Natural and semi-natural areas in Norway provide biodiversity and carbon sequestration, and a range of other valuable market and non-market ecosystem goods and services (EG&S). However, trade-offs between biodiversity, climate and other EG&S concerns have become more pronounced due to increasing competition between land uses, within and across sectors. Therefore, enhanced knowledge for weighing different consideration and finding solutions that can deliver better societal outcomes is urgently needed.

This project aims to address this knowledge gap through a broad, cross sectoral and interdisciplinary approach, coupling social science (economics and sociology) with natural sciences (climatology, biology, landscape ecology, GIS). Thematically we focus on climate and biodiversity concerns in land-based wind power, forestry, and recreational cabin development. We utilise available research and data on impacts of land use on biodiversity and net greenhouse gas emissions to derive indicators and scenarios for change in these and a broader set of EG&S. This forms the basis for an ambitious and innovative investigation into methods and applications to reliably assess and value welfare impacts of changes in key EG&S from land use.

Results are integrated and trade-offs and synergies analysed by use of map-based tools and cost-benefit analysis. This analysis in combination with research on acceptability of potential policy solutions among the public and the private sector, forms the basis for recommending policy instruments that stimulate innovative land use solutions that are scalable and may be implemented rapidly.

Statistics Norway, Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Norwegian University of Life Sciences and Menon carries out the project in close cooperation with key collaborators from government, private and NGO sectors, with guidance from a scientific advisory board.

Project manager: Kristine M. Grimsrud


  • Cathrine Hagem, SSB
  • Anders Barstad, SSB
  • Henrik Lindhjem, MERE
  • Kristin Magnussen, MERE
  • Annegrete Bruvoll, MERE
  • Graciela Rusch, NINA
  • Alexander Venter, NINA
  • Marianne Evju, NINA
  • Jarle Bjerke, NINA
  • Ståle Navrud, NMBU
  • Anders Dugstad. NMBU
  • Research department, Statistics Norway (SSB)
  • Menon Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (MERE)
  • Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA)
  • Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU)

Funder: Norwegian research council (project number 319917)

Period: 2021-2025