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2018-12-20T08:00:00.000Z
Income and consumption;Immigration and immigrants
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ifhus, Income and wealth statistics for households, income statistics, household income, wealth statistics, wealth, household types (for example single, couples with children, couples without children), income accounts, income from employment, capital income, transfers (for example pension, supplementary benefit, cash for care), debts, poverty, low income, child poverty,Income and wealth, Income and consumption, Immigration and immigrants, Income and consumption
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Income and wealth statistics for households

Updated

Next update

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Key figures

510 000

median income after tax for all households

Income after tax for households by type of household, Median1
After tax median incomePercentage change2
20172016 - 20172012 - 2017
1Students not included
2In constant prices
All households510 0000.71.7
Singles under 45 years293 1000.72.2
Singles 45-64 years329 5000.81.7
Singles 65 years and older266 3001.13.7
Couples without children, oldest person under 45 years604 8001.2-3.0
Couples without children, oldest person 45-64 years764 5001.24.8
Couples without children, oldest person 65 years and older574 0001.34.7
Couples with children 0-6 years762 8000.70.1
Couples with children 7-17 years889 4001.02.8
Couples with children, oldest child 18 years and older993 7001.34.7
Single mother/father with children 0-17 years410 1000.2-1.4
Single mother/father with children 18 years and older549 1001.32.6

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
Registered incomes for households by type of household. Average in NOK.

Registered incomes for households by type of household. Average in NOK.123
2017
All householdsLiving alone, person under 30 yearsLiving alone, person 30-44 yearsLiving alone, person 45-66 yearsLiving alone, person 67 years and olderCouple without resident children, oldest person under 30 yearsCouple without resident children, oldest person 30-44 yearsCouple without resident children, oldest person 45-66 yearsCouple without resident children, oldest person 67 years and olderCouples with children 0-5 yearsCouples with children 6-17 yearsCouples with children 18 years and olderSingle mother/father with children 0-5 yearSingle mother/father with children 6-17 yearSingle mother/father with children 18 year and olderTwo or more-familiy households
1Private households consiting of single persons living alone under the age of 18 are not included.
2Couples included married couples, cohabiting couples and registered partners.
3Students not included.
4For recipients of new transitional benefits for single mothers/fathers from April 2014, the benefits will be taxed as wage. From the income year 2015, the benefits are included in Social security benefits.
5Includes recipients of the former private contractual pension scheme (AFP).
6Sickness benfits from the National Insurance Scheme. Holiday payments from sickness benefits are included.
7Other taxable transfers include benefits such as parental benefit, annuity, introduction benefits for newly arrived refugees and qualification benefits (from 2008).
8Other tax-free transfers benefits such as childcare benefit to single parents, lump sum maternity grants, compensation for work injury, education benefit to single parents and received child support managed by public arrangement. Various benefits received by people attending job creating programs are included from 2009. From 2014, extra compensation for recipients of contractual pension (AFP) is included.
9Negative transfers include paid child support managed by public arrangement, paid annuity and mandatory contribution to private pension plan.
Income from work (NOK)550 300284 200377 600335 00023 400658 600832 700866 800138 100853 9001 148 7001 154 300232 000439 200543 800718 600
Wages and salaries (NOK)517 300276 100360 100313 90019 400641 800800 600810 500118 400809 9001 075 8001 078 900222 900419 200512 600668 100
Net income from self-employment (NOK)33 0008 10017 50021 1004 00016 90032 10056 40019 70044 10072 80075 3009 10020 00031 20050 500
 
Property income (NOK)45 0005 80014 20027 90025 80011 70025 40088 10065 80043 40079 30099 0008 50023 40033 40048 200
Interest received (NOK)5 0001 7001 7003 2005 2004 3004 4007 30011 3004 1004 4008 3001 2002 0004 5005 600
Share dividends received (NOK)24 5001 9005 90015 1009 8002 80010 60053 50029 40023 50053 40055 1004 60013 80015 20023 600
Realised capital gains (NOK)12 9001 3004 2008 60010 3002 7006 10023 90023 40011 90018 40023 2003 3006 50010 90014 500
Realised capital losses (NOK)3 9005001 4002 9002 8008002 4007 0006 7003 2006 4007 5002 5002 0002 7004 100
Other capital incomes (NOK)6 6001 4003 8003 8003 2002 7006 80010 4008 4007 1009 40020 0001 9003 1005 5008 600
 
Transfers received (NOK)215 00046 90069 000143 700311 20053 20072 400239 600594 500180 200125 200238 900201 300140 700206 300312 100
Taxable transfers (NOK)198 40035 70059 600136 900308 70035 80063 300235 800591 500139 10091 400228 100123 70085 200191 600280 700
Social security benefits (NOK)4132 70021 50038 20098 100239 80017 80032 000145 900448 60020 90048 100152 60072 00053 600139 200193 500
Old-age pensions (NOK)83 2000011 000236 5000042 000422 4003002 40059 50010080051 300104 500
Disability benefits (NOK)33 5009 90023 70070 5002 9004 90014 90083 20023 4006 60023 80065 1008 40022 90058 70057 800
Work assessment allowance (NOK)14 20011 60014 40014 30020012 80017 00020 2002 40012 90021 20027 60017 30020 80025 40025 900
Service pensions etc. (NOK)28 60030070014 10064 20030080034 800119 8001 4006 70027 9001 1005 00021 40031 700
Contractual pension (NOK)4 400004 7001 5000017 60014 70003006 30001002 2004 100
Contractual pension (AFP) in public sector (NOK)52 900003 3007000011 70010 20001003 900001 4002 700
Contractual pension (AFP) in private sector (NOK)1 500001 400800005 8004 40001002 400008001 400
Unemployment benefits (NOK)5 7003 4007 3004 9001005 0009 9007 10080010 6007 5009 1006 6004 9006 60010 000
Sickness benefits (NOK)616 1005 0009 90014 20040010 20017 60029 2003 80027 00026 30030 40016 10019 10020 20024 800
Other taxable transfers (NOK)710 9005 5003 4001 0002 6002 5003 0001 2003 90079 1002 6001 80028 0002 6002 00016 600
 
Tax-free transfers (NOK)16 70011 2009 4006 7002 60017 4009 1003 8003 00041 10033 80010 80077 50055 50014 70031 400
Familiy allowances (NOK)6 2001001 3004000100500100021 40021 1001 00024 70023 9001 5009 600
Dwelling support (kr)1 1001 9001 8001 5008007007002001001 2006003008 5003 5001 0001 400
Scholarships (NOK)2 1003 2004000013 0004 30010003 1003 9004 1003 9003 8003 2007 200
Social assistance (NOK)2 6004 5004 4003 0002001 9002 0007001003 6002 0001 40015 6006 7003 8004 400
Basic and attendance benefits (NOK)1 4005006009001 0006006001 0001 3001 6003 2001 8001 4003 1001 7002 400
Cash for care (NOK)7001002000000005 500003 800001 400
Other tax-free transfers (NOK)82 6001 0006009005001 1001 0001 7001 5004 7003 0002 20019 50014 5003 3005 000
 
Total income (NOK)810 300336 800460 800506 500360 400723 500930 5001 194 600798 3001 077 5001 353 2001 492 200441 700603 300783 5001 078 900
 
Total assessed taxed and negative transfers (NOK)206 80075 200118 100136 90064 000164 800242 700345 300164 600276 700384 500408 30077 100135 100187 900251 000
Assessed taxes (NOK)202 00073 500114 200132 80063 800160 800236 200337 900163 600269 200375 300399 30074 300130 400182 800244 700
Negative transfers (NOK)94 8001 7003 9004 1002004 0006 5007 5001 0007 5009 2008 9002 8004 7005 1006 300
 
After-tax income (NOK)603 500261 600342 700369 600296 400558 700687 800849 200633 700800 900968 7001 083 900364 500468 200595 500827 900
 
Number of households2 368 453161 656198 864302 015269 29049 53563 013213 778238 215230 281257 454117 29727 15886 06462 41591 418

Table 2 
Property account for households

Property account for households12
20172016 - 2017
Average for households with different property holdings (NOK)Share of households with different property holdings (per cent)NOK millionPercentage change (NOK million)
1Students not included.
2All wealth items are based on market value or assumed sales value before any tax valuation discount.
3From 2017 it is possible to own listed shares and mutual fund holdings through a share savings account.
Estimated real capital3 633 00082.07 054 4437.5
Estimated market value primary dwelling3 622 50069.45 953 7618.1
Estimated market value secondary dwelling2 778 40010.1662 3035.2
Gross financial capital1 243 70099.12 920 62313.3
Bank deposits491 70099.11 154 3004.4
Shares and other securities2 624 50020.41 269 55919.9
Share savings account3488 4007.485 676.
Units of mutual funds212 20030.5153 365-10.5
Foreign taxable wealth excl. real properties474 7003.843 1585.3
Estimated gross wealth4 244 70099.29 975 0669.1
Debt1 661 40085.33 357 2566.2
Study debt234 00025.0138 4485.4
Estimated net wealth2 806 20099.66 617 81010.7
Positive net wealth3 555 80081.66 874 26010.4
Negative net wealth-603 30017.9-256 4503.5
Property taxes43 40014.514 92610.6

Table 3 
Percentage share of total estimated net wealth, average net wealth and lowest value in decile for households, by deciles

Percentage share of total estimated net wealth, average net wealth and lowest value in decile for households, by deciles1
2017
Share of total net wealth (per cent)Average estimated net wealth (NOK)Lowest value in decile (NOK)
1Students not included
Total100.02 794 100..
Decile 1-3.6-1 012 800..
Decile 2-0.2-69 700-222 200
Decile 30.385 0005 000
Decile 41.9517 200238 900
Decile 54.11 134 000817 700
Decile 66.41 798 3001 456 300
Decile 79.12 550 1002 153 100
Decile 812.53 504 1002 978 200
Decile 917.95 012 9004 106 900
Decile 1051.614 422 2006 225 800
Top 5 per cent38.521 495 0008 887 300
Top 1 per cent21.058 558 50019 977 100
Top 0,1 per cent10.0279 065 20089 083 200

Table 4 
Measures of income dispersion. Household equivalent income (EU-scale) between persons

Measures of income dispersion. Household equivalent income (EU-scale) between persons1
Total populationTotal population excluding persons in student households
Gini coefficientStandard error of the Gini coefficientP90/P102S80/S203Gini coefficientStandard error of the Gini coefficientP90/P102S80/S203
1Negative amounts have been set to zero.
2Percentile ratio of the 9th and the 1st decile cut-offs.
3The ratio of the share of income held by the top 20 per cent of the distribution and the bottom 20 per cent of the distribution.
19940.2410.0022.83.50.2350.0022.73.3
19950.2360.0032.73.40.2310.0032.63.2
19960.2450.0042.73.50.2400.0042.63.4
19970.2490.0042.73.50.2430.0042.63.4
19980.2380.0032.73.40.2330.0032.63.2
19990.2420.0042.73.40.2360.0042.63.3
20000.2620.0042.73.70.2570.0042.63.6
20010.2290.0022.63.20.2230.0022.53.1
20020.2640.0042.73.80.2580.0042.63.6
20030.2740.0032.83.90.2670.0032.73.7
20040.283..2.74.10.276..2.63.8
20050.327..2.84.80.319..2.74.5
20060.243..2.83.50.235..2.63.3
20070.252..2.83.70.244..2.73.5
20080.248..2.83.60.240..2.73.4
20090.241..2.83.50.231..2.63.3
20100.245..2.83.60.236..2.63.3
20110.247..2.83.60.237..2.73.4
20120.249..2.93.70.239..2.73.4
20130.250..2.93.70.241..2.73.4
20140.256..2.93.80.247..2.83.5
20150.271..3.04.00.263..2.83.8
20160.261..3.03.90.252..2.83.6
20170.261..3.03.90.252..2.83.6

Table 5 
Registered incomes for residents. Number of persons with amount. Amount in NOK million.

Registered incomes for residents. Number of persons with amount. Amount in NOK million.
20162017
Number of persons with amountNOK millionNumber of persons with amountNOK million
1For recipients of new transitional benefits for single mothers/fathers from April 2014, the benefits will be taxed as wage. From the income year 2015, the benefits are included in Social security benefits.
2Includes recipients of the former private contractual pension scheme (AFP).
3Sickness benfits from the National Insurance Scheme. Holiday payments from sickness benefits are included.
4Other taxable transfers include benefits such as parental benefit, annuity, introduction benefits for newly arrived refugees and qualification benefits (from 2008).
5Other tax-free transfers benefits such as childcare benefit to single parents, lump sum maternity grants, compensation for work injury, education benefit to single parents and received child support managed by public arrangement. Various benefits received by people attending job creating programs are included from 2009. From 2014, extra compensation for recipients of contractual pension (AFP) is included.
6Negative transfers include paid child support managed by public arrangement, paid annuity and mandatory contribution to private pension plan
INCOME FROM WORK3 107 5721 271 867.23 126 5551 313 138.6
Wages and salaries2 996 8951 194 290.53 017 5631 234 801.9
Net income from self-employment326 20777 576.7323 38578 336.6
 
PROPERTY INCOME4 088 921101 032.14 133 572107 759.4
Interest received4 077 69211 570.54 121 46612 080.8
Share dividends received506 27858 967.5536 00258 329.9
Realised capital gains242 04726 621.7284 27830 847.3
Realised capital losses162 5349 795.7125 9759 364.1
Other capital incomes1 449 53113 668.01 494 53115 865.4
 
TRANSFERS RECEIVED3 077 615506 084.13 089 816522 141.7
TAXABLE TRANSFERS2 221 717463 013.92 227 616478 352.3
Social security benefits11 359 718309 601.31 378 607321 232.2
Old-age pensions848 901193 391.8869 889202 548.5
Disability benefits330 19277 684.3336 44280 688.3
Work Assessment Allowance192 92333 900.2189 54333 713.4
Service pensions etc824 30666 126.9844 86269 036.4
Contractual pension (AFP)90 9179 570.0101 14310 403.2
Contractual pension (AFP) in public sector233 6926 600.034 5716 950.8
Contractual pension (AFP) in private sector57 2442 970.066 5853 452.4
Unemployment benefits165 08414 988.4147 38213 577.8
Sickness benefits3736 77238 153.8703 66538 216.8
Other taxable transfers4247 81224 573.4265 94925 885.9
 
TAX-FREE TRANSFERS1 535 55643 070.11 540 73243 789.4
Familiy allowances708 03514 788.9709 58714 769.3
Dwelling support137 4303 132.0139 6822 793.4
Scholarships389 6548 051.7391 9968 449.4
Social assistance127 6276 091.4129 9956 451.3
Basic and attendance benefits168 2253 477.9166 9283 470.5
Cash for care47 2951 508.345 2221 573.1
Other tax-free transfers5272 1406 020.0270 0576 282.4
 
TOTAL INCOME4 345 1201 878 983.44 382 9701 943 039.7
 
Assessed taxes and negative transfers3 765 335479 925.03 796 584492 319.3
Assessed taxes3 734 884468 977.03 762 141480 946.0
Negative transfers61 207 11910 948.01 228 16011 373.3
 
AFTER-TAX INCOME4 345 3471 399 058.44 383 2051 450 720.4
 
NUMBER OF RESIDENTS5 258 317..5 295 619..

About the statistics

Income and wealth statistics for households provide figures for the level, composition, development and distribution of income. The survey comprises all monetary income, both taxable and tax-exempt, as well as wealth and debt. The statistics present the general developments of income and wealth as well as its distribution between household types and groups.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Total income is the sum of wages and salaries, property income and transfers.

After-tax income is calulated as the sum of wages and salaries, income from self-employment, property income and transfers received minus total assessed taxes and negative transfers.

Income from work is the sum of employee income and net income from self-employment during the calendar year.

Property income is the sum of interest received, share dividends received, realised capital gains (or losses) and other income received during the calendar year.

Taxable transfers is the sum of pensions and benefits from the social security scheme, service pension, unemployment benefits and some minor taxable benefits.

Tax-free transfers consist of child allowance, dwelling support, student grants, social assistance, basic and attendance benefit and more.

After-tax income per consumption unit (equivalent income) is the household after-tax income "corrected" for differences in household size and household composition. When comparing the level of income and living standards for households of varying size, income is often adjusted with the help of equivalence scales or consumption units. An equivalence scale, for instance, provides an indication of how much income a household of four must have in order to achieve the same standard of living as a single person.

EU-equivalence scale: This is the ‘OECD-modified equivalence scale’ which assigns a value of 1 to the household head, of 0.5 to each additional adult member and of 0.3 to each child under the age of 17.

Median income is the exact income amount that splits a distribution in two equally sized groups, when income is sorted ascending (or descending). The number of persons with income over the median income will be the same as the number of persons with income under the median income.

Low-income threshold. Defined as an equivalent income lower than different percentages of the median income, e.g. 50, 60 or 70 per cent of median income for all persons.

Low-income group. Persons with yearly equivalent income lower than the low-income threshold.

A household is regarded as all persons who live permanently in the same dwelling and having common housekeeping. The statistics include only persons in private households.

The main income earner is the person in the household who has the highest gross income of the income earners in the household. In those cases where there is no income earner in the household, the oldest person is the main income earner.

Person with economic activity
A person that has income from employment or self-employment that is greater than twice the basic amount of the National insurance scheme (so-called "G", or "grunnbeløpet"). For the income year 2010 and earlier, persons with income from employment or self-employment greater than the minimum pension for single people were regarded as economically active.

Single parents
Persons in the household type "mother/father with children aged 0-17 years".

Couples with children aged 0-17 years in the lowest income class
Couples with children aged 0-17 years where the equivalent after-tax income (EU-scale) is in the lowest decile.

Children under 18 years of age
People in households with children less than 18 years of age.

Old-age pensioners
People in households where the main income earner, according to the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation (previously the National Insurance Service), receives old age pension from the social security system.

Disability pensioners
People in households where the main income earner, according to the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation, receives disability pension from the social security system.

Pensioners within the Voluntary Early Retirement Scheme :
People in households where the main income earner, according to the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation, has used the opportunity for early retirement

Receivers of survivor's benefits
People in households where the main income earner, according to the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation, receives survivor's benefit (after deceased spouse) from the social security system.

Single pensioner, receiver of the minimum state pension
People living alone according to Statistics Norway's Income Statistics for Households and recipient of special allowance from the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation

Longstanding illness
People in households where the main income earner is registered with longstanding illness. Included are people in receipt of rehabilitation allowances, persons incapable of full employment but partaking in labour market schemes, and others. Up until 2005, persons who were incapable of full employment but who were taking part in programmes initiated by the National Insurance Scheme (e.g. school and work placements), and persons who were receiving vocational rehabilitation allowances, were not included in the statistics.

Long-term unemployed
People in households where the main income earner has been registered as unemployed for 6 consecutive months or more during the year.

Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents
People in households where the main income earner is born abroad by two foreign-born parents (first-generation immigrant) or born in Norway by two foreign-born parents.

Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents from non-western countries
People in households where the main income earner is an immigrant from Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, Central and South America or Turkey.

Refugees
People in households where the main income earner is a person with refugee background.

People on social assistance
People in households where the main income earner has received social assistance during the year.

Single people under 35 years of age
Single people according to Statistics Norway's Income Statistics for Households. Single students are excluded. The definition of student is a person without any economic activity and without social security benefits, but who does receive a student loan.

The senior population
People in households where the main income earner is in the age group 50 - 66 years.

Standard classifications

Types of household are in conformance with standard classifications. 

Socio-economic standard

A person with economic actitvity has income from employment or self-employment that is greater than twice the basic amount of the National insurance scheme (so-called "G", or "grunnbeløpet"). For the income year 2010 and earlier, persons with income from employment or self-employment greater than the minimum pension for single people were regarded as economically active.

The economically active population is divided into self-employed and employees. If income from self-employment is greater than income from employment, the person is classified as self-employed, and vice versa.

We have the following socio-economic groups:

Working

Self-employed

Self-employed in agriculture, forestry and fishing

Self-employed in other industries.

Employee

Non-working

Pensioners and National Insurance recipients

Other non-working

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Income and wealth statistics for households
Topic: Income and consumption

Responsible division

Division for Income and social welfare statistics

Regional level

National level, counties and municipalities.

Frequency and timeliness

Annually. During last quarter one year after the current income year.

International reporting

Income data is used in Eurostat's structural indicators on low income and income distribution. Micro data for selected years are also included in the database Luxembourg Income Study (LIS). Income data is also included in the Nordic publication "Social security in the Nordic countries" by the Nordic social committee, and in reports published by the OECD.

Microdata

A full survey of Statistics Norway's income statistics is available under subject 05.01 at Statistics Norway's website.

Data files with individual income data that have gone through the linkage and statistics files are stored.

Background

Background and purpose

The purpose of the statistics is to present income measurements as living standard indicators and data that measure the economic resources households have for saving and consumption. Additionally, the statistics presents general income trends and income distribution among different types of households.

The Income Distribution Survey was conducted annually from 1986 to 2004 based on a representative sample survey. Information on the household composition was collected from various Living Condition Surveys and Household Budget Surveys. Up until 1992, the income data was obtained in the form of paper forms from the local tax offices. In addition, tax-free transfers were obtained electronically from other government agencies. Beginning with the survey for the 1993 income year, it was possible to obtain all income data from the personal tax return in electronic form. From 2005 we have also established household composition by using registers. This means that we are now able to produce a totally register-based household income statistics.

Users and applications

The main users are the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Labour and Social Inclusion, Ministry of Children and Equality, Directorate for Health and Social Affairs, and research institutes in the areas of household economics, tax research and living conditions in general.

The tax model LOTTE is updated annually with data from the Income and Property Survey for households.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given inthe Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.

Coherence with other statistics

Data from the Tax Return is the basis for all of Statistics Norway's statistics on income for persons. The tax return statistics include data on types of taxable income, and is obtained for all persons residing in the country. The statistics was first available for the year 1993.

Legal authority

Statistics Act §§ 2-1 and 3-2.

EEA reference

None

Production

Population

All persons residing in Norway and resident in private households as of 31st December of the current income year.

The totally register-based income statistics as of 2004 is a total census. Households are derived at after performing certain adjustments to the formal households (formal adress according to the Central Population Register). These adjustments include omitting people living in institutions and removing students, that no longer reside with their parents, into single person households. Surveys suggest that less than 10 per cent of the students in Norway actually live at home. In addition, other administrative sources are used to identify more cohabitating couples that belong to the same household.

Data sources and sampling

Income data are received by linking different administrative registers and statistical data sources for the whole population as of 31st of December of the income year. Income and biographical data are collected from the following sources:

Data from tax returns (wages and salaries, entrepreneurial income, pensions etc.)

The Tax Register (taxes)

End of the Year Certificate Register (unemployment benefit, various tax-free transfers)

Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation (family allowances, basic and additional amounts, cash benefit etc.)

Ministry of Labour and Social Inclusion (social assistance)

State Educational Loan Fund (loans to students, scholarships)

State Housing Bank (dwelling support)

Education statistics from Statistics Norway (highest level of completed education etc.)

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Data are collected from various administrative registers. 

Consistency controls are undertaken by comparing information from different sources.

The population of the Income Distribution Survey (1986-2004) was weighted by the use of a calibration program. This method of estimation permits the population to show the same aggregates familiar from the register statistics (for the population) for selected variables. This applies to the different personal incomes and net wealth.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant

Confidentiality

The use of collected data will be in accordance with the standards of the Statistics Act. The information are kept in a responsible way.

Comparability over time and space

The Income Distribution Survey has gone through several significant changes up through the years. This is due in part to changes in the analysis unit (1982) and in part to changes in the income concept as a result of changes in the tax system and access to new income components from registers.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

Data from the Tax Returns may contain errors made by the individual taxpayer that fills out the form. A number of the errors are discovered and corrected by the Tax Offices. Errors that do not have any practical significance for the Tax Return are often not corrected by the Tax Offices, causing discrepancies in the material. In particular, small amounts under the tax-free limit are frequently left uncorrected even though they are not filled out properly.

Some data collection and processing errors are unavoidable. These include coding errors, revision errors, data processing errors, etc. Comprehensive efforts have been made to minimize these errors, and we regard these types of errors to be relatively insignificant.

From and including the income year 2005, this statistics is a total census and will not be affected by variance and bias. For previous years with survey based statistics the following is of relevance:

All sample surveys are subject to a certain amount of uncertainty. In general; the fewer observations the more uncertain the results. Results based on less than 20 observations are therefore not published.

Groups based on relatively few observations will be very strongly influenced by extreme observations, i.e. observations that deviate greatly from the average. In this statistics, extreme observations in most cases are included, but an attempt has been made to reduce the effect of such observations by adjustments (reduction) of the household weights.

Bias can occur when the distribution between certain groups in the population is not the same as the corresponding distribution in the total population. Sample bias of this type can occur through non-response. Most of the data for the Income Distribution Survey was obtained from administrative registers. Non-response is not a problem for this part of the material. The household composition was based on interviews, where there will always be non-response. Non-response is adjusted by replacing household data with data on family composition from registers.

Revision

Not relevant