Number of employments and earnings

Updated: 24 November 2021

Modified:

Next update: 23 December 2021

Change in number of jobs
Change in number of jobs
September 2021 - October 2021
0.6
%

Selected tables and figures from this statistics

Number of jobs and average monthly basic earnings, by sex
Number of jobs and average monthly basic earnings, by sex
Number of jobs (employments)Average monthly basic earnings (NOK)
3rd quarter 20213rd quarter 2020 - 3rd quarter 20213rd quarter 20213rd quarter 2020 - 3rd quarter 2021
Absolute numbersPercentage changeAbsolute numbersPercentage change
Both sexes
All ages2 981 4714.546 7103.2
Less than 25 years460 44611.029 3703.0
25-39 years981 3754.343 7703.5
40-54 years957 5192.051 7803.3
55-66 years522 3593.852 6103.5
67 years or older59 7729.849 4502.8
Males
All ages1 537 1833.949 2403.5
Less than 25 years221 0229.530 3503.2
25-39 years512 8233.445 2203.7
40-54 years494 5241.654 9803.6
55-66 years272 1434.356 7003.5
67 years or older36 6718.052 3803.0
Females
All ages1 444 2885.243 6602.9
Less than 25 years239 42412.528 2102.8
25-39 years468 5525.342 0103.3
40-54 years462 9952.448 0002.9
55-66 years250 2163.347 6403.3
67 years or older23 10112.843 1102.3
Explanation of symbols
Number of jobs and average monthly basic earnings, by county
Number of jobs and average monthly basic earnings, by county
Number of jobs (employments)Average monthly basic earnings (NOK)
3rd quarter 20213rd quarter 2020 - 3rd quarter 20213rd quarter 20213rd quarter 2020 - 3rd quarter 2021
Absolute numbersPercentage changeAbsolute numbersPercentage change
Viken591 2144.846 0503.3
Oslo527 8345.753 2403.8
Innlandet188 0553.541 8302.8
Vestfold and Telemark205 6424.343 6903.4
Agder158 9675.543 3302.8
Rogaland276 6724.648 7002.9
Vestland349 5344.245 8502.9
Møre og Romsdal143 1533.943 6602.9
Trøndelag - Trööndelage254 8094.045 2903.2
Nordland - Nordlánnda131 1363.243 1002.8
Troms og Finnmark - Romsa ja Finnmárku138 7613.943 9202.8
Explanation of symbols
Number of jobs and average monthly basic earnings, by industry division (17 groups, SIC2007)
Number of jobs and average monthly basic earnings, by industry division (17 groups, SIC2007)
Number of jobs (employments)Average monthly basic earnings (NOK)
3rd quarter 20213rd quarter 2020 - 3rd quarter 20213rd quarter 20213rd quarter 2020 - 3rd quarter 2021
Absolute numbersPercentage changeAbsolute numbersPercentage change
All industries2 981 4714.546 7103.2
Agriculture, forestry and fishing43 7102.638 9005.7
Mining and quarrying61 9440.765 4702.6
Manufacture222 2922.047 2103.4
Electricity, water supply, sewerage, waste management36 0862.053 2504.1
Construction248 4462.145 0804.0
Wholesale and retail trade: repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles388 6454.542 3204.0
Transportation and storage138 0780.645 6103.8
Accommodation and food service activities120 73111.032 6403.8
Information and communication107 2207.661 0004.3
Financial and insurance activities48 9242.065 4504.5
Real estate, professional, scientific and technical activities178 4374.658 5903.9
Administrative and support service activities162 3219.040 8704.2
Public adm., defence, soc. security192 8594.050 3002.0
Education234 3394.247 1201.4
Human health and social work activities676 1764.841 9502.4
Other service activities119 1618.942 8302.4
Unspecified2 10222.165 95010.4
Explanation of symbols
Number of jobs, by immigrant category and country background
Number of jobs, by immigrant category and country background
3rd quarter 20213rd quarter 2020 - 3rd quarter 2021
Absolute numbersPercentage change
First generation immigrants without Norwegian background
Nordic countries45 1333.3
Western Europe else50 3998.2
EU countries in Eastern Europe138 9517.3
Eastern Europe else44 3326.4
North America and Oceania7 7467.2
Asia148 28512.4
Africa62 19517.0
South and Central America17 21110.6
Non-residents
Nordic countries20 179-8.6
Western Europe else6 825-4.1
EU countries in Eastern Europe44 272-13.2
Eastern Europe else1 4082.8
North America and Oceania4461.4
Asia1 794-5.8
Africa53610.3
South and Central America208-5.0
Explanation of symbols
Job flows, by industry division (17 groups, SIC2007)
Job flows, by industry division (17 groups, SIC2007)
Number of jobs (employments)Job decreases, all establishmentsJob increases, all establishments
3rd quarter 20213rd quarter 2020 - 3rd quarter 20213rd quarter 20213rd quarter 2020 - 3rd quarter 20213rd quarter 20213rd quarter 2020 - 3rd quarter 2021
Absolute numbersPercentage changeAbsolute numbersPercentage changeAbsolute numbersPercentage change
All industries2 981 4714.5241 872-40.0371 00426.2
Agriculture, forestry and fishing43 7062.67 090-10.78 1955.2
Mining and quarrying61 9420.72 755-45.33 166-47.0
Manufacture222 2952.015 735-34.120 00939.4
Electricity, water supply, sewerage, waste management36 0912.02 714-18.93 417-5.1
Construction248 4462.130 268-16.935 48811.9
Wholesale and retail trade: repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles388 6444.530 273-39.146 85230.1
Transportation and storage138 0810.616 067-39.116 93415.7
Accommodation and food service activities120 72811.014 376-60.726 33469.2
Information and communication107 2207.69 037-23.316 64638.6
Financial and insurance activities48 9262.02 424-34.13 406-21.3
Real estate, professional, scientific and technical activities178 4414.619 402-28.627 30814.7
Administrative and support service activities162 3189.017 442-60.830 86849.6
Public adm., defence, soc. security192 8604.011 817-35.219 1974.7
Education234 3364.215 053-2.924 400136.2
Human health and social work activities676 1734.835 131-47.966 34818.1
Other service activities119 1588.911 579-53.321 34321.9
Unspecified2 10622.37094.91 093-11.3
Explanation of symbols
Job flows, by sector
Job flows, by sector
Number of jobs (employments)Job decreases, all establishmentsJob increases, all establishments
3rd quarter 20213rd quarter 2020 - 3rd quarter 20213rd quarter 20213rd quarter 2020 - 3rd quarter 20213rd quarter 20213rd quarter 2020 - 3rd quarter 2021
Absolute numbersPercentage changeAbsolute numbersPercentage changeAbsolute numbersPercentage change
Sum all sectors2 981 4724.5230 695-41.9359 82724.8
Private sector, public enterprises, and unspecified1 969 3164.6179 158-41.0266 30426.6
Local government671 9284.935 318-56.766 92710.0
Central government340 2283.116 21934.126 59655.3
Explanation of symbols

About the statistics

The statistics show the number of people working in Norwegian establishments and their earnings. The purpose is to show changes in the number of jobs, number of employees, and earnings for each quarter compared to the same quarter the year before. The statistics include both residents and non-residents as well as all age groups.

The statistics of the number of employees and jobs (employments) are based on reported information from A-ordningen for the middle month of a given quarter. Statistics Norway follows the recommendations of the International Labour Organization (ILO) regarding preparation of labor statistics in the choice of key concepts and definitions.

Job-related characteristics

Employed persons are persons who performed paid work of at least one hour's duration in the reference week, as well as persons who have such work but who were temporarily absent due to illness, vacation, paid leave, etc. Employed persons include employees and self-employed persons.

Employees are persons who receive compensation for work in the form of earnings. For employees with more than one job (employment), one is established as the most important (i.e., the main job (employment)).

Job/employment: Job and employment are used synonymously and defines work compensated by earnings. A person may have several jobs/employments in different establishments.

Employer-related characteristics

The characteristics of place of work and industry division/sector are obtained from the Central Register of Business Establishments and Enterprises (CRE) and apply to the establishment where the person works.

Information about the sector is retrieved from the CRE. Sector is classified according to the Classification of Institutional Sector.

Personal characteristics

Characteristics such as place of residence, sex, and age are obtained from the National Registry.

Residents are defined as persons registered in the National Registry and also include temporary residents who plan on staying in Norway for six months or more.

Non-residents are defined as persons registered in the National Registry with a planned stay in Norway of less than six months. Non-residents include persons with a temporary social security number (D-number) or registered as emigrants, but who work in Norway.

Immigrants are defined as persons who are born abroad, have foreign-born parents and grandparents, and later immigrated to Norway. Data on immigration status and country background are retrieved from registries at Statistics Norway.

Earning terms

The term earning relates to payment for work in an employment relationship. The statistics do not include payment or benefit in kind, insurance, expense allowance, holiday pay etc. Gross earnings before tax is the basis of the earning terms.

Basic monthly earning is the fixed amount that is paid, whether it is defined as an hourly, monthly, fortnightly or weekly earnings. Basic monthly earning is the actual paid amount at the time of count and is often described as earnings on a scale or regular basic earning. Qualification/skills allowances and other regular personal allowances are included.

Monthly earnings include basic monthly earning, variable additional allowances and bonuses. This is measured in the middle month of the quarter. Overtime pay is not included in monthly earnings.

Full-time equivalents: In order to compare earnings between full-time and part-time employees, the earnings of part-time employees are converted to the equivalent for full-time work. This is done using the percentage of each part-time employee’s position as a conversion factor. Monthly earnings per full-time equivalent for part-time employees can then be merged with the monthly earnings of full-time employees so that the average monthly earnings for all employees can be calculated.

Payment in cash includes all payments in cash from the employer including basic monthly earnings, fixed and variable additional allowances, bonuses, overtime pay and other payments in cash not specified here, before taxes.

Job flows: Job increases and job decreases in establishments

Job increase and job decrease is based on whether the number of jobs (employments) in a given establishment has increased or decreased during the last year for a given quarter. The tables distinguishes between job flows as a result of new establishments, terminated establishments and increase/decrease in existing establishments. Existing establishments is an establishment with employees on both points of measure. New establishments were not established or had no employees at first point of measure. Terminated establishments had employees at the first point of measure but was terminated or had no employees at the last point of measure.

Within the different industries, job increase and job decrease can be a result of existing establishments changing industry between the points of measure. All jobs (employments) that are moved counts as job decrease in the industry they are leaving and job increase in the industry they are entering. The establishment can have the same amount of jobs (employments) on both points of measure, but we will still see a job increase in one industry and job decrease in another. In the statbank table there are numbers who specifically shows job increase and job decrease as a result of existing establishments changing industry. This will also be the case when distinguishing job increase and job decrease by sector. Since establishments can change industry without changing sector and vice versa, the number of job increases and job decreases in the tables by industry will differ from the numbers in the tables by sector.

Labour force flows: New hirings and terminated hirings

Labour force flows occur as a result of a replacement of employees in establishments. This is affected by new hirings, terminated hirings and employees changing jobs. The statbank tables distinguishes between labour force flows as a result of these measurements. Jobs (employments) are measured by establishments, which means that employees changing establishment within the same enterprise also contributes to labour force flows. The statistics are based on two points of measure (same quarter, past and present year), meaning that short term jobs (employments) between the points of measure are not included in the labour force flows.

Labour force flows and job flows (described above) are closely related. Job flows describes job increase and job decrease, and the establishments are the focus area. Labour force flows focus on the employee, and the statistics allows for distinguishing numbers by sex, age, education, immigration categories etc. In total, job increases and job decreases (job flows) adds up to the same change in number of jobs as new hirings and terminated hirings in the establishments (labour force flows).

Monthly figures from a-ordningen

The purpose of the additional tables is to provide a frequent overview of the economic trends in Norway, as measured by changes in the number of jobs (employments), employees and payment in cash.

The experimental statistics includes all employed persons who have their place of work in Norwegian establishments, regardless of age and whether the employee is a resident in Norway or not. The requirement for being included is either having received payment in the reference period, being temporarily absent due to leave or being laid off temporarily or having received compensation for wages e.g. maternity leave, parental benefits or sickness benefits. Self-employed are not included.

The tables contain both preliminary and final figures based on monthly information from a-ordningen. In the «first version» of the monthly figures, there are some jobs/employees that are not included due to delays in the reporting, as a result we refer to the figures as preliminary. In the final figures, we use a «second version» from a-ordningen, which is available one month later and where the above-mentioned jobs/employees are included. The ordinary labour market statistics that use data from a-ordningen are all based on this second version. Using the first version means that we do not capture all jobs/employees in line with the employment definition, but it enables earlier publication.

The jobs/employees that are not captured, as a result of using the first version, consists of delayed reporting, replacements for previous months and jobs with various time delays. The latter includes a) a newly started employment without pay in the reference week who receives pay the following month, and b) employment without pay in the reference week, but with pay in both the month before and after. The reference week is the week that contains the 16th, which is the 3rd week of the month.

The industrial classification is in accordance with the revised Standard Industrial Classification (NOS D 383), which is based on the EU-standard of NACE Rev. 2.

The occupational classification is in accordance with the Standard Classification of Occupations (STYRK-08), which is based on ISCO-08 (COM).

The sector classification is in accordance with the Classification of Institutional Sector.

Breakdown by county and municipality is in accordance with the list of counties and municipalities as of the 1st in the middle month of a given quarter.

Name: Number of employments and earnings

Topic: Labour market and earnings

23 December 2021

Division for Labour Market and Wage Statistics

Municipality, county, and the country as a whole

Two variants of the statistics are published. One with figures each quarter and one with monthly figures.

Quarterly figures

The reference week for the number of jobs/employments and employees is the week that contains the 16th in the mid-month of the quarter (February, May, August and November).

The statistic is published 5-6 weeks after the end of the quarter (and never later than the 15. in the month following the quarter).

Monthly figures

The reference week each month for the number of jobs/employments and employees is the week that contains the 16th.

Preliminary figures are published 3-4 weeks after the end of the month.

Not relevant

Source data are permanently stored.

The purpose of the current statistics is to elucidate changes in the number of jobs (employments) and employees, as well as provide tables of the development at a detailed regional level (municipalities and counties) that we do not have in the Labour Force Survey (LFS) or the quarterly national accounts.

The statistics are based on A-ordningen. A-ordningen was established in 2015 and is a common reporting system for everyone disbursing earnings, pension, and other benefits. It is based on monthly reporting of relevant information in the form of a so-called a-melding, which is transmitted electronically to the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration (NAV), the Norwegian Tax Administration, and Statistics Norway.

The statistics were first published in January 2018, with figures dating back to 1st quarter 2016.

Public administration and local administration in particular, employers' and employees' organisations, media, individual companies, and researchers.

No external user has access to the figures until 8 a.m. on the day of release at https://www.ssb.no/en/. The date of releases are published in the statistics calendar at least three months in advance.

There are two different approaches that can be used when describing employment in Norway:

  1. the participation of the population in the labor market
  2. establishments use of labor in the production of goods and services

When looking at the population's participation in the labor market, the population is normally limited to persons aged 15-74 years and registered as residents in Norway. This approach is used in the annual registry-based employment statistics and in the Labor Force Survey (LFS).

When looking at the establishments ' use of labor in the production of goods and services, it is common to include all employed persons who have their place of work in Norwegian establishments, regardless of age and whether the employee is registered as a resident of Norway or not. This approach is used by the national accounts and structural statistics. It is also this population that is used in the current statistics on the number of employees and jobs (employments) (see the Production section for more information).

The annual registry-based employment statistics describe employment and industry division/sector at a detailed regional level. The statistics are based on persons registered as residents of Norway according to the National Registry and working in Norwegian establishments. The criterion is that you are expected to stay for at least six months in the country. Employed persons include employees and self-employed persons. The statistics include employed persons per 4th quarter (reference week in November). For employed persons with more than one job (employment), one is identified as the most important. The main difference between the quarterly statistics on the number of jobs (employments) and the annual registry-based employment statistics is that the latter statistics also includes self-employed persons, but it does not include employees on short-term stays (i.e., planned stay of less than six months). In addition, the registry-based employment statistics are restricted to 15-74 years, while there are no age limits in the statistics on the number of jobs (employments) and employees.

When it comes to reporting the number of jobs (employments) in the national accounts and other economic statistics, this is also based on Norwegian establishments, regardless of whether the person is resident or not. This is the same approach as in the current statistics.

Act on Official Statistics and Statistics Norway § 10, cf. Act on the employer's reporting of employment and income conditions, etc. (the a-opplysnings Act) § 3.

Not relevant

These statistics are based on the establishments’ use of labor in the production

of goods and services in Norway (see the Coherence with other statistics subsection

under the Background section for more information). When looking at the establishments’ use of labor in the production of goods and services, it is common to include all employed persons who have their place of

work in Norwegian establishments, regardless of age and whether the employee is resident in Norway or not. This also includes foreign employees on short-term stays (non-residents).

Employed persons include employees and self-employed persons. Only the former are reported to A-ordningen. Therefore, the current statistics only cover jobs (employments) among employees.

Data sources

The main source of the statistics is A-ordningen, which is a coordinated digital collection of job (employment), income, and tax deductions for the Norwegian Tax Administration, the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration (NAV), and Statistics Norway. This means that Statistics Norway receives information about earnings and employees directly from the so-called a-meldingen, which is the electronic message containing all the information collected. More information may be found on https://www.skatteetaten.no/bedrift-og-organisasjon/arbeidsgiver/a-meldingen/.



In addition to A-ordningen, other registers are used, the most important being Vernepliktsverket and Enhetsregisteret and the Central Register of Business Establishments and Enterprises (CRE).

Sampling

Not relevant

Data Collection

The statistics is not based on data collection, but a number of different registries:

  • Statistics Norway receives monthly data from A-ordningen.
  • Statistics Norway receives monthly data from Vernepliktsverket.
  • Variables such as place of work and industry division/sector are obtained from Enhetsregisteret and the Central Register of Business Establishments and Enterprises (CRE).
  • Personal characteristics are obtained from the National Registry.

Calculations

The statistics is solely based on register data, meaning that the calculations consist of summing up the numbers of employees and jobs (employments) in specific groups.

Reported level of earnings is average values. This is based on jobs (employments) with earnings equal to the ones defined under 'Earning terms' at the point of measure. Not all jobs (employments) has an earning each month, meaning that they can be included in enumeration, not affecting the calculation of average earnings.

Not relevant

Statistics Norway’s common rules of confidentiality are followed.

Comparable figures are available from 1st quarter 2016 onwards.

These statistics are not comparable to the annual register-based employment statistics or the Labour Force Survey (LFS), as they are based on another population. Nor will the statistics be completely comparable to the employment figures in the national accounts, although the population is essentially similar. The difference is due to the fact that the national accounts publish figures for employed persons, which also include self-employed persons. In addition, the number of employed persons in the national accounts is given as an average for all months in the quarter. For more information, see the Background section.

In the first quarter of 2020 (2020Q1) there was a change in the method for estimating working hours. The change only affects the distribution of wage earners by different classifications. The categorical placement of wage earners is decided by their main job. The new method may cause a change in main job for people having several jobs and hence their placement as wage earners by industry, occupation, place of work etc. The change in method does not lead to significant systematic changes between groups, and in most cases the number of wage earners will be close to unaffected. In the first quarter of 2020 the change in method caused a net change of about 3000 wage earners by industry (17 groups). In other words, the industries having a decrease in the number of wage earners had a total decrease of about 3000 wage earners. Other industries had an equivalent increase in total.

From the first quarter of 2020 the statistics is affected by the region reform (including both counties and municipalities), which was put in force from January 1. 2020. The reform mainly affects the magnitude of job- and labor force flows. Some establishments were closed due to the reform, with the employees being transferred to existing or new establishments in the new municipalities and/or counties. Employees changing establishments will lead to increased job- and labor force flows. Hirings in the closed establishments will be defined as terminated and hirings in the new establishments will be defined as new hirings. In addition to the municipal and regional sector the effect is most noticeable for classifications where a large share of the employees works in the municipal and regional sector. The industries most affected are 84 Public administration, defense and social security, 85 Education and 86-88 Human health and social work activities. The reform will have an effect on job- and labor force flows throughout 2020.

New method for working hours

In the first quarter of 2020 (2020Q1) there was a change in the method for estimating working hours. The change only affects the distribution of wage earners by different classifications. The categorical placement of wage earners is decided by their main job. The new method may cause a change in main job for people having several jobs and hence their placement as wage earners by industry, occupation, place of work etc. The change in method does not lead to significant systematic changes between groups, and in most cases the number of wage earners will be close to unaffected. In the first quarter of 2020 the change in method caused a net change of about 3000 wage earners by industry (17 groups). In other words, the industries having a decrease in the number of wage earners had a total decrease of about 3000 wage earners. Other industries had an equivalent increase in total.

The municipality and regionreform

From the first quarter of 2020 the statistics is affected by the region reform (including both counties and municipalities), which was put in force from January 1. 2020. The reform mainly affects the magnitude of job- and labor force flows. Some establishments were closed due to the reform, with the employees being transferred to existing or new establishments in the new municipalities and/or counties. Employees changing establishments will lead to increased job- and labor force flows. Hirings in the closed establishments will be defined as terminated and hirings in the new establishments will be defined as new hirings. In addition to the municipal and regional sector the effect is most noticeable for classifications where a large share of the employees works in the municipal and regional sector. The industries most affected are 84 Public administration, defense and social security, 85 Education and 86-88 Human health and social work activities. The reform will have an effect on job- and labor force flows throughout 2020.

The statistics are based on A-ordningen. The quality of A-ordningen is generally good. Nevertheless, some errors might occur.

Measurement and processing errors

Some errors might occur due to incorrect reporting of the information (measurement error). Furthermore, errors might occur as the result of data processing conducted at Statistics Norway (processing error).

There are indications of gradual improvement in the reporting to A-ordningen from 2015 to 2016, even though the reporting during the first year of A-ordningen (2015) is considered as being good. Therefore, figures are published from 1st quarter 2016 onwards.

More uncertainty is expected in the number of employees and jobs (employments) at a detailed regional level than at a more aggregated level (e.g., the country as a whole).

Not relevant

Sample error

Not relevant

Not relevant

Monthly and quarterly time series are often characterized by considerable seasonal variations, which might complicate their interpretation. Such time series are therefore subjected to a process of seasonal adjustment in order to remove the effects of these seasonal fluctuations. Once data have been adjusted for seasonal effects by X-13ARIMA-SEATS or some other seasonal adjustment tool, a clearer picture of the time series emerges.

For more information on seasonal adjustment: metadata on methods: seasonal adjustment.

In many industries, we see variation in the numbers that appear with a certain regularity each year. We find good examples of this in the industry agriculture, forestry and fishing, where the numbers of jobs increase significantly in August and December, with a corresponding decline in November and January. In order to follow this underlying development from month to month, the figures are seasonally adjusted.

Series that are seasonally adjusted

The following monthly time series are seasonally adjusted separately for 17 industry division and for preliminary and final figures:

  • Number of jobs (employment)
  • Number of employees
  • Average renumeration in cash (NOK)

The totals for all the industries are treated a little differently in the various time series. For average renumeration in cash, the total is seasonally adjusted directly, while the total of the other two time series are made indirectly by aggregating the underlying seasonally adjusted series up to a total.

We find seasonal patterns in most industries. If seasonal pattern is not identified, the series will not be seasonal adjusted. All statistical variables are being reviewed together for each industry, both preliminary and final figures. In some cases, there will be clear seasonal patterns in one version and more uncertain seasonal patterns in another version. An overall assessment is then made, where either all or none of the series are seasonally adjusted. The only series that are not seasonal adjusted are the Mining and quarrying industry as well as Unspecified industries, and these are therefore not adjusted in any of the series.

Before the seasonal adjustment can be made the series must be precorrected for, among other things, extreme values. We follow the European Statistical System (ESS) guidelines as far as possible. If there is a clear interpretation of the cause of the extreme value, then they will be included as explanatory variables (regressor) in the model. In the assessment of extreme values, comparisons have been made on both preliminary and final figures. If extreme values have been corrected in the final version, it has been decided to include them in the preliminary version.

With regard to the handling of the corona crisis in the seasonal adjustment, we follow Eurostat’s guidelines. The guidelines states that the effect of the corona crisis should not be included in the basis of the seasonal pattern. That means that for the time being we assume that the seasonal pattern in unchanged after February 2020, and that we correct for the systematic seasonal variation calculated on data before the corona crisis.

Handling extreme values

The series are controlled for extreme values. Identified extremes are explained/modelled using all available information. When there is a clear interpretation of the cause of the extreme values, they are included as a regressor in the model.

Calendar adjustment

The model checks for calendar days.

Methods for working day adjustment

The model checks for working days.

Adjustment for moving holidays

The model checks for moving holidays.

Adjustment for leap year

The model checks for leap year effects.

Choice of model

To pre-correct, it is necessary to choose an ARIMA-model and decide whether data should be log-transformed or not.

  • All series are log-transformed.

Decomposition routines

The decomposition routine specifies how the trend-, seasonal- and irregular component are decomposed. The most common decompositions are additive, multiplicative and log additive.

Multiplicative decomposition is used in this model. That is because the corona crisis can sometimes cause large absolute changes in the level of a series, and an additive decomposition can give unrealistic changes in certain cases. Since a multiplicative decomposition gives a percentage adjustment of the series, this is chosen for all series.

Optimal seasonal filters and filter lengths are automatically selected by Jdemetra +.

Choice of seasonal adjustment approach

X12-ARIMA

Consistency between raw and seasonally adjusted data

In some series it is preferred that, for example, the sum (average) monthly seasonally adjusted figures for a year should be identical to the sum (average) monthly figures in the original raw series.

No consistency conditions are imposed.

Consistency between aggregate/definition of seasonally adjusted data

In some series, consistency between seasonally adjusted totals and the original series are imposed. For some time series there are also a special relationship between the different series, e.g. GDP which equals production minus intermediate consumption.

No consistency conditions are imposed.

Direct versus indirect approach

Direct seasonal adjustment is performed if the total of the time series, including aggregates, are seasonally adjusted on an individual basis. Indirect seasonal adjustment is performed if the seasonally adjusted estimate for a time series is derived by combining the estimates for two or more directly adjusted series.

The variable average renumeration in cash uses a direct method, where total and associated aggregates are seasonally adjusted separately. Indirect methods are used for the variables number of employees and number of jobs, where the components are seasonally adjusted directly with the same approach and software. The totals are calculated by aggregating the seasonally adjusted components.

Horizon for estimating the model and the correction factors

The whole time series is used to estimate the model and the correction factors. Due to recommended practice regarding handling the corona crisis in the seasonal adjustment, only data from January 2016 to February 2020 are used.

General revision policy

In accordance with recommendations from the ESS, the models behind the seasonally adjusted figures will be subject to a thorough review once a year. New seasonal patterns or changes in old patterns are searched for in this review. For the rest of the year, the models are kept fixed, so-called partial concurrent adjustment. There will also be an automatic search for significant extreme values (all types) for annual reviews or special needs.

Concurrent versus current adjustment

Partial concurrent adjustment, where the model including possible log transformation, length of filters, outliers and calendar regressors are identified once a year, and the respective parameters and factors re-estimated every time a new or revised data becomes available.

Horizon for published revisions

The entire time series is revised in the event of a re-estimation of the seasonal factors.

Evaluation of seasonally adjustment data

Both graphically and empirically detailed analyses are performed of parameters and criteria that are specifically established to evaluate the properties of seasonally adjusted figures.

Quality measures for seasonal adjustment

Coming soon.

All series are short and will therefore be studied carefully.

Handling the corona crisis

Following the Corona crisis that started in the 1st quarter of 2020, the seasonal adjustment of number of employments and earnings follows the Eurostat guidelines for how to treat this extraordinary event. The result being that the effect of the Corona crisis is not a part of the foundation of the seasonal patterns. We assume that the seasonal pattern is unchanged, and that we correct for the systematic seasonal variation calculated on data before the corona crisis.

Data availability

Raw and seasonally adjusted data are available.

Not relevant




Contact

Arbeidsmarked og lønn

arbeidsmarked@ssb.no

Magnus Berglund Johnsen

magnus.johnsen@ssb.no

(+47) 40 90 23 75