Production and consumption of energy, energy balance and energy account

Updated: 14 June 2023

Modified: 15 Sep 2023, 08:40

Next update: 14 June 2024

Change in total energy consumption (excluding non-energy use)
Change in total energy consumption (excluding non-energy use)
1990 - 2022
17.9
%
Supply and use of energy in Norway, Energy balance. Main figures.
Supply and use of energy in Norway, Energy balance. Main figures.
TWhChange in percent
20222021 - 20221990 - 2022
Production1 2 5101.082.3
Imports1356.072.5
Exports2 3352.096.5
Consumption2 218-3.817.9
Manufacturing and mining76-3.53.1
Transport563.641.0
Households45-9.910.6
Other3 42-6.632.9
1Production of primary energy products such as crude oil, natural gas, hydropower etc.
2Final energy consumption
3Commerce and public services, agriculture and fishing
Explanation of symbols

Selected tables and charts from this statistics

  • Supply and use of energy in Norway, Energy balance. TWh
    Supply and use of energy in Norway, Energy balance. TWh
    All energy productsChange i percent
    202120222021 - 2022
    1 Primary energy production2 4872 5101.0
    2 Imports1271356.0
    3 Exports2 2902 3352.0
    4 International bunkers6956.4
    5 Stock changes10-5-149.2
    6 Total energy supply (1+2-3-4+5)328296-9.8
    7 Transformation processes0-1-376.9
    8 Energy industries own use6766-1.7
    9 Distribution losses98-3.7
    10 Final consumption (11+12)253241-5.0
    11 Non energy consumption2723-15.0
    12 Final energy consumption227218-3.8
    12.1 Manufacturing, const.and non-fuel mining industries7876-3.5
    12.2 Transport54563.6
    12.3 Other9487-8.3
    13 Statistical difference (6+7-8-9-10)0-20-15 403.1
    Explanation of symbols
  • Supply and use of energy in Norway by energy product, Energy balance. TWh
    Supply and use of energy in Norway by energy product, Energy balance. TWh
    2022
    Coal and coal productsNatural gasOil and oil products (excl. bio)BiofuelsWasteElectricityDistrict heating
    1 Primary energy production0.91 269.91 075.015.05.4144.30.0
    2 Imports9.40.7106.15.50.013.30.0
    3 Exports0.71 223.71 083.61.40.025.80.0
    4 International bunkers0.00.48.70.00.00.00.0
    5 Stock changes-0.30.1-4.80.00.00.00.0
    6 Total energy supply (1+2-3-4+5)9.446.484.019.25.4131.80.0
    7 Transformation processes-0.9-2.00.3-3.4-3.91.77.3
    8 Energy industries own use0.044.39.70.00.011.80.2
    9 Distribution losses0.00.10.50.10.06.70.8
    10 Final consumption (11+12)8.58.485.315.71.5115.16.3
    11 Non energy consumption0.54.018.00.00.00.00.0
    12 Final energy consumption8.04.467.315.71.5115.16.3
    12.1 Manufacturing, const.and non-fuel mining industries8.03.110.54.31.347.80.8
    12.2 Transport0.01.247.44.40.02.90.0
    12.3 Other0.00.29.47.00.264.45.5
    13 Statistical difference (6+7-8-9-10)0.0-8.4-11.30.00.0-0.10.0
    Explanation of symbols
  • Supply and use of energy products in Norway, Energy product balance
    Supply and use of energy products in Norway, Energy product balance
    2022
    Coal and coal products (ktonn)Natural gas (MSm³)Gasoline and road diesel (excl. bio.) (ktonn)Oil and other oil products (ktonn)Biofuels (ktonn)Renewable waste (ktonn)Non-renewable waste (ktonn)Electricity (GWh)District heating (GWh)
    1 Total production666128 0525 23095 1953 029819680146 7317 277
    2 Imports1 204682 5066 4646710013 2710
    3 Exports84123 7444 82785 9432040025 7920
    4 International bunkers045072700000
    5 Stock changes-361061-46300000
    6 Total energy supply (1+2-3-4+5)1 7494 3412 97114 5243 495819680134 2107 277
    7 Transformation input403205010 4276797414947760
    8 Energy industries own use04 119085700011 780150
    9 Distribution losses12140369006 658793
    10 Final consumption (11+12)1 3278522 1604 3432 80778185115 0566 335
    11 Non energy consumption6540501 58200000
    12 Final energy consumption1 2624472 1602 7612 80778185115 0566 335
    12.1 Manufacturing, const.and non-fuel mining industries1 26230908008927817247 759819
    12.2 Transport01172 7141 183439002 9140
    12.3 Other02207781 47601464 3825 516
    12.3.1 Agriculture and forestry0301340002 0619
    12.3.2 Fishing0502760002290
    12.3.3 Commerce and public services01203655601425 7453 854
    12.3.4 Households01041 4200036 3481 652
    13 Statistical difference (6-7-8-9-10)6-850202-1 139100-600
    Memo01: Gas flared off on oil fields and terminals02670000000
    Memo02: Venting of natural gas on oil fields051000000
    Explanation of symbols
  • Energy consumption in households, inclusive holiday cottages, in Norway. GWh, kWh
    Energy consumption in households, inclusive holiday cottages, in Norway. GWh, kWh1
    20182019202020212022
    Total energy consumption for dwelling- and transport purposes (GWh)2 67 47865 32365 59268 49863 318
    Dwelling purposes
    Total energy consumption in dwellings and holiday cottages (GWh)3 48 07646 88747 03149 61144 712
    Electricity in dwellings, excl. charging of electric cars (GWh)37 98837 62437 41738 75934 030
    Electricity in holiday cottages (GWh)4 2 4172 3842 4672 8192 318
    Coal and coke (GWh).....
    Light heating oil and special distillate (GWh)42110521.
    Heating kerosene (GWh)11210...
    LPG, heavy fuel oil (GWh)4538344345
    Fuelwood and wood pellets in dwellings (GWh)4 4173 9904 1774 9865 263
    Fuelwood in holiday cottages (GWh)5 1 2301 1701 4501 2701 390
    Natural gas (GWh)3718181814
    District heating (GWh)1 4081 5481 4671 7161 652
    Transport purposes
    Total energy consumption in private cars and leisure boats (GWh)6 19 40218 43618 56118 88718 606
    Electricity for private cars, charged at home (GWh)7 4706337911 1001 433
    Liquid petroleum gases (LPG) used in private cars (GWh)8 2222222222
    Gasoline (excl. bio) for private cars (GWh)7 4806 9037 0666 5626 521
    Road diesel (excl. bio) for private cars (GWh)9 4138 4758 5139 0208 763
    Biofuels for private cars and leisure boats (GWh)1 6932 0881 8621 8871 642
    Dyed diesel (excl. bio) for leisure boats (GWh)324315306296224
    Population and number og households
    Population per 1. January5 295 6195 328 2125 367 5805 391 3695 425 270
    Number of households, per 1. January9 2 409 2572 439 2422 475 1682 512 3172 545 902
    Calculations
    Total energy consumption in dwellings and cottages per household (kWh)10 20 15019 48119 32120 18518 125
    Electricity consumption in dwellings and cottages per household (kWh)10 16 96616 66116 43316 98714 840
    Consumption of energy in dwellings and cottages, per person (kWh)9 1678 9188 9099 4068 506
    Consumption of electricity in dwellings and cottages, per person (kWh)7 7197 6277 5787 9166 964
    Total energy consumtion, per person (kWh)12 74212 26012 22012 70511 671
    The share of electricity in dwellings and holiday houses (per cent)84.285.585.184.281.9
    1In the energy balance, only energy used for dwelling and holiday cottages is included in the "Households" sector, while "Households" in the energy account also includes fuel used for private cars and leisure boats. This table includes energy consumption figures from both of these tables.
    2Total energy consumption for dwelling- and transport purposes corresponds to the figures for energy use in households in the energy accounts, table 11558.
    3"Total energy consumption in dwellings and holiday cottages" corresponds to figures for households in the energy balance, Statbank table 11561.
    4Electricity in holiday cottages is retrieved from StatBank table 08311
    5Fuelwood in holiday cottages is retrieved from StatBank table 13276 and 09704
    6Total energy consumption in private cars and leisure boats applies to total fuel used by households in Norway, except from electricity used for charging cars outside the home. It is assumed that around 25 per cent of the charging takes place outside the home.
    7"Electricity for private cars, charged at home" includes electricity for both electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars. This number corresponds to the difference between electricity consumption in households in the energy balance and the energy accounts.
    8Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) used in private cars corresponds to the difference in LPG consumption in households in the energy accounts and the energy balance
    9The number of households is retrieved from the Population and Housing Censuses and interpolated for intervening years, up to 2005. From 2005 the source is annual register-based household statistics, measured per 1.January
    10In calculations of energy- and electricity consumption per household and per person, electricity used to charge electric cars at home is included.
    Explanation of symbols

About the statistics

The energy balance shows total production, transformation and use of all energy products within Norwegian territory. It shows the production and use of different energy products for different purposes, and whether the energy products are extracted from renewable or non-renewable sources. The energy account shows all energy products produced and used by industries in the Norwegian economy, including abroad. Also included are figures for energy intensity and figures from decomposition analyzes of changes in energy consumption. The national accounts definitions are followed.

The information under «About the statistics» was last updated 17 August 2023.

Energy balance posts

Energy products - All products used for the production, conversion and use of energy in the economy (including households). Energy products are used for energy purposes and non-energy purposes (eg natural gas as raw material in the production of chemical raw materials and lubricants). Exceptions are renewable products such as biomass and waste not used for energy purposes.

Primary energy products - products extracted directly from natural resources such as crude oil, natural gas and coal.

Secondary energy products - products that are produced by transformation of other energy fuels or energy, such as petrol produced from crude oil.

Primary production is the capture or extraction of fuels or energy from natural energy flows, the biosphere and natural reserves of fossil fuels within the national territory in a form suitable for use. This applies, for example, to coal, wood, crude oil and natural gas.

Production of secondary energy products - production of energy products with product input of other energy products, either primary or secondary. These are, for example, petroleum products that are produced from crude oil in the oil refineries or district heating produced by the incineration of waste.

Imports of energy products comprise all fuel and other energy products entering the national territory.

Exports of energy products comprise all fuel and other energy products leaving the national territory.

Stock changes - the increase (stock build) or decrease (stock draw) in the quantity of stocks over the reporting period and thus are calculated as a difference between the closing and opening stocks. Calculated as the difference between inventory at the end of the year for two periods (+ = decrease, - = increase).

Bunkers – a term in energy balance that includes amounts of fuel delivered to international ships and aviation regardless of nationality for consumption during international voyages transporting goods or passengers.

Transformation is the process where the movement of part or all of the energy content of an energy product entering a process to one or more different energy products leaving the process (e.g., coking coal to coke, crude oil to petroleum products, and heavy fuel oil to electricity).

Energy sector - mainly industries that use fuels and energy for the direct support of the production, and preparation for use, of fuels and energy, except heat not sold. In EB, this includes crude oil and natural gas extraction, coal extraction, as well as consumption in oil refineries, hydropower plants, thermal power plants, combined heat and power plants and district heating plants.

Own consumption in the energy producing sector - a term in energy balance that includes all consumption of energy products in the energy producing sector, excluding transformation input (energy products used in transformation processes for other energy products).

Final consumption - all domestic energy consumption excluding consumption in the energy producing sector.

Final consumption for energy use - Energy products used for production, light, heating, transport and as a reducing agent in industry.

Reduction agent - some coal, coke and charcoal are used as a reduction agent in the production of metals and chemical raw materials. This consumption is considered as part of energy products used for energy purposes in EB.

Non-energy use - energy products used as a product input in the production of goods. This mainly involves the efforts of petroleum products in the production of chemical raw materials, natural gas used in methanol production and petrol coke used in the production of, for example, coal electrodes.

Transport - in EB, this item includes energy products used for the transport of goods or persons within Norwegian territory irrespective of the industry in which the transport occurs. This post includes the categories road transport, rail transport, air transport, coastal transport and other transport.

Statistical error - the difference between the total energy supply and final energy consumption.

Energy account posts

Energy carriers

Sources of energy are called energy bearers. The units used to measure energy bearers are consistent with those normally used in the primary statistics. Coal, coke, crude oil and petroleum products are measured in tonnes, natural gas in standard cubic metres (Sm3), fuel wood, black liquor and waste and other gases in tonnes of oil equivalents (toe) and electric power and district heating in GWh. The energy bearers included in the energy statistics are specified below:

Coal: Anthracite, hard coal and brown coal

Coke: Coal, coke and blast furnace gas

Biofuel: Fuel wood, pellets, briquettes, wood waste, wood chippings, sawdust, shavings, bark, black liquor, biodiesels, bioethanol and charcoal

Garbage/waste: Different types of garbage/waste

Crude oil: Crude oil

Petrol: Naphtha, auto petrol, extraction petrol and aviation fuel

Kerosene: Kerosene type jet fuel, heating kerosene and other kerosene

Middle distillates: Auto diesel, marine gas oil, light heating oils and heavy distillate

Heavy oil: Heavy fuel oils

Waste oil: Waste oil, paint and varnish

Liquefied gases: LPG (propane and butane) and NGL (propane, butane and ethane)

Natural gas: Natural gas in gaseous form and LNG (liquefied natural gas)

Other gases: Refinery gas, fuel gas, methane and CO gas

Electricity: Priority and non-priority power

District heating: Hot water and steam distributed via a district-heating network

Energy content, density and fuel efficiency

Fuel efficiency

Energy commodity

Theoretical energy content

Density

Manufacturing and mining

Transport

Other consumption

Coal

28,1 GJ/tonne

..

0,80

0,10

0,60

Coal coke

28,5 GJ/tonne

..

0,80

-

0,60

Petrol coke

35,0 GJ/tonne

..

0,80

-

-

Crude oil

42,3 GJ/tonne = 36,0 GJ/m 3

0,85 tonne/m 3

..

..

..

Refinery gas

48,6 GJ/tonne

..

0,95

..

0,95

Natural gas (2015) 2

35,31 GJ/1000 Sm 3

0,85 kg/Sm 3

0,95

..

0,95

Liquefied propane and butane (LPG)

46,1 GJ/tonne = 24,4 GJ/m 3

0,53 tonne/m 3

0,95

..

0,95

Fuel gas

50,0 GJ/tonne

..

..

..

..

Petrol

43,9 GJ/tonne = 32,5 GJ/m 3

0,74 tonne/m 3

0,20

0,20

0,20

Kerosene

43,1 GJ/tonne = 34,9 GJ/m 3

0,81 tonne/m 3

0,80

0,30

0,75

Diesel oil, gas oil and light fuel oil

43,1 GJ/tonne = 36,2 GJ/m 3

0,84 tonne/m 3

0,80

0,30

0,80

Heavy distillate

43,1 GJ/tonne = 37,9 GJ/m 3

0,88 tonne/m 3

0,80

0,30

0,70

Heavy fuel oil

40,6 GJ/tonne = 39,8 GJ/m 3

0,98 tonne/m 3

0,90

0,30

0,75

Methane/landfillgas

50,2 GJ/tonn

..

..

..

..

Ved

16,8 GJ/tonne = 8,4 GJ/fast m 3

0,5 tonne/fm 3

0,65

-

0,65

Wood waste (dry matter)

16,25-18 GJ/tonne = 6,5-7,2 GJ/fm 3

0,4 tonne/fm 3

..

..

..

Garbage/waste

10,5 GJ/tonne

..

..

..

..

Electricity

3,6 GJ/MWh

..

1,00

1,00

1,00

Uranium

430-688 TJ/tonne

..

..

..

..

1 The theoretical energy content of a particular energy commodity may vary. The figures therefore indicate mean values.

2 Sm 3 = standard cubic metre (15 °C og 1 atmospheric pressure). Net Calorific Value (NCV).

Source: Energy statistics, Statistic Norway, Norwegian Petroleum Industry Association (NP), Norwegian Association of Energy Users and Suppliers, Norwegian Building Research Institute.

Energy units

PJ

TWh

Mtoe

Mbarrels

MSm 3 o.e. oil

MSm 3 o.e. gas

quad

1 PJ

1

0,278

0,024

0,18

0,028

0,025

0,00095

1 TWh

3,6

1

0,085

0,64

0,100

0,090

0,0034

1 Mtoe

42,3

11,75

1

7,49

1,18

1,055

0,040

1 Mbarrels

5,65

1,57

0,13

1

0,16

0,141

0,0054

1 MSm 3 o.e.olje

36,0

10,0

0,9

6,4

1

0,90

0,034

1 MSm 3 o.e. gas

39,9

11,1

0,9

7,1

1,11

1

0,038

quad

1053

292,5

24,9

186,4

29,29

26,33

1

1 Mtoe = 1 million tonnes (crude) oil equivalents
1 Mbarrels = 1 million barrels crude oil (1 barrel = 0.159 m3)
1 MSm3 o.e. oil = 1 million Sm3 oil
1 MSm3 o.e. gas = 1 billion Sm3 natural gas
1 quad = 1015 Btu (British thermal units)
1 joule (J) = 1 watt x 1 second
Source: Energy statistics, Statistics Norway and Norwegian Petroleum Directorate.

Commonly used prefixes

Name

Symbol

Factor

Kilo

k

10 3

Mega

M

10 6

Giga

G

10 9

Tera

T

10 12

Peta

P

10 15

Exa

E

10 18

Production
In the energy sources balance sheet/energy balance sheet, energy production is divided into primary and derived energy bearers. Primary energy bearers include those that are produced without the input of other energy bearing raw materials. The primary energy bearers are coal, fuel wood, crude oil, naphtha, NGL and natural gas. The production of derived energy bearers includes the production of energy bearers in which other energy bearers are used as input, for example, petroleum products manufactured from crude oil in oil refineries or district heating produced through the combustion of waste.

Electricity is treated as primary production in the energy accounts and as derived production in the energy sources balance sheet. The opposite is true of fuel wood. The production of derived energy bearers outside the conversion sectors, for example the production of fuel wood and fuel gas is included in the energy accounts under "other supply". The energy accounts define the sectors that produce primary energy bearers as "extraction sectors" and those that produce derived energy bearers as "conversion sectors". Together, the extraction and conversion sectors are referred to as "energy sectors". The extraction sectors include coal mining and the production of crude oil, natural gas and hydroelectric power. The conversion sectors include oil refineries, thermal power stations, district heating plants and dual-purpose power stations.

Input of intermediate goods

In the energy sources balance sheet, energy converted (item 8) represents the volume of energy bearers used as input in the production of derived energy bearers. This item includes inter alia the crude oil that goes to the refineries. The energy sector consumption not used to produce other energy bearers, but used for heating, etc, is entered under consumption by the energy sectors (item 9). In the energy accounts, all input, including input to conversion and input to heating, are entered under "energy sector inputs".

Raw materials
The term "raw material" refers to energy bearers that are not used for energy. This mainly comprises input of petroleum products used to manufacture chemical raw materials. For coal and coke, it is difficult to distinguish between raw material consumption and energy consumption. Accordingly, both the energy accounts and the energy sources balance sheet consider all industrial consumption of coal and coke as energy consumption. Raw material consumption of other energy bearers are separated in the energy sources balance sheet (item 10), but distributed by industry and fuel consumption in the energy accounts.

Consumption outside energy sectors
The consumption outside the energy sectors, net domestic consumption in the energy sources balance sheet (item 13), of coal, fuel wood, electricity and district heating is the same in both systems. There is a deviation in the consumption of LPG because the consumption of raw materials is included in the energy accounts. The consumption of gasoline, kerosene, middle distillates and heavy oil deviates because of different ways of treating international shipping, aviation and raw materials. The consumption of coal for the production of CO gas is included in energy converted in the energy sources balance sheet, while it is included in consumption outside the energy sectors in the energy accounts.

Transportation
The energy sources balance sheet has a separate item for energy consumed for transportation purposes (item 15). This means that the transport sector/item includes not only energy consumed by transport companies, but also consumption for transport purposes in other enterprises, including industries and households. The energy accounts place the consumption of all energy under the relevant consumer sector, regardless of whether the consumption refers to transportation, heating or processing. This leads to different ways of recording the transport oil, gasoline, kerosene type jet fuel, auto diesel, marine gas oil and heavy fuel oil. Aviation is treated differently in the two systems, as Norwegian transport companies' acquisitions abroad are included and purchases by foreign transport companies in Norway are deducted from the energy accounts. Military consumption of kerosene type jet fuel is entered under public administration, not under aviation.

International shipping
Regardless of a vessel's nationality, energy bearers supplied by Norwegian ports to vessels in international shipping are categorised as bunkering in the energy sources balance sheet and not included in the total consumption (item 4). International shipping is considered a separate transport sector in the energy accounts, so consumption is recorded under the item "consumption outside the energy sectors". The energy accounts also include Norwegian vessels' consumption of energy abroad. International shipping both buys and uses most of its fuel abroad. Correspondingly, the energy sources that foreign vessels buy directly in Norway are deducted.

Common energy unit for the energy accounts and the energy sources balance sheet
Both the energy accounts and the energy sources balance sheet are presented in two different types of units: in physical units (tonnes, GWh etc) and in a common energy unit, petajoule (PJ). Presented in PJ, the energy sources balance sheet is referred to as the energy balance sheet. The figures in PJ are calculated on basis of the figures measured in physical units, using factors for the theoretical energy content for each commodity. From 2006, some new tables are published, with all commodities presented in GWh.

The layout of the energy balance sheet differs from the layout of the energy sources balance sheet on several points: In the energy balance sheet, there is a column showing the total for all the energy commodities. There is also a column for waterfall energy, showing the primary stage for electricity produced by the hydroelectric power plants.

Item 1.2. "Production of derived energy bearers" has been moved to avoid double entries in the total column on the supply side.

Item 7. "Net domestic supply" shows the consumption of energy before the transformation processes begin. This level of measurement includes the production of primary energy bearers adjusted for imports, exports/bunkering and changes in stock. For example, crude oil is included in this calculation. To avoid double entries, the consumption of individual petroleum products derived from crude oil has not been included.

Item 13. "Net domestic consumption" shows the theoretical energy content of bearers delivered for end use - the energy supply. Thus the values at this level of measurement have a degree of efficiency utilisation of 100 per cent for all energy bearers on end consumption. Of course, in practice, this would be impossible. The loss of efficiency that occurs when the energy bearers are used to produce heat, run motors, etc is not taken into account. Take a furnace, for example: Some of the theoretical energy content will not reach the consumer as heat, because a furnace is not 100 per cent efficient. Chapter 6 in NOS Energy Statistics 2000 (see link below) contains a table showing the consumption of utilised energy. The consumption is calculated on the basis of figures from the energy balance, and the estimated thermal efficiency coefficient of different energy sources (see separate table).

In international statistics, the expression "Total primary energy supply" (TPES) is used. TPES = Total primary production + imports - exports - bunkering - changes in stocks.

The structure of the energy accounts in PJ differs only slightly from the energy accounts expressed in physical units.

Coal: Anthracite, hard coal and brown coal

Coke: Coal coke and petrol coke

Biofuel: Fuel wood, pellets, briquettes, wood waste, wood chippings, sawdust, shavings, bark, black liquor, biodiesels, bioethanol and charcoal

Garbage/waste: Different types of garbage/waste
Crude oil: Crude oil
Petrol: Naphtha, auto petrol, extraction petrol and aviation fuel
Kerosene: Kerosene type jet fuel, heating kerosene and other kerosene
Middle distillates: Auto diesel, marine gas oil, light heating oils and heavy distillate
Heavy oil: Heavy fuel oils
Waste oil: Waste oil, paint and varnish
Liquefied gases: LPG (propane and butane) and NGL (propane, butane and ethane)
Natural gas: Natural gas in gaseous form and LNG (liquefied natural gas)
Other gases: Refinery gas, fuel gas, methane and CO gas
Electricity: Priority and non-priority power
District heating: Hot water and steam distributed via a district-heating netwo

Classification of energy balance posts

Classification of energy accounts

Classification of energy product balance

Classification of energy products

The statistics classification of energy products and balance posts is in line with the International Standard for Energy Products (SIEC) and the UN's guidelines for comprising energy balances IRES (International Recommendations for Energy Statistics).

The industrial classification used is an aggregated and somewhat modified version of the EU standard NACE. The figures are even more aggregated in the published tables. In 2009, from and including the reference year 2008, the industry classification in the energy accounts / balances was changed according to the new NACE standard SN2007.

Name: Production and consumption of energy, energy balance and energy account
Topic: Energy and manufacturing

14 June 2024

Division for Energy, Environmental and Transport Statistics

Only national figures are published. However, consumption of electricity by municipality and county is published in the annual electricity statistics:

https://www.ssb.no/en/energi-og-industri/statistikker/elektrisitet/aar

The energy balance and energy accounts are published in June with data for the year T-1. The published time series are continuous from 1990.

Statistics Norway reports figures from the statistics to the following international organisations:

  • The statistical office of the European union (Eurostat)
  • IEA

The figures are also used in reportering to the OECD and the UN.

Collected and revised data are stored securely by Statistics Norway in compliance with applicable legislation on data processing.

Statistics Norway can grant access to the source data (de-identified or anonymised microdata) on which the statistics are based, for researchers and public authorities for the purposes of preparing statistical results and analyses. Access can be granted upon application and subject to conditions. Refer to the details about this at Access to data from Statistics Norway

The energy account and energy balance (EA/EB) show supply and consumption of energy products in Norway by different layouts and principles. In the EA/EB production system activity data for production, consumption, imports, exports, losses and stocks are compiled , and the results are published on ssb.no.

The purpose of the statistics:

- increase the relevance of energy statistics by producing comprehensive information on energy production and consumption in Norway, as well as import and export of energy;

- ensure comparability between different years and different countries;

- provide the opportunity to calculate relative contributions of different energy products or sectors to the country's totals;

- provide a basis for calculating CO2 emissions;

- provide a basis for calculating indicators (for example, energy intensities);

The statistics have been published annually since 1976. In 1993, Statistics Norway introduced a new industrial standard, based on the EU standard NACE. The energy accounts and the energy sources balance sheet use an aggregated and somewhat modified version of this. It is somewhat more aggregated, partly due to that information about energy consumption not is available for all the NACE sectors. The nomenclature in the energy account /balances was adapted to the nomenclature in the national accounts (for 1995), but there are some discrepancies, partly because the nomenclature in the national accounts has changed since then. For the years 1990-92 the energy accounts and the energy sources balance sheet have adapted the old industrial codes to this new classification. In a revision of the sector classification of the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises, some enterprises were reclassified and placed in other sectors from 1993. This means that the figures for energy consumption in some sectors are not fully comparable for the years prior to and after 1993. Prior to 1990, various sources were to some extent used in the energy accounts and the energy sources balance sheet. From 1990, however, the data are consistent. The only differences between the energy accounts and the energy sources balance sheet now are the principles and definitions.

The statistics are used by public and private institutions that work with different types of energy questions and analyses. Internally in Statistics Norway, the Division for Energy and Environmental Statistics, the Research Department and the Division for National Accounts are important users. Schools, the media and various organizations are other users of the statistics. The statistics form the basis for international reporting to the International Energy Agency (IEA), OECD and Eurostat (including recipients of Physical Energy Flow Acocounts - PEFA).

No external users have access to statistics before they are released at 8 a.m. on ssb.no after at least three months´ advance notice in the release calender. This is one of the most important principles in Statistics Norway for ensuring the equal treatment of users

Sales of petroleum products

The statistics on the sale of petroleum products is the data source that sets the framework for consumption of petroleum products in energy balance (EB). The statistics are based on annual reports from oil companies and import data from foreign trade statistics in Statistics Norway. Statistics on industry’s energy use (https://www.ssb.no/energi-ogindustri/statistikker/indenergi) is the main data source for consumption in industry and the mining industry. District heating statistics (https://www.ssb.no/energi-ogindustri/statistikker/jernvarme) is the source of data for the production and consumption of district heating in EB. Annual and monthly electricity statistics (https://www.ssb.no/energy-andindustry/statistikker/elektrisitet) are data sources for production, consumption, import and export of electricity in EB.

Emissions to air

Emissions statistics is the most important user of EB in Statistics Norway, and emissions are calculated annually through international controls for consistency between consumption figures in EB And emissions.

National accounts

The National Accounts (NR) is another important user of EB in Statistics Norway. NR uses selected data to, among other things, distribute total energy costs as inputs in the production of different energy products, and to control the production value of different energy products.

Electricity statistics

The annual and monthly electricity statistics is the data source for production and consumption of electricity in the energy balance / accounts. When finally and preliminary energy account / balance for year t -1 and t-2 respectively, (year t is the publishing year) is prepared during the autumn, figures from the annual electricity statistics are used in the final figures while figures from monthly statistics are used in the preliminary figures. The annual electricity statistics is not published before about 15 months after the reference year, and is due to this not available for the preliminary energy balance for year t-1 in the autumn. Figures in the annual electricity statistics and the energy balance (final figures) should in principle be the same, but there are some exceptions. Production plants, or plants that generates electricity for their own use mainly, should be included in the annual electricity statistics, but it can take some time before they are included, and are sometimes not included for all years. In these cases, we have in the energy balance added their production and consumption to the other figures in the annual electricity statistics.

There are also some differences in the contents in certain concepts. The net consumption of electricity is defined different in the energy balance and the electricity statistics. In the annual electricity statistics, this is defined as total production + imports - exports - consumption in power stations - pump consumption - losses and statistical differences. In the energy balance, consumption in other energy producing industries, such as district heating plants, oil and gas extraction, oil refineries and coal extraction are also excluded from the net domestic consumption. This implies that the net domestic consumption of electricity in the energy balance becomes lower than in the annual electricity statistics.

Regarding electricity consumption by sector and industry, the annual electricity statistics is the main source in the energy balance. An exception is manufacturing industries, where figures from a separate survey on energy consumption in manufacturing industries are the source. Usually, this survey shows a higher consumption for manufacturing industries than the electricity statistics does. To calibrate total electricity consumption in the energy balance and the electricity statistics, we have to reduce the consumption in other sectors, usually the service sectors. For households, the sum of consumption in households and cottages/holiday houses from the annual electricity statistics is used directly as consumption in households in the energy balance.

Consistency between the energy balance and energy accounts

The statistics for energy balance and energy accounts are set up from almost the same data, but accordingto different principles and definitions. The energy balance shows total production, transformation and consumption of all energy products within Norwegian territory. The energy accounts includes energy products produced and used in industries in the Norwegian economy and Norwegian households. This is independent of where in the world it happens. Norwegian consumption abroad is included, while foreign consumption in Norway is excluded. This is called Norwegian economic territory and is the same delimitation that is used in the national accounts.

In the energy balance, all use of energy products for transport purposes is reported separately. The energy account includes consumption of all energy in the industry that has used it, regardless of whether consumption is for transportation, heating or processing purposes.

Energy use in aviation deviates in energy balance and energy accounts because the energy accounts includes Norwegian companies' purchases abroad, but not foreign companies' purchases in Norway, while the opposite is the case in the energy balance. The consumption of jet fuel in the army is not included in aviation in either energy account or balance but is placed under services /public administration.

Deliveries of energy products from Norwegian ports to ships in foreign maritime transport, irrespective of the nationality of the ship, are called bunkers in the energy balance and are excluded from total domestic consumption of energy. It is also placed on the supply side in the energy balance and is treated approximately as the export of energy. The same applies to energy used for aircraft in foreign voyages. In the energy accounts, foreign shipping is its own transport industry, and consumption is therefore included in transport. The energy account shall also include the energy consumption of Norwegian ships abroad.

The statistics are developed, produced and disseminated pursuant to Act no.32 of 21 June 2019 relating to official statistics and Statistics Norway (the Statistics Act.)

European Parliament and Council Regulation No. 1099/2008 of 22 October 2008 on energy statistics

European Parliament and Council Regulation No. 691/2011 of 6 July 2011 on environmental financial accounts.

The energy balance

The energy balance has territorial delimitation - the statistics cover only activity on Norwegian territory regardless of the user's nationality. The scope of statistics is defined by energy products shown in the energy balance columns, as well as balance sheet items describing the energy flow and appearing in rows in the energy balance.

The energy account

The energy account shows all energy products produced and used by industries in the Norwegian economy and Norwegian households, also abroad. Norwegian consumption abroad is included, while foreign consumption in Norway is excluded. This is called Norwegian economic territory and equals the delimitation of national accounts.

The sources are available basic statistics, partly from Statistics Norway's own statistics, partly from other institutions. Relatively few figures are collected only for the purpose of being used in the energy accounts and the energy sources balance sheet. Internal statistics that are used include statistics on energy use in the manufacturing sector (a separate survey from 1998), electricity statistics, statistics on delivery of petroleum products, refinery statistics, domestic use of natural gas statistics, district heating statistics, external trade statistics and the national accounts statistics. For some sectors, projections of figures from previous energy consumption surveys are used. Data from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate on the production of crude oil and natural gas are among the many external data that are used. The various statistics that are used as data sources do not always provide all the details needed in the energy accounts and balances, and therefore, some figures are based on estimates.

Production

The production figures for coal, petroleum products and refinery gas are taken from internal sources in Statistics Norway, while those for crude oil and natural gas are taken from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The production figure for fuel wood is calculated as the sum of consumption of fuel wood plus exports minus imports. The production figures for blast furnace gas and fuel gas are taken from two major Norwegian companies. The production figures for electricity are taken from Statistics Norway’s annual electricity statistics, while figures for district heating are taken from Statistics Norway's district heating statistics.

Imports, exports, stock changes, intermediate goods and losses
The import and export figures are extracted from Statistics Norway's external trade statistics. The changes in stock are mainly taken from Statistics Norway's statistics on stocks, which include stocks at refineries, crude oil terminals and oil fields. Changes in coal and coke stocks include changes in the stocks of Store Norske Spitsbergen Kulkompani and major consumers. The input of intermediate goods (input in energy producing industries) are based on figures from the monthly refinery statistics, figures from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, annual or monthly (for preliminary figures) electricity statistics, the district heating statistics and refinery statistics and the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. Figures on losses are derived from the annual electricity Statistics and the district heating statistics.

Coal, coke and energy used as raw materials
Coal and coke are mainly used as raw materials in manufacturing industries in Norway. The figures for industrial consumption of coal and coke are taken from a separate survey for the 40-50 largest enterprises in Norway. Figures for other energy sources used as raw materials, as LPG, is also collected in this survey. The sample cover the main users of coal and coke and other energy used as raw materials in Norway. The figures on agricultural and private household consumption of coal and coke are estimates based on information provided by Forenede Kulimportører A/S, Scancem A/S and Store Norske Spitsbergen Kulkompani A/S.

Manufacturing industries
Figures for energy consumption in manufacturing industries, except energy used as raw materials, are from 1998 taken from a separate statistics of energy use in the manufacturing sector. Prior to this, the source was manufacturing statistics, which also included figures for energy consumption.

Fuel wood in households

Statistics on use of wood in households is based on figures on the amount of wood burned from the annual survey on consumer expenditure for the years before 2005. For the years after 2005 the figures are based on responses to questions relating to wood-burning in Statistics Norway’s Travel and Holiday Survey. The survey quarterly gathers data that cover the preceding twelve months. The figure used in the emission calculations is the average of 3 to 5 quarterly surveys. More than 1 000 persons are interviewed by telephone every quarter. The response rate is around 60 per cent.

Theoretical energy content is calculated by multiplying the consumption of wood by the factor for energy content. (See table under Definitions.) Energy generated is calculated by multiplying the theoretical energy content by rates of energy efficiencies for different ovens technologies.

Energy efficiencies for different oven technologies. Per cent

Open fireplace

Enclosed stove, old technology

Enclosed stove, new technology

Energy efficiency

15

50

75

Petroleum products
The consumption figures for petroleum products are based on statistics on deliveries of petroleum products. The breakdown by industrial group comes from the statistics on energy use in the manufacturing sector. The Norwegian Environment Agency is the source for consumption of landfill gas, while the consumption of waste oil, paint and varnish etc is based on figures from NORSAS until 1999. From 2000, these data are included in the statistics on energy use in the manufacturing sector. For other industries, data are collected by the division for Energy and Environmental Statistics.

Electricity
The distribution of electricity consumption between the main groups is taken from annual electricity Statistics. The statistics are based on data submitted by all companies that produce and distribute electricity. Since this sector usually categorizes its own statistics on the basis of various types of tariffs, it is often difficult to accommodate data to the categorization used in the energy sources balance sheet. Industrial energy consumption figures are taken from the statistics on energy use in the manufacturing sector.

District heating
The distribution of district heating consumption between consumer groups is taken from the district heating statistics. To achieve a more detailed distribution, statistics from the Directorate of Public Construction and Property have been used.

Natural gas
The consumption of natural gas by industry outside the manufacturing industries is reported by the distributors of natural gas in Norway.

Statistical errors
Statistical errors represent deviations between the consumption and supply of energy bearers. In principle, the supply of energy (production + imports) should correspond to exports and consumption of energy. However, there are many reasons for deviations; erroneous registration, conversion from other units of measurement, the use of different statistical sources, etc. Statistical errors for crude oil and natural gas are sometimes very high. This could be due to inaccuracy in the figures for production or exports, or these figures might not be consistent. Even if the statistical errors are relatively low compared to total production, they can be high compared to the total domestic energy consumption.

Other sectors
Energy consumption in fish farms, distribution of water, IT activities and ocean transport are calculated on the basis of figures from the national accounts and prices from the electricity statistics, the Norwegian Petroleum Industry Association (NP) and Shell.

The energy accounts and the energy sources balance sheet cover the total supply and consumption of energy in Norway. The statistics that are used as sources are to a large extent statistics that cover the total population. The statistics on energy use in the manufacturing sector do not cover all enterprises, but the sample covers more than 90 per cent of the total energy consumption in the manufacturing industries. For other units, the energy consumption is estimated.

The energy balance

The energy balance has territorial delimitation - the statistics cover only activity on Norwegian territory regardless of the user's nationality. The scope of statistics is defined by energy products shown in the energy balance columns, as well as balance sheet items describing the energy flow and appearing in rows in the energy balance.

The energy account

The energy account shows all energy products produced and used by industries in the Norwegian economy and Norwegian households, also abroad. Norwegian consumption abroad is included, while foreign consumption in Norway is excluded. This is called Norwegian economic territory and equals the delimitation of national accounts.

Data sources and sampling

The sources are available basic statistics, partly from Statistics Norway's own statistics, partly from other institutions. Relatively few figures are collected only for the purpose of being used in the energy accounts and the energy sources balance sheet. Internal statistics that are used include statistics on energy use in the manufacturing sector (a separate survey from 1998), electricity statistics, statistics on delivery of petroleum products, refinery statistics, domestic use of natural gas statistics, district heating statistics, external trade statistics and the national accounts statistics. For some sectors, projections of figures from previous energy consumption surveys are used. Data from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate on the production of crude oil and natural gas are among the many external data that are used. The various statistics that are used as data sources do not always provide all the details needed in the energy accounts and balances, and therefore, some figures are based on estimates.

Production

The production figures for coal, petroleum products and refinery gas are taken from internal sources in Statistics Norway, while those for crude oil and natural gas are taken from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The production figure for fuel wood is calculated as the sum of consumption of fuel wood plus exports minus imports. The production figures for blast furnace gas and fuel gas are taken from two major Norwegian companies. The production figures for electricity are taken from Statistics Norway’s annual electricity statistics, while figures for district heating are taken from Statistics Norway's district heating statistics.

Imports, exports, stock changes, intermediate goods and losses
The import and export figures are extracted from Statistics Norway's external trade statistics. The changes in stock are mainly taken from Statistics Norway's statistics on stocks, which include stocks at refineries, crude oil terminals and oil fields. Changes in coal and coke stocks include changes in the stocks of Store Norske Spitsbergen Kulkompani and major consumers. The input of intermediate goods (input in energy producing industries) are based on figures from the monthly refinery statistics, figures from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, annual or monthly (for preliminary figures) electricity statistics, the district heating statistics and refinery statistics and the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. Figures on losses are derived from the annual electricity Statistics and the district heating statistics.

Coal, coke and energy used as raw materials
Coal and coke are mainly used as raw materials in manufacturing industries in Norway. The figures for industrial consumption of coal and coke are taken from a separate survey for the 40-50 largest enterprises in Norway. Figures for other energy sources used as raw materials, as LPG, is also collected in this survey. The sample cover the main users of coal and coke and other energy used as raw materials in Norway. The figures on agricultural and private household consumption of coal and coke are estimates based on information provided by Forenede Kulimportører A/S, Scancem A/S and Store Norske Spitsbergen Kulkompani A/S.

Manufacturing industries
Figures for energy consumption in manufacturing industries, except energy used as raw materials, are from 1998 taken from a separate statistics of energy use in the manufacturing sector. Prior to this, the source was manufacturing statistics, which also included figures for energy consumption.

Fuel wood in households

Statistics on use of wood in households is based on figures on the amount of wood burned from the annual survey on consumer expenditure for the years before 2005. For the years after 2005 the figures are based on responses to questions relating to wood-burning in Statistics Norway’s Travel and Holiday Survey. The survey quarterly gathers data that cover the preceding twelve months. The figure used in the emission calculations is the average of 3 to 5 quarterly surveys. More than 1 000 persons are interviewed by telephone every quarter. The response rate is around 60 per cent.

Theoretical energy content is calculated by multiplying the consumption of wood by the factor for energy content. (See table under Definitions.) Energy generated is calculated by multiplying the theoretical energy content by rates of energy efficiencies for different ovens technologies.

Energy efficiencies for different oven technologies. Per cent

Open fireplace

Enclosed stove, old technology

Enclosed stove, new technology

Energy efficiency

15

50

75

Petroleum products
The consumption figures for petroleum products are based on statistics on deliveries of petroleum products. The breakdown by industrial group comes from the statistics on energy use in the manufacturing sector. The Norwegian Environment Agency is the source for consumption of landfill gas, while the consumption of waste oil, paint and varnish etc is based on figures from NORSAS until 1999. From 2000, these data are included in the statistics on energy use in the manufacturing sector. For other industries, data are collected by the division for Energy and Environmental Statistics.

Electricity
The distribution of electricity consumption between the main groups is taken from annual electricity Statistics. The statistics are based on data submitted by all companies that produce and distribute electricity. Since this sector usually categorizes its own statistics on the basis of various types of tariffs, it is often difficult to accommodate data to the categorization used in the energy sources balance sheet. Industrial energy consumption figures are taken from the statistics on energy use in the manufacturing sector.

District heating
The distribution of district heating consumption between consumer groups is taken from the district heating statistics. To achieve a more detailed distribution, statistics from the Directorate of Public Construction and Property have been used.

Natural gas
The consumption of natural gas by industry outside the manufacturing industries is reported by the distributors of natural gas in Norway.

Statistical errors
Statistical errors represent deviations between the consumption and supply of energy bearers. In principle, the supply of energy (production + imports) should correspond to exports and consumption of energy. However, there are many reasons for deviations; erroneous registration, conversion from other units of measurement, the use of different statistical sources, etc. Statistical errors for crude oil and natural gas are sometimes very high. This could be due to inaccuracy in the figures for production or exports, or these figures might not be consistent. Even if the statistical errors are relatively low compared to total production, they can be high compared to the total domestic energy consumption.

Other sectors
Energy consumption in fish farms, distribution of water, IT activities and ocean transport are calculated on the basis of figures from the national accounts and prices from the electricity statistics, the Norwegian Petroleum Industry Association (NP) and Shell.

The energy accounts and the energy sources balance sheet cover the total supply and consumption of energy in Norway. The statistics that are used as sources are to a large extent statistics that cover the total population. The statistics on energy use in the manufacturing sector do not cover all enterprises, but the sample covers more than 90 per cent of the total energy consumption in the manufacturing industries. For other units, the energy consumption is estimated.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Available data are used as much as possible, partly with small adjustments for calibrating the total accounts. For oil products, the energy accounts and energy sources balance sheet define the domestic consumption as identical to registered sales exclusive of consumption by international shipping and aviation. For sectors where reliable information is not available, the consumption is partly calculated as a residual, partly on previous surveys or data that may indicate the consumption (such as employment, the number of private cars etc). The statistics used as source are mainly annual, except the statistics on deliveries of petroleum products, the refinery statistics and the preliminary electricity statistics, which are monthly. From 2006, data on deliveries of biofuels are collected by survey.

All the necessary data are not available at the time when the preliminary energy accounts and energy balance sheet are produced. As a result, some temporary calculations and estimates have to be used. These are revised when the final energy sources balance sheet is produced.

When the energy accounts and energy sources balance sheet are published, data for total supplied energy consumption are presented. In addition, the data from the energy balance sheet are presented as utilised energy. The figures for utilised energy take into account that it is not possible to fully utilise the theoretical energy content of any energy bearer (except electricity), due to heating equipment, car engines etc not being completely efficient. Utilised energy is calculated on the basis of the thermal efficiency coefficients of the different energy sources and consumer groups.

Both the energy accounts and the energy balance sheet are presented in two types of units: in physical units (tonnes, GWh etc) and in a common energy unit, petajoule (PJ) and GWh respectively. The figures in PJ and GWh are calculated on the basis of the figures measured in physical units, and with factors for the theoretical energy contents in the different energy products. When presented in PJ or GWh, the energy sources balance sheet is referred to as energy balance sheet.

Calculations used in the production of the statistics:

Conversion into common units - original values ​​for quantity data are converted to the standard physical unit for each energy product and into the common energy unit.

Imputation - a statistical method of replacing missing data using existing data. This includes figures for stock change, consumption to conversion (eg electricity, blast furnace gas), import / export / production (eg wood, waste, hazardous waste), consumption of fuel abroad / fuel purchased abroad.

Allocation of aggregated amounts – data with insufficient level of detail is divided using a set of allocation keys (shares). Allocation keys are used for splitting aggregated energy products (eg waste, gas oils / diesel), industries, user groups and origin (renewable or non-renewable).

Purchases abroad and import - for some energy products there is information about total purchases (in Norway + abroad) and purchases in Norway. In these cases, the purchase abroad is calculated as the difference between the two quantities. This calculation is made for the foreign shipping industry. At the same time as imputing of purchases abroad, an import amount equal to the amount purchased abroad is imputed.

Production

Primary petroleum products and coal

Annual figures for the production of LPG, ethane, NGL, crude oil and natural gas are collected from the Diskos database to the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (OD). Diskos is a collaboration between OD and oil companies on the Norwegian shelf, where the oil companies themselves report seismic data, well data and production data. Annual figures for produced amounts of coal are collected in Norwegian coal mines in Svalbard. Russian coal mines are not included in the production figures.

Secondary petroleum products

Secondary petroleum products are mainly produced in oil refineries. Annual production amounts are collected directly from the oil companies and the production data includes energy products such as gasoline, gas oils / diesel, kerosene, distillates, heavy oil, LPG, naphtha and petrol coke. Production of gas oils / diesel is collected on the more aggregated level than the requirement for reporting of the statistics. Sales figures from the annual petroleum statistics are used to split production, stock and import / export between light heating oil, off-road diesel, auto diesel and marine gas oil. In addition to energy products mentioned above, the refineries also produce CO gas from petrol coke and refinery gas. We collect these production figures annually directly from the companies.

Electricity

Production figures are obtained from monthly and annual electricity statistics. The data is based on reporting. Annual electricity statistics are published about 10 months after the end of the year. Figures from the monthly electricity statistics are therefore used for the prelimininary publication in May. Figures from the annual electricity statistics are used for the publication two years after the end of the year. The differences between annual and monthly electricity statistics are that the annual statistics is more detailed and reliable than the monthly statistics. However, for the production figures, the differences are small.

District heating and cooling

Production figures are obtained from annual district heating statistics. The figures are collected via an annual form-based survey and the population includes all district heating and cooling systems in Norway, which supply heat and/or cooling via a pipeline to external customers from heating plants with capacity of at least 1 MW. Industrial companies that produce heat only for their own use are not included.

Biogas

The data on production of biogas is collected directly from producers through an annual form-based survey. Statistics Norway also receives files with extraction of landfill gas from landfills from the Norwegian Environmental Directorate. This information complements the production data collected in our own data collection.

Other energy products

For certain energy products in the Norwegian economy, the quantities produced are calculated. This applies to the energy products waste, wood, pellets and briquettes.

Import and export

Import and export of energy products are obtained from the external trade statistics of Statistics Norway, with some exceptions. Foreign trade statistics are based on customs declarations covering physical goods flows that pass the customs border.

Consumption

Consumption figures for industry and mining industries

are obtained from energy consumption statistics in the industry. The statistics are collected via an annual form-based sample survey, where companies report energy products used for production, light, heat and transport for one or more of their businesses. To cover all energy use in industry and mining, information about energy products used as raw materials is also collected and a special form is sent to a small selection of companies that manufacture or use special energy products. Examples here are businesses in chemical industry companies that use natural gas as raw materials or businesses in the mineral industry as energy generators different types of waste.

The consumption of electricity in the consumer groups outside industry is collected from the electricity statistics.

Consumption of district heating in the consumer groups outside industry is obtained from district heating statistics. This is data reported from district heating plants.

Consumption figures for offshore activity in the crude oil and natural gas extraction industry, as well as services associated with, are obtained from the national database for mandatory reporting on petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Energy consumption and emissions are reported here, and data quality is quality-controlled by the Oil Directorate and the Environment Directorate. The data source contains consumption of diesel oils, crude oil and natural gas.

Consumption in land facilities is obtained from data from Oil Directorate, Gassco, reporting to the Norwegian Environmental Directorate, and Statistics Norway survey on domestic use or natural gas. Several of the land heating plants also produce electric power (gas power). Power plants that produce both power and heat are called CHP, Combined Heat and Power Plants. For these, the shares of natural gas used in power and heat production are calculated on the basis of figures for power generation, total use of natural gas and expected efficiency.

Consumption of natural gas and biogas for road transport is collected through annual survey of companies selling natural gas and biogas for use in Norway. Consumption of petroleum products not mentioned above is covered by the annual sales statistics for petroleum products. In EB, it is assumed that auto diesel, petrol and LPG are used for road transport and that petrol diesel, light fuel oil and heating parafin are used for stationary use in the industry. Consumption of lubricants and bitumen is considered as non-energy consumption.

Consumption of natural gas in shipping is collected through an annual form-based survey for natural gas dealers. Consumption of marine gas oils, heavy distillate and heavy oil in foreign shipping is calculated using fuel costs from Statistics Norway's statistics. For domestic shipping, all consumption figures for petroleum products are collected from sales statistics.

Consumption of kerosene type jet fuel and aviation gasoline in air transport is calculated using three data sources that are updated annually: 1) Statistics on the sale of petroleum products, 2) Air traffic data sets, which are included in air traffic statistics and 3) reported data on the purchase and use of jet kerosene from a Selection of airlines.

Consumption of electricity and district heating in households is collected from Statistics Norway's annual data collections from distributors of these energy products. Statistics Norway also collects data on consumption of natural gas and biogas through its own annual form-based data collections to retailers. Consumption of light fuel oil and household fuel households is calculated using consumption figures collected as part of the consumption survey (FBU) for Statistics Norway.

Stock

Stock inventory figures for primary oil and gas products in oil- and gas extraction sector are retrieved from the Oil Directorate through an annual data delivery agreement. Storage at the oil refineries and terminals is retrieved directly from the companies through an annual data collection. This is mainly secondary petroleum products. Statistics Norway also collects stock figures for coal, coke and petrol coke.

Not relevant

Employees of Statistics Norway have a duty of confidentiality.

Statistics Norway does not publish figures if there is a risk of the respondent's contribution being identified. This means that, as a general rule, figures are not published if fewer than three units form the basis of a cell in a table or if the contribution of one or two respondents constitutes a very large part of the cell total.

Statistics Norway can make exceptions to the general rule if deemed necessary to meet the requirements of the EEA agreement, if the respondent is a public authority, if the respondent has consented to this, or when the information disclosed is openly accessible to the public.

More information can be found on Statistics Norway's website under Metods in official statistics, in the "Confidentiality" section.

Comparability over time is requires in energy balance and energy account statistics. This is partly due to the requirements in greenhouse gas emission statistics for annual audits, and international requirements for correlation between energy balance and emissions statistics. If Statistics Norway receives new information for previous years (eg new data sources, methods, conversion factors), this will be taken into the production system and published as revised time series. This means that the numbers are not final in the publication even though they are labeled as final on the statistics web pages. The latest version of the figures for a period will always be in the statbank.

The energy accounts and the energy sources balance sheet have been produced since 1976. The sector classification was changed in 1993, and a rough adaptation to this new nomenclature was made for 1990-92. The sector codes for some enterprises were changed in 1993. Changes in the calculation methods over the years mean that the time series for consumption are not fully comparable for some sectors.

Statistical error is an indicator of uncertainty in the statistics. For the energy balance (EB) and energy account (EA) statistics there is a continuous goal to reduce this type of error.

There are various objectives in EB regarding statistical deviations for the different energy products.

Electricity and district heating should not have statistical differences in final energy balance figures. Production and use are obtained from primary statistics with their own publications. Here the numbers are checked and balanced before they are loaded into EB.

Production and export of crude oil, NGL and natural gas are checked against each other before the figures are loaded into EA/EB and should be balanced as much as possible on the input data.

Energy products that get imputed production or use in the system due to missing data should not have statistical differences. This applies to:

• Waste: The production is equal to the sum of the consumption.

• Liquid biofuel: Missing production numbers are set equal to import. Exceptions are biodiesel. Import / export from foreign trade statistics is collected here.

• Fixed biofuel: Production is equal to the sum of the consumption. Exceptions are charcoal, pellets and wood. For these energy products, import / export is collected from foreign trade statistics.

• Biogas: Lack of production figures is calculated by summing up the consumption corrected for known production.

For light heating oil, auto diesel, off-road diesel and marine gas oils, the statistical difference must be assessed collectively. This is due to the fact that inputs for production, import, export and stock are collected together and split between energy products in the production system using distribution keys.

For the remaining energy products, a certain statistical difference is accepted.

A revision is a planned change to figures that have already been published, for example when releasing final figures as a follow-up to published preliminary figures. See also Statistics Norway's principles for revisions.

The energy statistics require comparability over time. This is partly due to the emission statistics’ requirement for annual audits, and the international requirement for cohesion between energy statistics and the emission statistics. Where new information is received for previous years (e.g. new data sources, methods, conversion factors), this is entered in the production system and revised time series are published.

The most recent version of the figures for a period will always be available in Statbank

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