Technology and innovation;Establishments, enterprises and accounts
foun, Research and development in the business enterprise sector, R&D personnel, R&D man-years, R&D expenditures, funding of R&D, R&D servicesResearch and innovation in business enterprise sector , Establishments and enterprises , Establishments, enterprises and accounts, Technology and innovation

Research and development in the business enterprise sector


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Key figures


more R&D man-years

Research and development in business enterprise sector
20172016 - 2017
All enterprises (10+ employed)
LevelPercentagesChange in per cent
Intramural R&D expenditure (NOK million)31 989.81008.5
Manufacturing10 521.9335.6
Services total17 790.25611.0
Other industries3 677.8115.3
Size of enterprise
10-49 persons employed9 704.430
50-99 persons employed3 771.512
100-199 persons employed4 151.913
200-499 persons employed4 156.413
500 persons employed and more10 205.632
R&D man-years (number of)21 2058.1
Extramural R&D expenditure (NOK million)7 481.06.7

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
Intramural and extramural R&D expenditure and R&D man-years in business enterprise sector, by industry and size class. (10+ employees). Three years.

Intramural and extramural R&D expenditure and R&D man-years in business enterprise sector, by industry and size class. (10+ employees). Three years.
Intramural R&D (NOK million)Extramural R&D (NOK million)R&D man-years (number of)
Nace (SN2007) and size class
A-N All industries27 782.429 489.231 989.86 780.87 014.17 481.019 08719 61621 205
10-19 persons employed2 845.03 264.54 022.1543.3523.6661.22 5042 3402 898
20-49 persons employed4 500.94 778.85 682.4768.5951.1938.63 4863 5404 100
50-99 persons employed3 129.33 381.03 771.5495.7436.0582.52 4222 5192 852
100-199 persons employed2 986.53 456.84 151.9499.5510.0686.02 2652 5322 843
200-499 persons employed3 091.63 959.34 156.41 284.61 242.81 416.82 0402 5182 755
500 persons employed and more11 229.010 648.710 205.63 189.13 350.73 195.96 3696 1675 757
C Manufacturing10 091.99 963.410 521.92 045.91 965.72 275.57 0767 0537 467
10-19 persons employed632.8801.2816.1233.3192.2233.7489556581
20-49 persons employed1 248.41 167.61 289.2206.1158.6171.8951888993
50-99 persons employed771.2843.5956.885.799.7119.7643641780
100-199 persons employed1 655.41 808.81 846.0272.8255.8383.61 3101 4081 389
200-499 persons employed1 307.01 386.71 540.7473.1432.8491.99711 0241 171
500 persons employed and more4 477.13 955.74 073.0775.0826.6874.92 7122 5342 553
G-N Services total14 529.916 033.017 790.22 331.82 497.72 763.910 49510 97612 029
10-19 persons employed2 076.02 363.62 889.2279.5308.0391.41 9331 7462 187
20-49 persons employed2 891.73 193.24 096.4488.7700.6704.32 3632 4482 914
50-99 persons employed1 906.22 022.22 175.5294.0243.4340.41 4981 5571 706
100-199 persons employed1 155.61 391.92 007.6163.7182.3240.98641 0131 295
200-499 persons employed1 590.82 348.02 346.1426.1465.6375.69831 3991 464
500 persons employed and more4 909.54 714.24 275.4679.7597.8711.22 8552 8132 463
A, B, D-F Other industries3 160.63 492.73 677.82 403.12 550.72 441.51 5161 5871 709
10-19 persons employed136.299.7316.830.523.436.28338130
20-49 persons employed360.8418.0296.873.791.962.5173203193
50-99 persons employed452.0515.3639.2116.192.9122.3282320366
100-199 persons employed175.5256.2298.263.071.961.591111160
200-499 persons employed193.7224.6269.6385.4344.3549.38694120
500 persons employed and more1 842.31 978.91 857.21 734.41 926.21 609.8802821741

Table 2 
Intramural and extramural R&D expenditure, R&D personell and man-years by Industry (10+ employees). NOK million and number of. Two years.

Intramural and extramural R&D expenditure, R&D personell and man-years by Industry (10+ employees). NOK million and number of. Two years.
Intramural R&D (NOK million)Extramural R&D (NOK million)R&D personnel (number of)R&D man-years (number of)
Nace (SN2007)
A-N All industries29 489.231 989.87 014.17 481.033 49536 08719 61621 205
A03 Fishing and aquaculture769.51 065.6116.5169.6830931322410
B05-B09 Mining and cuarrying1 881.51 731.22 110.01 980.11 1901 185793760
B06, B09.1 Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas and support act. petroleum extraction1 788.41 673.42 104.11 974.11 1311 125767739
C Manufacturing10 077.310 577.11 975.12 276.812 21012 6287 0347 424
C10-C11 Food products and beverages1 266.91 261.0235.6283.81 7581 841693824
C13 Textiles64.372.36.18.11171084042
C14-C15 Wearing apparel, leather and leather products24.851.30.00.0571012463
C16 Wood and wood products106.2183.716.318.4355459116136
C17 Paper and paper products126.6120.84.74.8164182107100
C18 Printing and reproduction75.875.47.70.81991536771
C19-C20 Refined petroleum products, chemicals and chemical products957.71 056.5371.3369.9926965788798
C21 Pharmaceuticals356.1404.9462.4561.3277334229276
C22 Rubber and plastic products159.6195.220.927.1289323114158
C23 Other non-metal mineral products115.3124.529.831.32412309683
C24 Basic metals461.0487.2100.9126.2559554348349
C25 Fabricated metal prod.1 361.11 267.763.167.41 1591 019698660
C26 Electronic and optical products1 894.41 911.1222.0264.81 7661 7891 4821 492
C26.3 Manuf. of communication equipment364.0328.217.212.3304255291238
C26.5 Manuf of testing instr./appliances947.5928.4182.5224.1856851708729
C27 Electrical equipment538.1545.485.876.0591580382393
C28 Machinery and equipment1 326.91 340.1114.3135.81 6651 713909980
C29 Motor vehicles etc.189.8235.137.133.5233253166186
C30 Other transport equipment435.5565.079.8137.11 1061 235299345
C30.1 Building of ships and boats415.8547.072.9133.21 0241 152277324
C31 Furniture161.3181.49.714.7272320151163
C32 Other manufacturing163.3201.292.286.7141169106124
C33 Repair, installation of machinery292.5297.415.229.1336302219179
D35 Electricity and gas supply195.0263.0217.6193.9455601119136
E36-E39 Water supply, sewerage and waste189.8112.715.418.12873039570
F41-F43 Construction258.2337.762.752.6734888211286
G-N Services total16 117.917 902.52 516.82 789.917 78919 55011 04312 118
G46 Wholesale trade1 030.1931.9171.5318.01 6431 566657630
H49-H53 Transportation and storage362.1414.6151.4121.1431583190207
J58 Publishing activities2 455.32 918.3183.4249.52 9413 1142 0802 296
J58.2 Software publishing2 140.82 471.3155.8186.02 5732 5791 8631 966
J59-J60 Motion picture, TV, music prod., programming and broadcasting act.63.748.14.12.91341014932
J61 Telecommunications1 275.41 109.6133.3111.5939849688573
J62 Computer programming, consultancy4 984.25 733.0259.7289.25 4756 1263 6784 255
J63 Information service activities315.3337.034.437.7526498286297
K64-K66 Financial and insurance activities1 118.31 586.7701.8774.89631 277616793
M70 Head offices, management consult.375.2435.037.656.4512596257286
M71 Architecture, engineering act.2 903.33 003.6407.9375.13 0143 4911 7601 888
M72 Scientific research and development814.9957.3361.1391.1739833500549
M74.9 Other professional, scientific and technical activities329.2314.127.116.0361371237241
N82.9 Other business supp. serv. act.90.8113.243.446.71121464670

Table 3 
Intramural R&D expenditure in business enterprise sector, by industry and size class (5+ employees). NOK million

Intramural R&D expenditure in business enterprise sector, by industry and size class (5+ employees). NOK million
Total R&D expendituresTotal R&D current costOf this:R&D investment cost
Compensation of employeesCosts for hired personnelOther current costs
NACE (SN2007) and size classes
A-N All industries (5+ persons employed)34 764.532 767.921 556.43 977.67 233.81 996.6
A-N All industries (10+ persons employed)31 989.830 318.419 893.53 607.26 817.61 671.5
5-9 persons employed2 774.72 449.51 663.0370.4416.2325.2
10-19 persons employed4 022.13 701.62 304.6459.0938.0320.5
20-49 persons employed5 682.45 358.13 525.7836.2996.2324.3
50-99 persons employed3 771.53 524.12 525.7308.1690.3247.4
100-199 persons employed4 151.93 975.62 779.5340.1856.0176.3
200-499 persons employed4 156.43 990.02 833.1546.4610.5166.4
500 persons employed and more10 205.69 769.05 925.01 117.42 726.6436.6
C Manufacturing (5+ persons employed)10 884.810 161.56 981.1530.02 650.4723.3
C Manufacturing (10+ persons employed)10 521.99 841.56 772.1484.02 585.4680.4
5-9 persons employed362.9320.1209.
10-19 persons employed816.1710.0443.161.1205.7106.1
20-49 persons employed1 289.21 189.3806.682.7300.099.9
50-99 persons employed956.8876.3645.134.2197.080.5
100-199 persons employed1 846.01 748.01 267.771.2409.298.0
200-499 persons employed1 540.71 453.21 091.9129.4231.987.5
500 persons employed and more4 073.03 864.72 517.7105.41 241.6208.4
G-N Services total (5+ persons employed)19 900.719 145.312 793.23 237.93 114.2755.3
G-N Services total (10+ persons employed)17 790.217 215.211 415.32 920.82 879.1575.0
5-9 persons employed2 110.51 930.21 377.9317.1235.1180.3
10-19 persons employed2 889.22 774.61 765.8381.2627.6114.6
20-49 persons employed4 096.43 923.42 552.7729.7640.9173.0
50-99 persons employed2 175.52 101.21 559.0251.0291.274.3
100-199 persons employed2 007.61 956.71 360.1256.6340.050.9
200-499 persons employed2 346.12 311.21 605.0383.9322.334.9
500 persons employed and more4 275.44 148.02 572.6918.4657.0127.4
A, B, D-F Other industries (5+ persons employed)3 979.03 461.01 782.1209.71 469.1518.0
A, B, D-F Other industries (10+ persons employed)3 677.83 261.71 706.1202.51 353.1416.0
5-9 persons employed301.3199.376.07.2116.0102.0
10-19 persons employed316.8217.095.716.7104.699.8
20-49 persons employed296.8245.4166.323.855.251.4
50-99 persons employed639.2546.6321.522.9202.192.6
100-199 persons employed298.2270.8151.712.3106.827.4
200-499 persons employed269.6225.6136.233.156.343.9
500 persons employed and more1 857.21 756.3834.793.7828.0100.9

Table 4 
R&D personnel and R&D man-years in Business Enterprise sector, by industry (10+ employees). Number

R&D personnel and R&D man-years in Business Enterprise sector, by industry (10+ employees). Number
R&D personnelOf this:R&D man-yearsOf this:
Female R&D personnelR&D personnel with higher degree education (incl. doctorate)R&D personnel with PhDR&D man-years performed by personnel with higher degree education (incl. doctorate)R&D man-years performed by personnel with PhD
NACE (SN2007)
A-N All industries36 0877 93722 4512 24921 20514 4321 721
A03 Fishing and aquaculture9312523497841020366
B05-B09 Mining and cuarrying1 185249963246760646212
B06, B09.1 Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas and support act. petroleum extraction1 125241931241739634210
C Manufacturing12 6282 6706 3577937 4244 298648
C10-C11 Food products and beverages1 8416996249382437466
C13 Textiles1082150342221
C14-C15 Wearing apparel, leather and leather products101484506336..
C16 Wood and wood products45945101013634..
C17 Paper and paper products1827294171006011
C18 Printing and reproduction153294007122..
C19-C20 Refined petroleum products, chemicals and chemical products965381596215798501194
C21 Pharmaceuticals3341932788627623878
C22 Rubber and plastic products323391064158612
C23 Other non-metal mineral products23044721283378
C24 Basic metals5541072648134918269
C25 Fabricated metal prod.1 0191434532766032318
C26 Electronic and optical products1 7892011 2861261 4921 105114
C26.3 Manuf. of communication equipment2551519692381929
C26.5 Manuf of testing instr./appliances8511105645072947844
C27 Electrical equipment580722902839321420
C28 Machinery and equipment1 7131848575498055139
C29 Motor vehicles etc.253111114186884
C30 Other transport equipment1 235214770233451967
C30.1 Building of ships and boats1 152202735213241835
C31 Furniture320871062163892
C32 Other manufacturing169511025124855
C33 Repair, installation of machinery30228112131797911
D35 Electricity and gas supply601146434241361029
E36-E39 Water supply, sewerage and waste30382176870483
F41-F43 Construction888131322162861128
G-N Services total19 5504 40813 8491 08512 1189 024775
G46 Wholesale trade1 5663467985063034938
H49-H53 Transportation and storage58390314152071206
J58 Publishing activities3 1145942 101972 2961 60286
J58.2 Software publishing2 5794201 693951 9661 33185
J59-J60 Motion picture, TV, music prod., programming and broadcasting act.101225703222..
J61 Telecommunications8492197185257349341
J62 Computer programming, consultancy6 1261 2134 4671634 2553 259122
J63 Information service activities4987424832971331
K64-K66 Financial and insurance activities1 2774359542079357513
M70 Head offices, management consult.5962644565028623133
M71 Architecture, engineering act.3 4917032 6223731 8881 513256
M72 Scientific research and development833332714207549467142
M74.9 Other professional, scientific and technical activities371753004224119931
N82.9 Other business supp. serv. act.146391011470618

Table 5 
R & D expenditure and R&D personnel in OECD countries, as share of GDP and labour force. Percentage

R & D expenditure and R&D personnel in OECD countries, as share of GDP and labour force. Percentage
CountryGross Domestic Expenditure on R & D. Million PPP dollar. 2016GERD as percentage of GDPR & D expenditure in the business enterprise sector (BERD) as percentage of GDPTotal R & D personnel per thousand labour force
Austria13 625.52.733.091.872.2014.2016.40
Canada26 072.01.831.600.950.8212.59..
Chile1 523.90.330.360.100.141.481.92
Czech Republic6 162.21.341.680.761.039.9212.30
Denmark8 063.62.922.871.961.8919.1819.74
Finland6 546.93.732.752.591.8120.7817.54
Germany118 158.52.712.931.822.0013.1615.30
Greece2 904.40.601.010.240.43..8.70
Ireland3 995.01.591.181.090.838.9716.22
Israel13 536.23.944.253.273.64....
Italy29 915.
Japan168 644.
Korea79 354.33.474.232.593.2913.5516.42
Mexico11 025.90.530.490.190.151.44..
Netherlands17 493.31.722.030.831.1611.4414.77
New Zealand..............
Norway6 255.81.652.030.841.0813.8815.80
Poland10 037.50.720.970.190.634.78..
Portugal4 006.61.531.270.700.618.679.83
Slovak Republic1 306.30.620.790.260.406.726.44
Slovenia1 352.
Spain20 006.51.351.190.690.649.509.02
Sweden15 795.
Turkey18 963.40.800.940.340.513.194.49
United Kingdom47 244.51.671.691.021.1311.1112.64
United States511 089.02.742.741.861.95....
European Union (28)391 952.51.841.931.121.24....
European Union (15)363 748.01.992.091.241.3510.5611.99
OECD - Total1 266
Non-OECD Economies       
China451 201.41.712.111.261.633.264.81
Russia39 881.

About the statistics

The survey measures expenditures for research and development (R&D) in business enterprises, performed by own personnel or purchased services from others, and how the R&D activity is funded. In addition other aspects like type of R&D, thematic fields and co-operation are covered. 


Definitions of the main concepts and variables

R&D comprises creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. The main criteria of R&D activities are the presence of an appreciable element of novelty and uncertainty on the outcome. Normal construction and planning activities, that follow established routines, is not R&D. Either is the introduction of known, established technology for the enterprise.

Definition of the main variables

R&D personnel
encompass all personnel directly involved in research and development, including administrative personnel, persons in supporting functions, both inside and outside the R&D department.

A R&D man-year
is the R&D work one person has performed during the year.

Intramural R&D expenditures
are all expenditures for R&D; performed within the statistical unit. Intramural R&D expenditures encompass labour costs, cost of hired personnel, other current costs and capital expenditures on R&D.

Extramural R&D expenditures
encompass R&D services purchased from others; as research institutes, other enterprises, also including units in the same enterprise group.

Standard classifications

The statistical units are classified according to:

  • Standard Industrial Classification (SIC2007). The basis for SIC 2007 is the EU standard NACE Rev. 2 and the UN standard ISIC Rev. 3.
  • Size class by number of employees: 05-09 employees, 10-19, 20-49, 50-99, 100-199, 200-499 and 500+ employees

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Research and development in the business enterprise sector
Topic: Technology and innovation

Responsible division

Division for Business Dynamics Statistics

Regional level

National level, key variables by county and economic region. Main variables by county are available in Statbank; by economic region on request,

Frequency and timeliness

Annual. Preliminary results are published in October year t+1, final results in February year t+2.

International reporting

The statistics are reported to OECD and Eurostat.


Micro data and information about sample units and population are stored permanently. For access to microdata for research purposes, see http://www.ssb.no/en/omssb/tjenester-og-verktoy/data-til-forskning.


Background and purpose

The purpose with the R&D surveys is to monitor the national R&D activity. The R&D survey for the Business enterprise sector is performed each year by Statistics Norway on contract for the Norwegian Research Council who also contribute to the funding of the survey. Surveys on the R&D activity in the Government sector and the Higher Education sector are undertaken by Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education (NIFU). The survey, and the results, follows the recommendations given in the OECD Frascati manual.

The survey undertaken by Statistics Norway measures the expenditures of R&D in the business enterprise sector, both R&D performed by own personnel (intramural R&D) and R&D services purchased from others like research institutes, other enterprises etc. (extramural R&D) and how the R&D activity is financed (own sources, public sources etc.). The R&D activity is distributed by type of R&D, research field a.o. The content of the survey varies slightly from year to year.

Users and applications

Important users are public administration, like ministries and  the Research Council, researchers, business organizations. The survey is important for evaluation of the R&D and innovation policy and the industrial policy in general. The statistics are also used by international organizations like EU/Eurostat and OECD.


The national R&D Statistics are published at the same time by Statistics Norway and NIFU. Preliminary results are published in October year t+1. The variables being published are number of R&D personnel, number of R&D man-years and R&D expenditures. Final results are published in January/February year t+2. This release provides more detailed results by industry and region and several breakdowns of the main variables. Normally there are only small differences in the main variables from preliminary to final release. Both preliminary and final results are based on reported figures from the enterprises.  

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 08 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar.

Exception from the principle of equal treatment: 

The Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education (NIFU) has access to some of the main preliminary figures from SSBs R&D statistics for the business enterprise sector before these are published on SSB’s website. NIFU adds up the results from their sectors with data from SSB to publish the total national R&D.

Coherence with other statistics

For total national R&D figures the R&D survey for the business enterprise sector has to be added to NIFU’s surveys for the Government sector and the Higher Education sector.  NIFU is responsible for publishing of national figures, but some main results are also available in SSB’s Statbank.

The R&D survey for the business enterprise sector was formerly carried out together with the innovation survey and data collected together in the same questionnaire. From 2013 onwards the R&D survey and the innovation survey are carried out separately. As previously the results from these surveys are published separately. R&D is one of the innovation activities, but the innovation survey covers a wider range of activities than R&D only.

Legal authority

Sections 2-2 and 2-3 of Act no. 54 of 16 June 1989 relating to official statistics and Statistics Norway.

EEA reference

European Parliament and Council Decision No. 1608/2003/EC of 22 July 2003 concerning the production and development of Community statistics on science and technology and implementing Commission Regulation No. 995/2012 of 26 October 2012 as regards statistics on science and technology.



The Business Enterprise sector. NACE-sectors 03, 05-33, 35-39, 41-43, 46, 49-53, 58-66, 70-72, 74.9, 82.9 (SN2007).

Data sources and sampling

Surveys using the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises as a frame.

The survey is a census of all units with at least 50 employees. In addition are all units with10-49 employees and with considerable reported R&D activity in the previous survey included. Among the other units with 10 - 49 employees a random sample is drawn within each strata (NACE 2-digit and size class). The fraction rate is normally 35 percent, but in some strata 15 and 10 percent are used. The total sample of units is about 4-5000.

The sample was extended in the 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2015 survey to also include enterprises with 5-9 employees. The total sample of these years is therefore larger than earlier years, about 5600 units in 2015. For comparability the statistics were presented both with and without this extension of the survey. The enterprises with 5-9 employees are not included in comparisons over time and international comparisons. The survey for 2016 does not include enterprises with 5-9 employees.

From 2008 onwards, enterprises with less than 20 employees in the industries Construction and Transportation and storage are not included. These groups have a large number of enterprises and a very low share of the total R&D activity in the business enterprise sector.

The statistical unit is enterprise, and with breakdown of a number of variables to establishments (local kind-of-activity unit). Until 1999 the statistical unit was the branch unit ( kind-of-activity unit) .

An enterprise is defined as the smallest combination of legal units that is an organizational unit producing goods or services. An enterprise may be a sole legal unit. An enterprise carries out one or more activities at one or more locations and may consist of one or more branch units or establishments. A establishment is geographically located in one particular place and its main activity delimited to one NACE-class. A branch unit encompasses all establishment units within the same NACE-class, but is not necessarily located to only one region. The use of branch unit/establishments gives the most detailed breakdown of the statistics by NACE. When enterprise is used as statistical unit the R&D activity is classified by NACE according to the enterprise’s main activity.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

The data on R&D are collected by electronic questionnaire, more information at http://www.ssb.no/innrapportering/naeringsliv/fou.  The forms are sent out 4-5 months after the end of the reference year.

Response burden
The time used to fill in the form is estimated to 30 minutes on average. This yields a total response burden of 2150 hours for the enterprises. However, the content of the questionnaire may vary from one year to another.


All forms undergo on-receipt controls (is the questionnaire filled in, is there any obvious inconsistencies etc). There are integrated a number of controls in the electronic questionaire. After the data are made available electronically, more detailed controls take part, including check with the data from the previous survey, information from the financial account etc.


For units with less than 50 employees the survey is based on a sample of units. Total figures for this part of the survey population are estimated based on the sample units. The estimations are done within each stratum, NACE 2-digit level and size-class.

R&D expenditure are reported and published in current prices. For total R&D expenditure figures at constant prices are also calculated. A new deflator is adopted for calculating R&D expenditure at constant prices for 2013 and the period back to 1970. The base year is 2005. The new deflator is based on the price index of production in NACE 72 Research and development in the national accounts. This is a weighted cost index - an average index for the different types of expenditure. The same deflator is used for all institutional sectors in the R&D statistics. Formerly various price indices were used for the various types of expenditure (wages, operating expenditures and investments) and performing sectors. There are two main reasons for this change of index: The new index will also be used in the national accounts where R&D after the main revision of SNA is capitalized, and it will simplify fixed price calculations significantly.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant


Results are published at an aggregated level. Individual enterprises can not be identified.

Comparability over time and space

The first surveys of R&D started back in 1963, from 1970 onwards in a systematic way. The statistics have been worked out on bi-annual basis since 1977, but is undertaken annually from 2001 onwards. The first surveys covered only manufacturing industry, but the service industries have gradually been included. Statistics Norway is responsible for the survey for the Business enterprise sector from 1991 onwards. In 1995 the survey was considerably extended.

From 1991 the statistical unit was the kind-of-activity unit. For 2001 this was changed to enterprise as the main statistical unit, but with a breakdown of the main variables to local kind-of-activity unit.

From 2008 a new version of the industry classification (SN2007) was implemented making it more difficult to compare with former vintages. Results from 2007 are published both by the old and the new classification, while former vintages only are published by the old classification (SN2002).

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

The concept of R&D may be difficult to distinguish from related activities.

The response rate for the survey is quite high, around 95 per cent, and the results should for that reason not be biased by non-respondents. In case of non-response from large R&D performers there are good routines to estimate missing data. Preliminary results have a larger degree of uncertainty than final results.  

Due to controls in the electronic questionnaire, the item non-response is almost non-existent. Item non-response  is in case adjusted during the revision process.

The population of enterprises is based upon the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises. The sample is stratified by NACE 2-digit and number of employees. Incomplete updating of these variables and entries and exits of enterprises may cause errors in the survey.


Not relevant