Norwegian subsidiaries abroad
Updated: February 18, 2021
Next update: Not yet determined
About the statistics
The statistics give an overview of Norwegian subsidiaries abroad, which are controlled, either directly or indirectly, with more than 50 per cent. The variables included are number of enterprises, employment and turnover, broken down by industry and country.
Norwegian subsidiaries abroad
A Norwegian subsidiary abroad is defined as an enterprise that is controlled by an enterprise or other economic unit in Norway through an ownership share of more than 50 per cent.
According to Standard Industrial Classification (SIC2007), an enterprise is defined as the smallest combination of legal entity that produces goods or services. In the/this statistic, a legal entity is an enterprise. Legal entities are limited liability companies, partnerships and sole enterprises. Only economically active enterprises, with turnover and/or employment, are included in the population.
Employment is defined as the sum of the owners and wage-earners working in the enterprise. Persons with more than one job, may be counted as employed in several industries. Employment numbers show the average number employed during the year.
Turnover is defined as the enterprise's operating revenues minus public subsidies and profit from the sale of fixed assets. Taxes and duties are included, but VAT is not.
Ultimate investor country
The ultimate investor country is the country where the "last" economic agent in the chain of control resides.
Name: Norwegian subsidiaries abroad
Topic: External economy
Division for Financial Accounts
National level. Ownership abroad is divided into countries and country groups.
The statistic is published annually, within 20 months after the reference year.
Raw data and revised microdata are stored according to Statistics Norway's standard for archiving files (Datadok). Microdata are stored for the same periods as the published data on the Statistics Norway's website. Statistics' rules for disclosure of data are applicable for research purposes.
The purpose is to provide a total overview of the Norwegian subsidiaries’ economic activity abroad, i.e. foreign affiliates abroad. The statistics are internationally known as Foreign Affiliates Statistics. A simplified name is outward FATS.
In Norway, data for outward FATS was collected for the first time in 2008.
Figures for the Norwegian subsidiaries’ activities abroad are used in economic research to measure the degree of globalization, and in international trade negotiations. Users are authorities, businesses, embassies, the media and educational and research institutions, among others. There is also extensive international reporting on data for foreign affiliates abroad, particularly to Eurostat and OECD.
No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.
With regard to ownership abroad, the statistics on Norwegian direct investment abroad (FDI) are related to the outward FATS statistics. The holdings of FDI describe claims of payments in the form of Norwegian-owned capital and other capital tied to direct investment. However, the direct investment statistics say little about how Norwegian ownership interests abroad affect other aspects of the economies where the investment takes place. The FATS statistics are useful in being able to describe this effect, and are a natural continuation of Statistics Norway's existing statistics on globalisation.
Statistics on foreign subsidiaries in Norway (inward FATS) show equivalent relations where foreigners control Norwegian enterprises. The statistics follow the same international requirements as outward FATS.
Statistics Norway's data collection from the reporters is based on the Statistics Act § 10.
European Parliament and Council Regulation (EEC) No 716/2007 of 20 June 2007 concerning Community statistics on the structure and activity of foreign-controlled enterprises (FATS-Regulation). The statistics are prepared in line with recommendations from Eurostat, embodied in the "Recommendations manual on the production of Foreign Affiliates Statistics"(Doc. Eurostat/C4/FATS/LO/SEP06/5 (2006)).
The statistics cover, in principle, all Norwegian subsidiaries abroad, i.e. subsidiaries in foreign countries that are controlled either directly or indirectly by an enterprise in Norway. See section definitions for a closer definition of "Norwegian subsidiaries abroad". Only economically active enterprises are included in the population. The statistics include all Norwegian-controlled institutional sectors. Non-financial corporations are, in this context, the most important sector.
The statistics are based on a cut-off sampling survey. The sampling survey covers the largest Norwegian enterprises with activity abroad. In addition, a sample of smaller enterprises is drawn. The size of the sampling survey has increased since the first year (2008), but all the largest enterprises have been included the whole time.
The statistics are based on Statistics Norway's own collection of reports on investment abroad, which is a joint collection with Norwegian direct investment abroad (outward FDI). The reports provide information about the foreign enterprises, including what the Norwegian enterprise owns, accounting information on investment and revenue, and information on turnover and employment. In addition, information is used from the annual report submitted to the Register of Company Accounts in Brønnøysund, information from the media, Internet etc. to map the changes in investment abroad. The sources are also used to map the ultimate owner country (the country where the enterprise in the ownership chain that is not controlled by another enterprise is located).
Statistics on the activity of Norwegian subsidiaries abroad are based on Statistics Norway's collection of information on investment abroad. To ensure a high degree of relevance, emphasis is placed on covering large units in the population as measured by reported size. This limits the number of units and minimizes data collection COSTs.
The data collected is to a large extent compared to information with figures for the previous year and the annual accounts submitted to the Register of Company Accounts in Brønnøysund.
With regard to the Norwegian subsidiaries that are included in the survey, ownership is checked by reviewing the data with information from annual accounts and the enterprises' websites etc. on the enterprises' ultimate country of ownership. Only enterprises with Norway as ultimate owner country (Norwegian-controlled enterprises) are included in this statistic.
No methods have been established yet to inflate the number of enterprises, turnover and employment abroad to population level.
Figures are not published if fewer than three enterprises are the basis for a cell in the table. Having less than three enterprises creates the risk of identification. This also applies to more than three enterprises if one respondent is so dominating that, in practice, it can be identified.
The size of the sampling survey has increased since the first year (2008), but all the largest enterprises have been included the whole time.v
The quality of the statistics is related to the quality of the register of enterprises for data collection. It is also related to the quality of data reported. Respondents can sometimes make errors when completing forms, and Statistics Norway's processing of the data during registration can lead to errors. Errors in this connection can include using the wrong scale, e.g. NOK instead of NOK 1 000, as well as incorrect evaluations.
It is difficult to capture all relevant units at the end of each reporting period.
Statistics on Norwegian subsidiaries abroad are based on Statistics Norway's own data collection. A fine is imposed on non-reporting units in accordance with the Statistics Act. An entity may fail to uphold the reporting requirement, but all the important entities are included in the statistics.
There are currently no calculations to measure the sampling error for the survey. The sampling error is the difference between the sample’s reported numbers and the numbers that would exist if the whole population was surveyed. To reduce this problem, we try to make sure that the largest enterprises are included in the sample.