequently left uncorrected even though they are not filled out properly.

Some data collection and processing errors are unavoidable. These include coding errors, revision errors, data processing errors, etc. Comprehensive efforts have been made to minimize these errors, and we regard these types of errors to be relatively insignificant.

From and including the income year 2005, this statistics is a total census and will not be affected by variance and bias. For previous years with survey based statistics the following is of relevance:

All sample surveys are subject to a certain amount of uncertainty. In general; the fewer observations the more uncertain the results. Results based on less than 20 observations are therefore not published.

Groups based on relatively few observations will be very strongly influenced by extreme observations, i.e. observations that deviate greatly from the average. In this statistics, extreme observations in most cases are included, but an attempt has been made to reduce the effect of such observations by adjustments (reduction) of the household weights.

Bias can occur when the distribution between certain groups in the population is not the same as the corresponding distribution in the total population. Sample bias of this type can occur through non-response. Most of the data for the Income Distribution Survey was obtained from administrative registers. Non-response is not a problem for this part of the material. The household composition was based on interviews, where there will always be non-response. Non-response is adjusted by replacing household data with data on family composition from registers.

Revision

Not relevant

Contact

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