Energy use in the manufacturing sector
Updated: 18 May 2022
Next update: 16 May 2023
About the statistics
The statistics show the energy consumption in manufacturing and mining in Norway.
Energy use: The statistics include energy products bought for energy purposes and self-produced energy. Energy products used as raw materials are not included in the statistics. The consumption of energy products for fuel, lightning, heat and petroleum products for transport purposes during the reference year are included. The consumption of raw materials is not included.
Gigawatt hour (GWh) = million kWh
Terrwatt hour (TWh) = billion kWh
Due to the large number of different energy products in Norwegian mining and manufacturing, the energy products have been grouped into 7 groups for purchased energy and 3 groups for self-produced energy:
Electricity = Purchased electricity
Petroleum products = Purchased light heating oils, heavy distillates, heavy fuel oils, waste oils, kerosene and auto diesel (tax-exempt).
Gas products = Purchased and self-produced LPG, LNG, natural gas in gaseous, fuel gas and CO-gas
Coal products = Purchased coal, coke and petrol coke used as fuel and as a reduction agent.
Steam and district heating = Purchased district heating and steam.
Solid biomass and wastes = Purchased wood, waste of wood and other waste.
Petroleum products for transports = Purchased gasoline, auto diesel and marine gas oils.
Electricity = Self-produced electricity
Solid biomass and wastes = Self-produced waste of wood, black liquor and hazard.
Gas = Self-produced natural gas in gaseous, fuel gas, CO-gas and other gasses.
In order to make it possible to find the total energy consumption within the individual energy groups and the total consumption for the company, we have also converted all of the energy goods into the common unit GW (billion watts). This has been done based on information on average energy content for the individual energy goods
Local kind of activity unit: The statistics have local kind of activity unit as observation unit and analysis unit. A local kind of activity unit is defined as a functional unit, which at a single physical location is engaged mainly in activities within a specific activity group. An enterprise is defined as an organizational unit, and consists of one or more local kind of activity units. The following guidelines are used in order to divide the activity of an enterprise into separate local kind of activity units; Activities engaged by an enterprise in different municipalities, are treated as separate local kind of activity units. Activities in different industrial classes (4-digit) can be classified as separate local kind of activity units even if the activity is located at the same site. To divide a local unit into several local kind of activity units, each of the activities has to be of a certain size, normally engaging at least 5 persons.
Norwegian Standard Industrial Classification (SIC2007), which is based on the industrial classifications approved by the EU (NACE Rev. 2) and the UN (ISIC Rev. 3).
Name: Energy use in the manufacturing sector
Topic: Energy and manufacturing
Division for Energy, Environmental and Transport Statistics
National level. Figures by county are also available.
Yearly. Preliminary figures are published within 6 months after the end of the reference year. Final figures are published within 18 months after the end of the reference year.
The figures are included in the energy balance sheet. The energy balance sheet is used in annual reports to Eurostat, IEA and OECD.
The data are stored in Oracle databases and as SAS data. Revised micro data and raw data are also stored permanently as text files.
The statistics provides information about energy use in mining and manufacturing. Statistics Norway has collected data on energy use as a part of the structural business statistics for manufacturing since the 1970s. The data on energy use has been collected in a separate survey since 1998. This is a part of an ongoing project between Statistics Norway and the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE). The Energy Act is the legal basis for the data collection. Statistics Norway keeps a copy of the data using the Statistics Act to compile official statistics. The purpose of this project is to strengthen the statistics on energy use, both in terms of content, quality, timeliness, and new statistical products.
The statistics are used by public institutions (The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, the government, etc.), different analyses institutions and branch organizations. In Statistics Norway the statistics are important as input in the national accounts, in the energy accounts and in the energy balance sheet, as well as in the emission statistics. The data are also important in other analysis and research in Statistics Norway.
No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given inthe Statistics Release Calendar.
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The statistics on energy use in manufacturing has the same population as the annual structural business statistics for the manufacturing sector. The connection between these two statistics makes it possible to produce energy indicators, where the energy use data are connected with different activity data, for example number of hours worked by employees, employment, value added, production value, etc.
The statistics for energy use in the manufacturing sector is important input for the calculation of the energy accounts and energy balance sheet. Energy used for transport is moved to the transport sector and energy consumption in refineries and coal production is classified as consumption by energy producing industries. The figures for manufacturing and mining in the energy accounts and energy balance will therefore be slightly lower than the figures in the statistics on energy use in manufacturing.
The statistics is also important input for the calculation of greenhouse gas emissions and the national accounts.
The information is collected by Statistics Norway on behalf of the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) in agreement with the Act on the generation, transmission, trading, distribution and use of energy etc. (Energy Act) of June 29 1990, No. 50 § 10-1, third paragraph, first sentence. Statistics Norway will pursuant to the Act of 16 54 June 1989 on official statistics and Statistics Norway § 2-2 simultaneously use the information for the preparation of official statistics.
From the reference year 1998 the statistics cover all existing local kind of activity units within mining and manufacturing, which means division 10, 12-37 in the Norwegian Standard Industrial Classification. Statistics Norway collects data for a sample. For the other units the energy use data are estimated. The estimations are based on turnover and information from the sample. There are about 18 000 units in the population.
Until the reference year 1997 enterprises with individual proprietorship where the owner is working alone (one-man-enterprise), and other local kind of activity units with employment less than half a man-year worked, are not included. The change in the population from the reference year 1998 leads to a break in the statistics.
From the reference year 1998 the statistics cover all existing local kind of activity units within mining and manufacturing in division 05, 07, 08, 09.9 og 10-33 after the Norwegian Standard Industrial Classification (based on NACE Rev. 2). A sample survey is used to collect the data. Units outside the sample are estimated.
Enterprises with individual proprietorship where the owner is working alone (one-man-enterprise), and other local kind of activity units with employment less than half a man-year worked, were not included prior to 1998. The change in the population from the reference year 1998 lead to a break in the statistics.
Data on energy use are collected from a sample of local units in manufacturing, mining and quarrying. Information on activity codes, addresses and other information are collected from the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises of Statistics Norway.
The survey has a sample of 2 300 local kind of activity units. The sample consists of the biggest units in each subgroup, chosen by number of employees in each subgroup, and some small and medium sized units. Small units are chosen randomly from a stratified sample. The units in the sample cover about 95 per cent of the total energy use and about 90 per cent of the total energy costs in the mining and manufacturing sector.
The questionnaires are sent out in January. We use two types of forms to collect the data, the big units (about 25 per cent) receive a more detailed form than the small and medium sized units. The Energy Act is used, and the units are required to report. The data is reported electronically. The deadline for reporting is February. NVE sends out the final reminder in March. Units that do not responded after the final reminder have to pay a coercive fine.
We use the "top down" approach to edit the data. This means that and big units are edited first. The units are already grouped into two groups according to the type of form they have received. The around 600 largest companies, which counts for over 90 percent of the total energy use, are then sorted and controlled in descending order. The forms do also go through a set of controls that flags outliers and other possible errors.
The data is also controlled at a macro level. The energy use in one division is for example checked against the same division the previous year. Descriptive statistics is also used to control the various energy products.
Turnover data from the short-term turnover statistics (by preliminary figures) and energy costs from the structural business statistics for the manufacturing sector (by final figures) are used by estimating energy use data for units outside the sample.
§ 2-6 of the Statistics Act states that data under no circumstances shall be published in such a way that they may be traced back to the supplier. This means that the general rule is not to publish data if there are fewer than three enterprises in an industry. In cases with less than three enterprises in an industry group, data are confidential and aggregated up to a more aggregated industry group before publishing.
The statistics covers all local kind of activity units in mining and manufacturing from 1998. Businesses with individual proprietorship where the owner was working alone (one-man-enterprise), and other local kind of activity units with employment less than half a man-year worked, were not included before 1998. New production routines and more recourse for edit lead to higher quality of the data from 1998. The new population and contents in the statistics, as well as higher quality of the data, led to a break in the statistics in 1998. It is still possible to continue the old time series with the same population and contents as before 1998.
New standard industrial classification SIC2007 (based on NACE Rev.2) provides a break in the time series for the statistics on energy use in manufacturing in 2003. For the years 1990-2003, the statistics are published by standard industrial classification SN2002 (based on NACE Rev. 1.1). Both time series are published in StatBank.
Coal and coke used as a reducing agent during production is regarded as fuel in the energy balance and is therefore included in the statistics on energy use in manufacturing. This is, for example, used in the production of basic metals. Coal and coke used as a reducing agent is included in the Statbank from 2003. The costs are included from 2011. This causes a break in the time series.
Collection errors may occur in the data due to oblivion, misunderstandings, etc. Processing errors may occur in the data due to errors in the optical reading, the computing and in the exercise of the quality controls.
The units in the sample are asked to report the use (value and amount) for different energy products. Lack of knowledge of the different energy products, failures in the questionnaire or in the guidelines, misunderstandings of the variables and valuations may lead to uncertainty in the figures from the survey.
Non response errors are errors caused by unit non-response, i.e. that the unit (for instance an individual or a company) has failed to respond, or item non response, i.e. that the unit has failed to respond to some but not all the questions in the survey.
Sampling errors arise from the fact that the estimates are based on a sample and not a census of the entire population. The sampling error is measured by the standard errors which estimates the expected deviation between the survey estimate and the estimate that would have been obtained if a complete enumeration had been carried out.
Under this residual heading we find coverage errors and model assumption errors. Coverage errors (or frame errors) are due to divergences between the target population and the frame population. Coverage errors comprise over coverage, under coverage, delayed updating or classification errors in the survey frame. Model assumption errors are errors in seasonal adjustment of time series. These errors are due to deviation between the true model and the assumed model used in the seasonal adjustment.
Publication of the statistics contain both preliminary and final figures. The preliminary figures apply to the year t-1 while the final figures are published for the year t-2. What is before the publication preliminary figures is replaced by final figures for the same year.
Turnover data from the short-term turnover statistics (by preliminary figures) is used to estimate the energy use for units outside the sample. There is not necessarily a good correlation between turnover and energy consumption, and this means that the estimation of the energy used for units outside the sample is somewhat uncertain at preliminary figures. Energy costs from the annual structural business statistics for the manufacturing sector are somewhat more accurate, and is used to estimate the energy use data for units outside the sample for final figures.
The difference between preliminary and final figures are usually less than 1-2 per cent for total energy consumption and less than 3-4 percent for total energy costs. The difference is mainly due to delay in the registration and edit of data.