369363
/en/arbeid-og-lonn/statistikker/aku/kvartal
369363
statistikk
2020-01-23T08:00:00.000Z
Labour market and earnings;Labour market and earnings;Immigration and immigrants
en
aku, Labour force survey, LFS, labour market, employees, unemployed, economically active, labour force, labour force status, employees by industry, underemployment, part-time work, hours of work, temporary staffEmployment , Unemployment , Labour market and earnings, Labour market and earnings, Immigration and immigrants
true

Labour force survey

Updated

Next update

Key figures

70.5 %

in labour force

Population aged 15-74, by labour force status and sex
4th quarter 20194th quarter 2018 - 4th quarter 2019
Absolute numbersPer cent1Change in absolute numbersChange in percentage points1
1The labour force is calculated as a share of the population in the same age group. Labour force = number of employed persons + number of unemployed persons. Employed persons is calculated as a share of the population in the same age group. Unemployed is calculated as a share of the labour force in the same age group.
Labour force
Both sexes2 840 00070.533 0000.4
Males1 512 00073.728 0001.0
Females1 327 00067.35 000-0.1
 
Employed persons
Both sexes2 732 00067.924 0000.3
Males1 448 00070.514 0000.3
Females1 284 00065.110 0000.2
 
Unemployed
Both sexes108 0003.810 0000.3
Males65 0004.315 0000.9
Females43 0003.3-5 000-0.4

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
Population aged 15-74 by labour force status (LFS) and sex. 1000

Population aged 15-74 by labour force status (LFS) and sex. 1000
Annual average3rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 20194th quarter 2019
20182019
Persons, total
Both sexes3 9934 0153 9964 0044 0064 0124 0184 026
Males2 0372 0472 0382 0422 0432 0462 0482 053
Females1 9561 9681 9571 9621 9641 9661 9691 973
 
The labour force
Both sexes2 8022 8302 8272 8072 8002 8162 8642 840
Males1 4871 5021 5061 4841 4821 4931 5231 512
Females1 3151 3281 3211 3221 3181 3231 3421 327
 
Employed persons
Both sexes2 6942 7242 7132 7082 6922 7192 7552 732
Males1 4271 4421 4411 4341 4221 4361 4641 448
Females1 2681 2821 2721 2741 2701 2831 2911 284
 
Unemployed
Both sexes1081061149810897109108
Males6160655060565965
Females4746494848405043
 
Persons outside of the labour force
Both sexes1 1901 1851 1691 1971 2061 1961 1531 186
Males549545532558561553526541
Females641640637639646643627646

Table 2 
Population aged 15-74 by labour force status (LFS) and sex. Changes from the same period in the previous year. 1000

Population aged 15-74 by labour force status (LFS) and sex. Changes from the same period in the previous year. 1000
Annual average3rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 20194th quarter 2019
20182019
Persons, total
Total2722262723242222
Males1310121211121011
Females1412141513121211
 
Labour force, total
In total3928554930103733
Males251540251421728
Females13131523168215
 
Employed persons
In total4730555632224224
Males331540381882314
Females1514151814141910
 
Unemployed
In total-9-20-7-2-12-510
Males-7-10-13-5-7-615
Females-2-1053-61-5
 
Persons outside of the labour force
Total-13-5-29-22-714-16-11
Males-14-4-29-13-29-6-17
Females1-10-10-34-107

Table 3 
Population aged 15-74 by labour force status(LFS) and sex. Per cent

Population aged 15-74 by labour force status(LFS) and sex. Per cent
Annual average3rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 20194th quarter 2019
20182019
Labour force in per cent of the population
Both sexes70.270.570.770.169.970.271.370.5
Males73.073.473.972.772.673.074.373.7
Females67.267.567.567.467.167.368.167.3
 
Employed persons in per cent of the population
Both sexes67.567.867.967.667.267.868.667.9
Males70.070.570.770.269.670.271.470.5
Females64.865.165.064.964.765.265.665.1
 
Unemployed persons in per cent of the labour force
Both sexes3.83.74.03.53.93.43.83.8
Males4.14.04.33.44.03.83.94.3
Females3.63.43.73.73.73.13.73.3
 
Outside the labour force in per cent of the population
Both sexes29.829.529.329.930.129.828.729.5
Males27.026.626.127.327.427.025.726.3
Females32.832.532.532.632.932.731.932.7

Table 4 
Persons in the labour force and employed persons aged 15-74, by age and sex (LFS). 1 000

Persons in the labour force and employed persons aged 15-74, by age and sex (LFS). 1 000
Annual average3rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 20194th quarter 2019
20182019
Labour force
15-74 years
Both sexes2 8022 8302 8272 8072 8002 8162 8642 840
Males1 4871 5021 5061 4841 4821 4931 5231 512
Females1 3151 3281 3211 3221 3181 3231 3421 327
 
15-24 years
Both sexes364371375358357363389373
Males188191196182183183202195
Females176180179176174180187178
 
25-66 years
Both sexes2 3872 4052 3992 3912 3872 3982 4222 413
Males1 2671 2771 2771 2671 2641 2761 2861 282
Females1 1201 1281 1231 1241 1241 1231 1371 131
 
Employed
15-74 years
Both sexes2 6942 7242 7132 7082 6922 7192 7552 732
Males1 4271 4421 4411 4341 4221 4361 4641 448
Females1 2681 2821 2721 2741 2701 2831 2911 284
 
15-24 years
Both sexes329334340325321324352338
Males168171176166164163183174
Females161163164159157161168164
 
25-66 years
Both sexes2 3142 3372 3212 3262 3162 3412 3502 340
Males1 2261 2371 2311 2331 2241 2391 2461 239
Females1 0881 1001 0891 0931 0921 1011 1051 102

Table 5 
Persons in the labour force and employed persons aged 15-74, by age and sex (LFS). In per cent of the population

Persons in the labour force and employed persons aged 15-74, by age and sex (LFS). In per cent of the population
Annual average3rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 20194th quarter 2019
20182019
Persons in the labour force
15-74 years
Both sexes70.270.570.770.169.970.271.370.5
Males73.073.473.972.772.673.074.373.7
Females67.267.567.567.467.167.368.167.3
 
15-24 years
Both sexes55.056.256.854.254.155.159.056.6
Males55.056.257.453.353.853.959.557.5
Females55.056.256.155.254.456.458.455.6
 
25-66 years
Both sexes81.881.982.281.781.581.782.481.9
Males84.985.185.484.784.585.085.685.1
Females78.678.678.878.678.478.279.178.5
 
Employed persons
15-74 years
Both sexes67.567.867.967.667.267.868.667.9
Males70.070.570.770.269.670.271.470.5
Females64.865.165.064.964.765.265.665.1
 
15-24 years
Both sexes49.750.651.449.248.549.253.451.3
Males49.250.451.648.648.148.153.951.3
Females50.250.951.249.849.050.452.751.3
 
25-66 years
Both sexes79.379.679.579.579.179.780.079.4
Males82.182.482.382.481.982.682.982.2
Females76.476.676.576.476.276.776.976.5

Table 6 
Persons aged 15-74, employed by contractual/usual working hours per week and unemployed, by age and sex (LFS). 1 000

Persons aged 15-74, employed by contractual/usual working hours per week and unemployed, by age and sex (LFS). 1 0001
Annual average3rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 20194th quarter 2019
20182019
1Short part-time=1-19 working hours. Long part-time=20-36 working hours, with exception of persons with 32-36 hours who classify themselves as full-time employed. Full-time = 37 or more hours, including the exceptions mentioned above.
15-74 years
Both sexes
Total3 9934 0153 9964 0044 0064 0124 0184 026
Employed persons2 6942 7242 7132 7082 6922 7192 7552 732
Short part-time320327303328340327315327
Long part-time355354356362342356364354
Full time2 0092 0332 0462 0091 9992 0272 0662 038
Not reported working hours10108101091112
Unemployed persons1081061149810897109108
 
15-19 years
Both sexes
Total320319320321320320318319
Employed persons103110109106103100121115
Short part-time6062576062616263
Long part-time101214129111514
Full time3234373330264237
Not reported working hours11011121
Unemployed persons1718181617191819
 
20-24 years
Both sexes
Total342340341340341339341341
Employed persons226224231219218224231223
Short part-time7273617374746775
Long part-time3637383535394034
Full time116112131110106109122111
Not reported working hours32222223
Unemployed persons1819171719201916
 
25-54 years
Males
Total1 1181 1231 1191 1201 1211 1221 1231 125
Employed persons958964964966958968970961
Short part-time3137303138373638
Long part-time5451525650535350
Full time870873880875867877879869
Not reported working hours23234233
Unemployed persons3634402932313439
 
Females
Total1 0621 0671 0621 0641 0651 0661 0681 069
Employed persons858865859862862864870864
Short part-time8485828991848480
Long part-time169166167169165163171166
Full time602612607601604614613615
Not reported working hours32332322
Unemployed persons2926302829192827
 
55-66 years
Males
Total374378376376375378379381
Employed persons268273268267266271275278
Short part-time1816161818161515
Long part-time1820181918202021
Full time232236233230229235239241
Not reported working hours01000111
Unemployed persons56658565
 
Females
Total363369362366368369369371
Employed persons230235231231230237235238
Short part-time3535363634363335
Long part-time5554545652565356
Full time140146141140144145148146
Not reported working hours01001101
Unemployed persons33332242
 
67-74 years
Both sexes
Total413419416416417417420420
Employed persons5154525755545353
Short part-time2020202222201820
Long part-time1313131513131214
Full time1820192019202219
Not reported working hours01101110
Unemployed persons00000000

Table 7 
Persons in the labour force aged 15-74, by age and sex (LFS). 1 000

Persons in the labour force aged 15-74, by age and sex (LFS). 1 000
Annual average3rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 20194th quarter 2019
20182019
Both sexes
Total2 8022 8302 8272 8072 8002 8162 8642 840
15-19 years120128127122120119138134
20-24 years244243248236237244250240
25-29 years311312313313312309318310
30-39 years628636633632628632641642
40-54 years943942945939942942943939
55-66 years506516507507506515520522
67-74 years5154535755555353
 
Males
Total1 4871 5021 5061 4841 4821 4931 5231 512
15-19 years5962645658556968
20-24 years129129132126126128133128
25-29 years160161164161160159165161
30-39 years337339340336334338341341
40-54 years497499499497497502499498
55-66 years273278273273273276281283
67-74 years3235343535343535
 
Females
Total1 3151 3281 3211 3221 3181 3231 3421 327
15-19 years6165636662646966
20-24 years115114116110112116117112
25-29 years150151149152152150154150
30-39 years291297293296294294300301
40-54 years446443446442445440444441
55-66 years233237234234232239239240
67-74 years1919192221211818

Table 8 
Persons in the labour force aged 15-74, by age and sex (LFS). As per cent of all in each group

Persons in the labour force aged 15-74, by age and sex (LFS). As per cent of all in each group
Annual average3rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 20194th quarter 2019
20182019
Both sexes
15-74 years70.270.570.770.169.970.271.370.5
15-19 years37.540.139.638.137.637.343.441.9
20-24 years71.471.372.969.469.671.973.570.3
25-29 years83.584.384.483.884.283.185.884.0
30-39 years88.087.888.588.487.487.688.488.0
40-54 years86.286.086.485.885.986.186.185.7
55-66 years68.569.068.768.368.168.869.569.5
67-74 years12.412.912.613.613.213.112.712.6
 
Males
15-74 years73.073.473.972.772.673.074.373.7
15-19 years35.938.038.734.035.133.742.141.3
20-24 years72.873.174.971.471.472.975.672.6
25-29 years84.684.986.484.384.483.586.984.9
30-39 years91.991.292.691.790.791.591.691.2
40-54 years88.588.888.888.388.289.488.888.6
55-66 years72.873.672.672.573.072.974.274.2
67-74 years15.916.816.817.216.816.516.916.8
 
Females
15-74 years67.267.567.567.467.167.368.167.3
15-19 years39.342.240.642.540.241.144.942.6
20-24 years69.869.470.767.167.670.871.267.9
25-29 years82.583.682.383.284.082.784.783.0
30-39 years83.984.384.184.883.983.685.084.6
40-54 years83.883.083.883.183.582.683.382.7
55-66 years64.164.364.763.963.164.664.764.7
67-74 years9.09.28.710.29.89.78.68.6

Table 9 
Employed persons aged 15-74, by sex and contractual/usual working hours per week (LFS). 1 000

Employed persons aged 15-74, by sex and contractual/usual working hours per week (LFS). 1 0001
Annual average3rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 20194th quarter 2019
20182019
1Part-time = 1-36 hours, with exception of persons with 32-36 working hours who classify themselves as full-time employed. Full-time = 37 hours and over and the cases mentioned above.
Both sexes
Total2 6942 7242 7132 7082 6922 7192 7552 732
Part-time, total675682659690682683679682
Short part-time. 1-9 hours132143116141152144131144
Short part-time. 10-19 hours188185187188188183184183
Long part-time. 20-29 hours189191190187180190196197
Long part-time. 30-36 hours166164166174163166168157
Full time, total2 0092 0332 0462 0091 9992 0272 0662 038
Full time. 32-36 hours176190185181183191199187
Full-time. 37-44 hours1 6441 6551 6681 6401 6431 6481 6631 665
Full-time. 45 hours and more185183191184169183198181
Average contractual/usual working hours34.334.234.634.234.034.234.534.2
 
Males
Total1 4271 4421 4411 4341 4221 4361 4641 448
Part-time, total208215199214215214215218
Short part-time. 1-9 hours4653424856515053
Short part-time. 10-19 hours6364596265616365
Long part-time. 20-29 hours5557545451575861
Long part-time. 30-36 hours4442435043454338
Full time, total1 2141 2231 2391 2161 2031 2191 2441 225
Full time. 32-36 hours86938887899210092
Full-time. 37-44 hours9869881 004982980987992995
Full-time. 45 hours and more140138145144132138149133
Average contractual/usual working hours36.636.436.936.536.236.536.636.3
 
Females
Total1 2681 2821 2721 2741 2701 2831 2911 284
Part-time, total468466460476468470463464
Short part-time. 1-9 hours8690749395928191
Short part-time. 10-19 hours125121127126124122121117
Long part-time. 20-29 hours134134136133129134138135
Long part-time. 30-36 hours122121123124120121124120
Full time, total795810808793797808822814
Full time. 32-36 hours91979693949910095
Full-time. 37-44 hours658667664658663661671670
Full-time. 45 hours and more4445454138454947
Average contractual/usual working hours31.731.831.931.531.531.732.131.8

Table 10 
Population aged 15-74, by main activity, part-time employment and age (LFS). 1 000

Population aged 15-74, by main activity, part-time employment and age (LFS). 1 0001
Annual average3rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 20194th quarter 2019
20182019
1
2The term employed here includes full-time employed persons, as well as part-time workers who consider the employment as their main activity.
15-74 years
Persons
Total3 9934 0153 9964 0044 0064 0124 0184 026
Part-time employees675682659690682683679682
Employed2
Total2 4422 4592 4772 4442 4262 4532 4942 461
Part-time employees433426431435427427428422
Attended school, studied
Total500504473508523520479495
Part-time employees153161145156158162161162
Homeworking
Total4139413938424036
Part-time employees54534643
Early retired/disabled
Total396406395419406413395407
Part-time employees2529263030302629
Retired
Total391394390384393392394398
Part-time employees1920182020201822
Other activities/Unspecified
Total222214220209220191215229
Part-time employees4042344644394143
 
15-19 years
Persons
Total320319320321320320318319
Part-time employees7074717271727777
Employed2
Total3942454137335147
Part-time employees788877911
Attended school, studied
Total263257253260262268247251
Part-time employees5659555556596260
Other activities/Unspecified
Total1820221920182019
Part-time employees77899766
 
20-24 years
Persons
Total342340341340341339341341
Part-time employees10711099108110113107109
Employed2
Total150144161142139144152142
Part-time employees3432303333353031
Attended school, studied
Total146153137155160153147152
Part-time employees6568616667696868
Homeworking
Total21321112
Part-time employees00000100
Other activities/Unspecified
Total4341414140414045
Part-time employees89799999
 
25-54 years
Persons
Total2 1802 1902 1822 1852 1852 1882 1912 195
Part-time employees339339331345344337343334
Employed2
Total1 7471 7581 7631 7531 7441 7631 7731 752
Part-time employees275273276276273271281267
Attended school, studied
Total8991829198968389
Part-time employees3134293535343134
Homeworking
Total2929282930322826
Part-time employees43432333
Early retired/disabled
Total168177165178174179173183
Part-time employees10119111411912
Other activities/Unspecified
Total147134144134140119135144
Part-time employees1819132120171918
 
55-66 years
Persons
Total738748738742743748748752
Part-time employees126125124128122127122127
Employed2
Total474481474473471480484487
Part-time employees103991001029810197100
Homeworking
Total989878107
Part-time employees11101110
Early retired/disabled
Total202203204214206209200198
Part-time employees1516171815181616
Retired
Total2928262329262628
Part-time employees33223334
Other activities/Unspecified
Total2428252429232332
Part-time employees45454446
 
67-74 years
Persons
Total413419416416417417420420
Part-time employees3333333736343034
Employed2
Total3233353635333432
Part-time employees1414161616131213
Homeworking
Total10110001
Part-time employees00000000
Retired
Total362367363360364365368370
Part-time employees1617151816171617
Other activities/Unspecified
Total1918171919191718
Part-time employees23133333

Table 11 
Employed persons aged 15-74, by major industry division (LFS). 1 000

Employed persons aged 15-74, by major industry division (LFS). 1 0001
Annual average3rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 20194th quarter 2019
20182019
1
Total2 6942 7242 7132 7082 6922 7192 7552 732
01-03 Agriculture, forestry and fishing5655595453565655
05-09 Mining and quarrying6261646261616062
10-33 Manufacturing207209210212207208211209
35-39 Power and water supply, sew./remed.act.3129323129293027
41-43 Construction220226224220221222232228
45-47 Domestic trade, car repair shops350357351350347358364359
49-53 Transportation and storage127125126127126124126123
55-56 Accomm. and food service act.9093949190919792
58-63 Information and communication103107105104104105110109
64-66 Financial and insurance act.5450535453505046
68-75 Real estate, profess., scient. and tech.act.186187187188187183185192
77-82 Adm. and support service act.132134131138129133140134
84 Public administration and defence183175183177177175175174
85 Education222230218222224232228236
86-88 Human health and social work act.549562554551554567566562
90-99 Other service act.120121122123127117121120
Unspecified24243753

Table 12 
Average number of man-weeks worked (37.5 hours), by industry division (LFS). 1 000

Average number of man-weeks worked (37.5 hours), by industry division (LFS). 1 0001
Annual average3rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 20194th quarter 2019
20182019
1The time series is not adjusted for alternating holidays.
00-99 Total2 0372 0431 8512 1132 1632 0531 8392 117
01-03 Agriculture, forestry and fishing5956615353615954
05-09 Mining and quarrying5250545349524355
10-33 Manufacturing168170156176183172146179
35-39 Electricity, water supply, sewerage, waste management2723242827242222
41-43 Construction187184173195198181170188
45 Wholesale and retail trade and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles4139374142393639
46 Wholesale trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles8486768791887688
47 Retail trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles125127120132126124126132
49-53 Transportation and storage1041039810710510596105
55-56 Acommodation and food service activities5960606157625961
58-63 Information and communication8589759195888193
64-66 Financial and insurance activities4440374647393640
68-75 Real estate, professional, scientific and technical activities149152132155167150131160
77-82 Administrative and support service activities969892101999893101
84 Public adm., defence, soc. security149139130149152139121144
85 Education157156121167176159118172
86-88 Human health and social work activities370384330382404386347398
90-99 Other service activities8183748691837583

Table 13 
Employed persons aged 15-74 and absence from work during the whole reference week, by reason for absence and sex (LFS). Per cent

Employed persons aged 15-74 and absence from work during the whole reference week, by reason for absence and sex (LFS). Per cent
Annual average3rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 20194th quarter 2019
20182019
Both sexes
In total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
At work83.783.373.085.989.886.371.985.6
Temporarily absent, total16.316.727.014.110.213.728.114.4
Illness3.43.53.03.53.83.52.93.9
Holiday8.48.420.65.62.15.220.85.5
Taking time off/ working time arrangement1.51.71.02.11.42.01.41.9
Laid off0.00.00.00.00.10.00.00.0
Other reason/ unspecified3.03.02.52.92.83.12.93.1
 
Males
In total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
At work85.384.975.287.391.687.973.686.8
Temporarily absent, total14.715.124.812.78.412.126.413.2
Illness3.02.82.82.92.92.72.53.2
Holiday8.28.319.35.82.25.020.25.7
Taking time off/ working time arrangement1.72.01.22.41.72.31.82.3
Laid off0.10.10.00.00.10.00.10.1
Other reason/ unspecified1.81.91.51.51.52.11.91.9
 
Females
In total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
At work81.981.670.584.287.984.470.084.1
Temporarily absent, total18.118.429.515.812.115.630.015.9
Illness3.94.33.14.34.74.33.54.7
Holiday8.78.522.05.21.95.421.45.2
Taking time off/ working time arrangement1.21.30.71.81.21.61.01.6
Laid off0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0
Other reason/ unspecified4.34.23.74.54.34.24.14.4

Table 14 
Employed persons aged 15-74 and absence from work during the whole reference week, by reason for absence and sex (LFS). 1 000

Employed persons aged 15-74 and absence from work during the whole reference week, by reason for absence and sex (LFS). 1 000
Annual average3rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 20194th quarter 2019
20182019
Both sexes
In total2 6942 7242 7132 7082 6922 7192 7552 732
At work2 2552 2701 9792 3252 4182 3461 9812 338
Temporarily absent, total439454734383274373774394
Illness929681961019481107
Holiday22723055815056140573149
Taking time off/ working time arrangement3946265739544053
Laid off11001111
Other reason/ unspecified8081687976848085
 
Males
In total1 4271 4421 4411 4341 4221 4361 4641 448
At work1 2181 2241 0831 2521 3031 2621 0771 257
Temporarily absent, total209218358182119174387191
Illness4241414141393647
Holiday11712027884317129682
Taking time off/ working time arrangement2429183424332633
Laid off11001111
Other reason/ unspecified2527212222302728
 
Females
In total1 2681 2821 2721 2741 2701 2831 2911 284
At work1 0381 0468961 0731 1161 0839041 080
Temporarily absent, total230236376201154200387204
Illness5055405460564560
Holiday11010928067256927767
Taking time off/ working time arrangement151782315211320
Laid off00000000
Other reason/ unspecified5554475754545257

Table 15 
Employed persons aged 15-74, and average number of man-weeks worked (a 37.5 hours) per week, by sex and status. 1 000. Actual working hours, by sex and status. Hours per week

Employed persons aged 15-74, and average number of man-weeks worked (a 37.5 hours) per week, by sex and status. 1 000. Actual working hours, by sex and status. Hours per week
Annual Average3rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 20194th quarter 2019
20182019
Employed persons total
Both sexes
Total2 6942 7242 7132 7082 6922 7192 7552 732
Salaried employees2 5212 5482 5392 5342 5192 5402 5732 561
Self-employed170172171171170174178168
Family workers33343443
Males
Total1 4271 4421 4411 4341 4221 4361 4641 448
Salaried employees1 3071 3201 3221 3131 3031 3111 3371 329
Self-employed118121118120118123125118
Family workers11111211
Females
Total1 2681 2821 2721 2741 2701 2831 2911 284
Salaried employees1 2131 2291 2171 2211 2161 2301 2361 232
Self-employed5351535152515250
Family workers22122232
 
Employed persons at work
Both sexes
Total2 2562 2711 9792 3252 4182 3461 9812 338
Salaried employees2 1072 1171 8442 1712 2622 1821 8342 188
Self-employed146151133151154158143147
Family workers33232443
Males
Total1 2181 2251 0831 2531 3031 2631 0771 257
Salaried employees1 1151 1169881 1461 1941 1479721 152
Self-employed10210894106108114104105
Family workers11111211
Females
Total1 0381 0468961 0731 1161 0839041 080
Salaried employees9921 0008561 0251 0681 0368621 036
Self-employed4543394547453942
Family workers22122222
 
Man-weeks worked
Both sexes
Total2 0372 0421 8502 1132 1632 0531 8372 116
Salaried employees1 8871 8911 7101 9602 0111 8941 6891 971
Self-employed149149139152151156146144
Family workers11121221
Males
Total1 1851 1831 0881 2311 2531 1891 0701 220
Salaried employees1 0751 0709841 1171 1411 0719591 111
Self-employed109112104113112117110109
Family workers01010110
Females
Total852859762882910864767896
Salaried employees812821726842870824730860
Self-employed3937353939393635
Family workers11110111
 
Actual working hours per week
Both sexes
Total33.933.835.134.133.632.834.834.0
Salaried employees33.633.534.833.933.432.634.633.8
Self-employed38.137.239.137.836.737.038.436.7
Family workers16.816.518.518.211.816.522.612.6
Males
Total36.536.237.736.936.135.337.336.4
Salaried employees36.236.037.336.635.835.037.136.2
Self-employed40.339.141.640.038.938.739.938.8
Family workers15.019.115.222.611.516.530.618.2
Females
Total30.830.831.930.930.629.931.931.1
Salaried employees30.730.831.930.830.629.831.831.2
Self-employed33.032.433.232.631.432.734.431.6
Family workers18.115.122.916.312.016.519.211.2

Table 16 
Employees aged 15-74 with temporary jobs, by major industry division (LFS). 1000

Employees aged 15-74 with temporary jobs, by major industry division (LFS). 1000
Annual average3rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 20194th quarter 2019
20182019
Total211202229209186198225198
01-03 Agriculture, forestry and fishing33422333
05-39 Mining etc., manufacture, power and water supply1213141311131612
41-43 Construction101112119101410
45-47 Wholesale and retail trade: repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles2023252019242621
49-53 Transportation and storage86865686
55-56 Accommodation and food service activities121117119101410
58-63 Information and communication54644245
64-66 Financial and insurance activities11111121
68-82 Real estate, scientific, technical, administrative and support service activities2722292721212421
84 Public adm., defence, soc. security11913109999
85 Education2930253128312832
86-88 Human health and social work activities6159646056596359
90-99 Other service activities11101113119119

Table 17 
Employees aged 15-74 with temporary jobs, by major industry division (LFS). In per cent of all employees

Employees aged 15-74 with temporary jobs, by major industry division (LFS). In per cent of all employees
Annual average3rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 20194th quarter 2019
20182019
Total8.47.99.08.37.47.88.77.7
01-03 Agriculture, forestry and fishing11.39.811.98.28.410.89.710.2
05-39 Mining etc., manufacture, power and water supply4.04.54.74.53.94.55.44.2
41-43 Construction5.15.45.85.44.45.07.05.1
45-47 Domestic trade, car repair shop6.16.67.45.95.86.97.66.1
49-53 Transportation and storage6.85.37.05.24.15.26.84.9
55-56 Accomommodation and food service activities14.512.318.612.910.711.115.611.3
58-63 Information and communication4.93.75.84.14.02.43.64.6
64-66 Financial and insurance activities1.22.71.01.12.22.24.12.1
68-82 Real estate, scientific, technical, administrative and support service activities9.47.610.19.37.47.48.47.1
84 Public adm., defence, soc. security6.05.17.05.65.25.05.45.0
85 Education13.313.311.714.012.913.612.514.0
86-88 Human health and social work activities11.511.012.111.310.510.811.710.9
90-99 Other service activities11.810.011.612.910.49.510.99.3

Table 18 
Unemployed persons aged 15-74, by sex and age (LFS). 1 000 and per cent

Unemployed persons aged 15-74, by sex and age (LFS). 1 000 and per cent
Annual average3rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 20194th quarter 2019
20182019
Unemployed
Both sexes
In total1081061149810897109108
15-24 years3537353337393735
25-54 years6560695761516266
55-74 years8998107107
Males
In total6160655060565965
15-24 years2020201620201921
25-54 years3634402932313439
55-74 years56658565
Females
In total4746494848405043
15-24 years1517161717191814
25-54 years2926302829192827
55-74 years33332242
 
Unemployed as per cent of the labour force
Both sexes
In total3.83.74.03.53.93.43.83.8
15-24 years9.69.99.59.210.310.79.59.4
25-54 years3.53.23.73.03.32.73.33.5
55-74 years1.41.51.61.51.81.21.81.2
Males
In total4.14.04.33.44.03.83.94.3
15-24 years10.510.410.18.810.710.89.310.8
25-54 years3.73.43.92.93.33.13.43.9
55-74 years1.51.91.91.72.61.71.91.4
Females
In total3.63.43.73.73.73.13.73.3
15-24 years8.79.58.79.79.810.69.77.8
25-54 years3.32.93.33.23.22.23.13.1
55-74 years1.21.01.31.20.90.71.60.8

Table 19 
Unemployed persons aged 15-74, by duration of job search (LFS). 1 000 and per cent

Unemployed persons aged 15-74, by duration of job search (LFS). 1 000 and per cent
Annual average3rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 20194th quarter 2019
20182019
Total1081061149810897109108
1-4 weeks2424242123202922
5-13 weeks2223242122212327
14-26 weeks1716181419181314
27-39 weeks67869777
40-52 weeks1514151213111418
53 weeks and over1413141615131212
 
Total100100100100100100100100
1-4 weeks2223212121212720
5-13 weeks2022212120222125
14-26 weeks1615161418191213
27-39 weeks67768766
40-52 weeks1413131212111317
53 weeks and over1312121614131111
 
Average duration (weeks)34.028.629.534.031.930.827.928.6

Table 20 
Unemployed persons aged 15-74, by main activity (LFS). 1 000

Unemployed persons aged 15-74, by main activity (LFS). 1 0001
Annual average3rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 20194th quarter 2019
20182019
1The distribution on main activity is based on the respondents’ self-perception regarding their situation. For example, a lot of unemployed people are attending education as their main activity.
Total11081061149810897109108
Home working121222121
Attended school, studied12629262529312728
Unemployed17267786470586672
Other activities/Unspecified1788786147

Table 21 
Unemployed and underemployed persons aged 15-74, by sex and desired working hours per week. Number of man-weeks (of 37,5 hours) supplied (LFS). 1 000

Unemployed and underemployed persons aged 15-74, by sex and desired working hours per week. Number of man-weeks (of 37,5 hours) supplied (LFS). 1 000
Annual average3rd quarter 20184th quarter 20181st quarter 20192nd quarter 20193rd quarter 20194th quarter 2019
20182019
1Includes the number of man-weeks desired by the unemployed persons and the desired man-weeks minus the present man-weeks of the underemployed persons
Both sexes
Unemployed persons
Total1081061149810897109108
1-19 hours1921222026132024
20-36 hours2421202219212320
37 hours or more6564715664636664
Average working hours desired (hours per week)3232323131333231
Number of man-weeks desired9289978289869288
Underemployed persons
Total6669657264707668
1-19 hours55457535
20-36 hours2526242724242826
37 hours or more3639374034404437
Average working hours desired (hours per week)3434343433343433
Desired man-weeks subtracted present man-weeks2526252826262923
 
Number of man-weeks supplied, total1117115122110115112121111
 
Males
Unemployed persons
Total6160655060565965
1-19 hours78106123512
20-36 hours10966710109
37 hours or more4343493741434543
Average working hours desired (hours per week)3433343432353432
Number of man-weeks desired5553594552535355
Underemployed persons
Total2122202322212521
1-19 hours22123222
20-36 hours67677577
37 hours or more1314131412141512
Average working hours desired (hours per week)3433343432343432
Desired man-weeks subtracted present man-weeks998109897
 
Number of man-weeks supplied, total16462675561616262
 
Women
Unemployed persons
Total4746494848405043
1-19 hours121312141491512
20-36 hours1412141511111311
37 hours or more2221221923202220
Average working hours desired (hours per week)3029292929312929
Number of man-weeks desired3836383737333933
Underemployed persons
Total4547455042495147
1-19 hours33344413
20-36 hours1919172017192119
37 hours or more2325242622262925
Average working hours desired (hours per week)3434343433333534
Desired man-weeks subtracted present man-weeks1618161816181916
 
Number of man-weeks supplied, total15454545553515849

Table 22 
Employed persons aged 15-74, by occupation and sex. Annual average. Per cent

Employed persons aged 15-74, by occupation and sex. Annual average. Per cent
20182019
Both sexesMalesFemalesBoth sexesMalesFemales
In total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
1. Managers8.810.76.68.210.16.0
2. Professionals27.221.233.927.521.234.6
3. Technicians and associate professionals16.117.514.515.917.713.8
4. Clerical support workers5.54.56.75.74.57.0
5. Service and sales workers21.213.330.121.713.730.6
6. Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers1.82.70.91.82.60.9
7. Craft and related trades workers9.216.60.99.416.81.1
8. Plant and machine operators and assemblers5.59.21.45.39.11.1
0,9. Other occupations4.74.45.04.64.34.9

Table 23 
Employed persons aged 15-74, by occupation and sex. Annual average. 1 000

Employed persons aged 15-74, by occupation and sex. Annual average. 1 000
20182019
Both sexesMalesFemalesBoth sexesMalesFemales
In total2 6941 4271 2682 7241 4421 282
1. Managers2371528422314677
2. Professionals733303430749305443
3. Technicians and associate professionals433249184432255177
4. Clerical support workers14864851556590
5. Service and sales workers571189381591198393
6. Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers503812493811
7. Craft and related trades workers2482361225724214
8. Plant and machine operators and assemblers1491321714513114
0,9. Other occupations12763641256263

Table 24 
Employed persons aged 15-74, by occupation, sector and sex. Annual average. 1000

Employed persons aged 15-74, by occupation, sector and sex. Annual average. 1000
2019
All sectorsPrivate sector and public enterprisesPublic sector
Both sexesMalesFemalesBoth sexesMalesFemalesBoth sexesMalesFemales
In total2 7241 4421 2821 8221 164658882268614
1. Managers2231467718112952411725
2. Professionals749305443326189137420115305
3. Technicians and associate professionals4322551773232101131064462
4. Clerical support workers1556590131597123518
5. Service and sales workers59119839334914120823454180
6. Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers493811473710110
7. Craft and related trades workers2572421424623313870
8. Plant and machine operators and assemblers1451311413912614430
0,9. Other occupations1256263794038442024

Table 25 
Employed persons ages 15-74, by occupation and major industry division. Annual average. 1000

Employed persons ages 15-74, by occupation and major industry division. Annual average. 1000
2019
In total1. Managers2. Professionals3. Technicians and associate professionals4. Clerical support workers5. Service and sales workers6. Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers7. Craft and related trades workers8. Plant and machine operators and assemblers0,9. Other occupations
00-99 All industries2 72422374943215559149257145125
01-02 Agriculture and forestry371120129121
03 Fishing181121111110
05-09 Oil and gas extraction, mining and quarrying6171320210891
10-33 Manufacturing209212440156157394
35-39 Electricity, gas, water supply29457210424
41-43 Construction2261914206111302410
45-47 Domestic trade3575120483216203167
49-53 Transport and storage125842022903508
55-56 Accommodation and food service activities9391495701111
58-63 Information and communication107106224350101
64-66 Financial and insurance activities5071031200000
68-82 Real estate, tech.adm service3212996752834612635
84 Public administration and defence17516694281503021
85 Education23010169116290105
86-88 Human health and social work activities5621822760923501111
90-99 Other service activities1211232278330334

Table 26 
Employed persons aged 15-74, by sex, occupation and contractual/usual work time. Annual average

Employed persons aged 15-74, by sex, occupation and contractual/usual work time. Annual average
2019
TotalPart-timePercent Part-timeFull-timePercent Full-timeAverage working hours per week
Both sexes
In total2 72468225.02 03374.634.2
1. Managers223187.920591.938.6
2. Professionals74913718.360981.335.8
3. Technicians and associate professionals4326916.136283.835.6
4. Clerical support workers1554428.511071.333.1
5. Service and sales workers59131453.127346.228.2
6. Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers491123.13776.039.5
7. Craft and related trades workers257197.323892.537.5
8. Plant and machine operators and assemblers1451711.712788.037.1
0,9. Other occupations1255242.07157.029.4
 
Males
In total1 44221514.91 22384.836.4
1. Managers146117.913491.839.0
2. Professionals3053010.027489.637.4
3. Technicians and associate professionals2552710.422889.436.8
4. Clerical support workers651219.05380.835.1
5. Service and sales workers1988141.111658.330.5
6. Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers38820.53078.841.1
7. Craft and related trades workers242156.122793.837.8
8. Plant and machine operators and assemblers1311310.111789.637.6
0,9. Other occupations621727.84471.332.6
 
Females
In total1 28246636.481063.231.7
1. Managers7767.97192.137.7
2. Professionals44310724.133575.634.7
3. Technicians and associate professionals1774324.213475.733.8
4. Clerical support workers903235.45864.431.6
5. Service and sales workers39323259.215740.127.0
6. Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers11432.2766.634.0
7. Craft and related trades workers14428.01071.633.6
8. Plant and machine operators and assemblers14426.21073.132.9
0,9. Other occupations633555.72743.026.3

About the statistics

The purpose of the Labour Force Survey is to provide information on the development in employment and unemployment, and on the relationship to the labour market for different groups. The statistics are published quarterly, normally 4 weeks after the end of the quarter.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Concepts and definitions are in accordance with recommendations given by the International Labour Organization (ILO) and EU/Eurostat.

According to the international recommendations persons above a specified age should be classified by their attachment to the labour market in a specified, short period, either a day or a week. In the Norwegian LFS the reference period is one week, and the sample of persons are classified in relation to their situation in that reference week.

Employed persons are persons aged 15-74 who performed work for pay or profit for at least one hour in the reference week, or who were temporarily absent from work because of illness, holidays etc. Conscripts are classified as employed persons. Persons engaged by government measures to promote employment are also included if they receive wages. Persons laid off 100 per cent with a continuous duration of until three months are defined as employed, temporarily absent.

Unemployed persons are persons who were not employed in the reference week, but who had been seeking work during the preceding four weeks, and were available for work in the reference week or within the next two weeks (in 1996-2005 one should be available within two weeks following the time of interview, and until 1996 one should be able to start working in the reference week). Persons laid off 100 per cent are defined as unemployed after three continuous months of leave.

Persons in the labour force are either employed or unemployed. The remaining group of persons is labelled not in the labour force.

Main activity

In addition to the measurement of employment and unemployment according to the international recommendations and definitions, it is also asked a single question in the LFS to all non-employed persons, and to the part-time employed persons, about their main activity. This variable gives the perons' self-perception regarding their activity or status. The purpose is to estimate how many people are in education, homemakers, pensioners etc., and how many have a part-time job besides. We also gain figures on how many of the unemployed people who are attending education. In the tables for those outside the labour force, i.e. neither employed nor unemployed, a group called "looking for work" is specified. They do not satisfy all the requirements to be classified as unemployed, but consider themselves as unemployed. 

Man-hours worked include all actual working hours, i.e. including overtime and excluding absence from work. Persons absent from work are not included in the calculation of actual working hours per week (in average) .

Contractual/usual working hours refer to the weekly number of working hours determined by the working contract. Absence from work because of illness, holidays etc. is not subtracted, and overtime is not included. Employees, whose contractual working hours vary from week to week, give information on both the actual reference week as well as the average of their contractual working hours per week (in the tables published the average numbers are normally used). For employees without contract on working hours, for self-employed and for unpaid family workers, data on their usual weekly working hours are used (as an average of their actual working hours during the last 4 weeks).

Full-time/part-time distinction is based on the contractual/usual working hours. Part-time: 1-36 hours, with exception of persons with 32-36 hours who classify themselves as full-time employed.

Full-time: 37 hours and over, and the cases mentioned above. For persons with more jobs, the working hours in the main and the second job are summarized.

Overtime

Overtime is defined as working hours which exceed the contractual working hours for full-time employees, conducted during a specified reference week. The overtime may be compensated by payment or by time off, or be without any compensation. Up to 2006 these questions were included in the survey only during the 2nd quarter each year. As from 2006 onwards they are included each quarter. 

A major revision of the LFS in 2006 led to a significant break in the time-series for overtime, i.e. lower estimates than published earlier. This was mostly due to changes in the questionnaire concerning working time.

Statistics on overtime include employees working full-time only. For persons with more jobs, the working hours in the main and the second job are summarized in order to classify them as either part- or full-time workers, as in LFS statistics generally.

For those with more jobs, overtime hours in the main job only are included. By calculating the overtime hours as a share of the total number of man-hours worked among full-time employees, the working hours in the second job are, however, included in the denominator. Persons temporarily absent from work are included in the denominator while calculating the share of employees working overtime, mainly to avoid seasonal variations.

Employees who just had an occasional job in the reference week, and on-call workers, are not asked about overtime, but they are included in the denominator if they were full-time employed in the reference week.

As from 2007 imputation is used concerning the overtime variables in case of proxy interviews and partial non-response.

Involuntary part-time employment comprises part-time employed persons seeking longer contractual/usual working hours by registering at the Employment Offices, advertising, contacting present employer etc., and who were able to start with increased working hours within a month.

Permanence of the job

The employees are asked whether they have a permanent job (a work contract of unlimited duration) or a temporary job (a work contract of limited duration). If the person has more than one job, only the main job is classified by permanence.

There are two kinds of working arrangements outside ordinary hours (Monday to Friday from 6 am to 6 pm).

  • Shift work is usually understood as working time outside normally working hours. What counts in the survey as shift work is based on the evaluation of the respondent. For respondents who have not answered the question on shift work, the value is imputed based on the answers they have given with regard to evening, night, Saturday and Sunday work.
  • Work outside ordinary hours, not shift work. This refers to work on evenings, nights, Saturdays and Sundays which is not shift work. Evening work is defined as work between 6 pm and 10 pm. Night work is between 10 pm and 6 am. Respondents who report that they work on one or more of these working time schedules outside ordinary hours are also asked about the frequency of this kind of work during a four week period. This is done for each of the working time schedule separately. Based on this, the work outside regularly hours is divided into the categories "regularly" or "sometimes". For evening and night work, the respondent must have this kind of work on at least half of their working days in the four week period to be defined as having regularly evening work and/or regularly night work. For work on weekends, they must work 2-4 Saturdays and/or 2-4 Sundays during the four week period to be defined as having regularly Saturday and/or Sunday work. The respondents who have these kinds of working schedules, but more seldom than indicated above, are defined as sometimes having this kind of work.

Working hour arrangements outside ordinary daytime are based on the contract for the employees, and on usual working time pattern for the self-employed. Up to 2006 these questions were included in the survey only during the 2nd quarter each year. As from 2006 onwards they are included each quarter, but only for ¼ of the sample, and the results are published once a year: Labour force survey. Patterns of working time.

Course participation refers to job related courses which the respondent was paid to attend. Only courses received during a period of four weeks are included. Up to 2006 these questions were asked only during the 2nd quarter each year. As from 2006 onwards they are included each quarter to the whole sample. Labour force survey. Education and training.

As from 2006 the definition of age was changed from completed years at the end of the year to completed years at the time of the reference week.

The persons are classified by marital status as unmarried, married and previously married according to information given by the respondents. Previously married includes widows, widowers, separated and divorced persons. In the tables married women include cohabitants.

Immigrants are defined as persons born abroad by foreign-born parents who have emigrated toNorway. In statistics based on the Labour Force Survey (LFS) they are divided in two groups by country of birth:

1) Immigrants from EU/EFTA-countries,North-America,AustraliaandNew Zealand. 

2) Immigrants from Eastern Europe except EU, Asia, Africa, Latin America and Oceania except Australia and New Zealand.

Standard classifications

The industrial classification is in accordance with the Standard Industrial Classification (NOS D 383), which is based on the EU-standard of NACE Rev. 2.

The occupational classification is based on the International Standard Classification of Occupations 2008 (ISCO-08). The Norwegian standard has been named STYRK-08 (Notater 17/2011). 

The educational classification is in accordance with the Norwegian Standard Classification of Education (NOS C617).

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Labour force survey
Topic: Labour market and earnings

Next release

Responsible division

Division for Labour Market and Wage Statistics

Regional level

County and the whole country.

Frequency and timeliness

Quarterly and annual, but monthly publishing of some key figures seasonally adjusted (averages of the last 3 months). Quarterly figures are normally published 5 weeks after the end of the quarter.

International reporting

The quarterly data files are sent to Eurostat. Tables are sent each month/quarter/year to Eurostat, OECD, ILO and IMF, as well as to the Nordic Yearbook.

Microdata

The basic material (survey results from the interviewers) as well as the statistical files (on the basis of revision and estimation procedures) are stored.

Background

Background and purpose

The main purpose of the survey is to provide data on employment and unemployment, and data on the labour force participation in different sections of the population. The Norwegian LFS started in 1972. For information about the history of the survey, and about breaks in the time-series, please cf. Labour Force Survey 2001 (NOS C748).

Users and applications

The surveys give information to the Labour Market Authorities and other users about the situation on the labour market, and provide data for labour force research and forecasts, as well as for international organizations and mass media.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 08 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given inthe Statistics Release Calendar.

For more information, see Principles for equal treatment of users in releasing statistics and analyses

Coherence with other statistics

The results from the LFS are used in the National Accounts Statistics.

For statistics at regional levels (counties and municipalities), the Registerbased Employment Statistics are recommended. These statistics also give figures on employees who are immigrants.

Statistics Norway also produces statistics on selected industries based on data from the establishments, containing figures on employment, compensation of employees, value of production and capital formation etc. These statistics contain more detailed information about each industry than it is possible to give from the LFS and the National Accounts Statistics.

Statistics on unemployed persons at the Employment Offices and government measures to promote employment are compiled by NAV on the basis of registers of unemployed persons and applicants for work.

The figures on unemployment based on the LFS differ from the figures on unemployed persons registered at the Employment Offices. The LFS-figures also include unemployed persons not registered at the Employment Offices, some of the participants in government measures to promote employment and some of the disabled persons. On the other hand, some of the registered unemployed are not classified as unemployed in the LFS, on the basis of the information given on seeking and availability for work. As from 2006 persons on lay-off (until 3 months) are no longer classified as unemployed, but as employed persons (temporarily absent from work) in the LFS, while they still are classified as unemployed in the registerbased statistics. However, if the period of lay-off exceeds 3 months, they are classified as unemployed in the LFS as well.

The Population and Housing Censuses (each 10th year) give statistics on employment during the last 12 months, in addition to the situation in a specified reference week. As from 2001 onwards employment data based on administrative registers are used. Statistics on labour conflicts and working days lost are compiled by Statistics Norway on the basis of information supplied mostly by the labour and employers's organizations. The Surveys of Level of Living (by Statistics Norway) give information on physical working environment as well as organizational working conditions.

The main source to describe the situation for the immigrants on the labour market is the registerbased statistics on employment and unemployment. By using data from the LFS as a supplement we will achieve still more information regarding this group, for example on actual and desired working hours, temporary employment and patterns of working time. Moreover the LFS has more data than the registers on job seeking and desire for work.

The main problem using the LFS for statistics on immigrants is the size of the sample and the statistical uncertainty. The group of immigrants in Norway is rather heterogeneous regarding their situation on the labour market, and therefore it is required to divide among at least two groups in the presentation of statistics. A further dividing by other variables will require long time-series in order to draw any conclusions.

Legal authority

The Statistics Act §§ 2-2 and 2-3.

EEA reference

Council Regulation (EC) nos 577/98, 1991/2002 and 2257/2003, and Commission Regulation nos 1575/2000, 1897/2000, 2104/2002, 430/2005 and 377/2008.

Production

Population

The total population aged 15-74 is covered by the LFS. Up to 2006 the group was 16-74, and age defined as completed years at the end of the year. As from 2006 age is defined as completed years at the time of the reference week. Observation unit: person.

Data sources and sampling

The main source for the LFS is quarterly, representative sample surveys based on interview by telephone.

Inhabitants in all municipalities are randomly selected, on the basis of a register of family units. The sample consists of about 12 000 family units (24 000 persons) each quarter. Each family member aged 15-74 participates in the survey, answering questions about their situation during a specified reference week. As from 1996 each family participates in the survey 8 times during a period of 8 quarters (before 1996: 4 times during 6 quarters). Up to 1996 a two stage sampling procedure was applied. For more information, please cf. Labour Force Survey 2001 (NOS C748).

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Interview by telephone. Information from previous interviews are used while asking about any changes in the situation, instead of the same, comprehensive data collection every time. For the coding of industry, information from some registers is also used. Demographic data are collected from the Central Population Register, and data on education are based on a register of individual data collected by Statistics Norway from the educational institutions (but questions are also asked to get more updated information).

The respondent is usually the same person as the observation unit (but proxy interviews are done if it is not possible to get in contact with the observation unit; 14-15 per cent of the interviews are done by asking near family members). Data are collected weekly, i.e. the LFS is a continuous survey (all weeks are covered). Up to 1st quarter 1996 (from 2nd quarter 1988) the survey was based on one reference week each month, and in previous years on one week each quarter. Participation in the survey is compulsory, but compulsory fines are not used.

As the data collection is made by use of computer-assisted interviews, some procedures for electronic control of the registration of answers are included in the questionnaire, for example concerning the number of working hours during the reference week. In some cases the interviewers become a "warning" by recording an answer, in other cases maximum or minimum values have been set beforehand.

The analysis unit is person. The absolute numbers from the LFS are presented in the form of estimated total for the entire population aged 15-74. The weights or inflation factors vary, but have an average of about 195 for quarterly figures in 2017.

 The estimation method uses more demographic data and register information relevant to the connection to the labour market in order to minimize standard errors and correct more for bias in the response sample in LFS since the nonresponse is not random. New method was launched in April 2018, is also used on LFS data back to 2006 to get the most comparable time series.

The estimation method in LFS is done in several stages, and are called multiple model calibration (MMK). Initially, the main labor market status of LFS, which is employed, unemployed, outside the workforce, are modeled consistent with a multinomial logit model, explained with a number of register variables known to all in the population. The register information are registered completely unemployed, on measures and persons with disabilities at NAV, register information on disability pensioners, education level, marital status, family size and immigrant category, country of origin, gender and age, residence, and information from the A scheme and the Tax Recovery Register. The model provides predictive probabilities every month for each main labor market status in LFS for everybody in the population.

The monthly weights in LFS are calibrated using these predicted probabilities and some register variables directly[1]. This means that the weights also become consistent with the population for the number in the population register by gender, different age groups and region, as well as consistent weights for the number of full / part-time wage earners by gender and registered employed (yes/no) cross classified by immigrants in 2 groups.

Multiple model calibration provides some variance reduction, utilizing more efficiently that we have available good help information about everyone in the population from various registries that Statistics Norway has linked.

The initial weights before calibration are the ratio of the number of people in the population to the gross sample per. county (NUTS3), and takes into account that people in different counties have different probabilities of being selected to LFS sample.

For more detailed technical information about the new estimation method, please see Documents 2018/16 [https://www.ssb.no/en/arbeid-og-lonn/artikler-og-publikasjoner/new-estimation-methodology-for-the-norwegian-labour-force-survey]

Week-proportional weighting of the months in quarterly averages

LFS have continuous data collection. In order for all reference weeks to weighted evenly in quarterly averages, we now make week-proportional adjustment of monthly weights in our quarterly averages. That is, the monthly weights are multiplied by 4/13 or 5/13 depending on whether the months in the LFS contain respectively 4 or 5 whole weeks. Weekly proportional weighting of quarterly average has been made on all quarterly figures in our StatBank back to 2006. Before that is the even adjustment off all monthly weights was used, i.e. multiplied by 1/3 for all months.



[1]That the weights are consistent for a register variable, such as gender, means that the sum of the weights in the responses in the LFS equals the number of the population for each category of the register variable, such as the number of men and the number of women in the population

Seasonal adjustment

Quarterly figures from LFS are not seasonally adjusted

Confidentiality

Not relevant

Comparability over time and space

New estimation method published in April 2018 uses more registers that will reduce nonresponse bias and sample uncertainty. This leads to a slightly lower level of employed and almost correspondingly higher levels for people outside the workforce than the previous method. The total number of unemployed changes only a little. To get the most comparable figures, the time series are revised back to 2006 in our StatBank. However, the adjustments vary slightly between groups and over time.

Breaks in the series up to 2001 are described in the publication Labour Force Survey 2001 (NOS C748).

The concepts in LFS are defined in accordance with international recommendations, cf item 4.1, to ensure comparability among the countries.

As from 2006 the LFS was revised, mainly to be in accordance with the EU-requirements based on new ILO recommendations. Some definitions and parts of the questionnaire were changed, and some new variables were added. As from 2006 age is defined as completed years at the time of the reference week, instead of completed years at the end of the year, as earlier. Moreover the lower age limit to be covered by the survey was lowered from 16 to 15, in accordance with the surveys in other countries.

These changes from 2006 led to breaks in the time-series for the LFS estimates. The revised survey gives some lower estimates for unemployment (1 000 persons as an annual average for 2006) and some higher estimates for employment (8 000 in 2006). A break in the time series also occured for the estimates of actual working hours per week and man-hours worked. For more information, please cf. http://www.ssb.no/aku_en/. Quarterly data for 2006 are published according to both the revised and the unrevised LFS, in order to improve the comparability for the figures between 2006 and 2005. The breaks in the time-series were most significant for figures divided by age groups.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

In all surveys errors may occur in connection with both the collection and the processing of data. The use of proxy interviews (asking near family members instead of the observation unit) often increase the problems of measurement. As an average the employment is underestimated because of proxy interviews.

The size of the nonresponse as a percentage of the gross sample has varied widely since the LFS began in 1972. The 20 first years were generally around 10-12 percent. In the years 1992-1997 it was particularly low, only 6-8 percent. Subsequently, the nonresponse rate gradually increased to 21 per cent in 2013. After systematic work,  the nonresponse has been reduced to around 14 per cent in 2018.

 Correction for total non-response is done in the estimating procedure. Partial non-response is adjusted for some variables.

Variance

The standard error for the quarterly average for the number of unemployed aged 15-74 is around 4600 in 2017. It corresponds to a coefficient of variation of 3.9 per cent. The standard error for the quarterly average for the number of employed aged 15-74 in LFS is about 8600 people in 2017. The coefficient of variation for employment figures will then be around 0.29 percent. More calculations will later be published in our StatBank.

If the reader wants an indication of the size of the standard error for quarterly figures and annual averages for other variables or group divisions, see the table below. These indications are only guiding, and can not be interpreted as precise calculations for any variable. Changes between two surveys will usually have the same absolute uncertainty as the two figures which are compared.

 

 

Indication of the standard error for other variables than in StatBank table 09937 and 09938

 
 

Quarterly figures

 

Annual averages

 

Absolute figures

As per cent of estimated value

Absolute figures

As per cent of estimated value

 
           

5 000

800

16,0

500

10,0

 

7 000

900

12,9

600

8,6

 

10 000

1 100

11,0

700

7,0

 

20 000

1 600

8,0

1 100

5,5

 

30 000

1 900

6,3

1 300

4,3

 

40 000

2 200

5,5

1 500

3,8

 

50 000

2 500

5,0

1 700

3,4

 

60 000

2 700

4,5

1 800

3,0

 

70 000

2 900

4,1

1 900

2,7

 

100 000

3 500

3,5

2 300

2,3

 

200 000

4 800

2,4

3 200

1,6

 

300 000

5 800

1,9

3 900

1,3

 

400 000

6 600

1,7

4 400

1,1

 

500 000

7 200

1,4

4 800

1,0

 

1 000 000

9 100

0,9

6 100

0,6

 

1 700 000

9 600

0,6

6 400

0,4

 

2 000 000

9 100

0,5

6 100

0,3

 

Revision

Not relevant