379442
/en/jord-skog-jakt-og-fiskeri/statistikker/binfo/aar
379442
statistikk
2020-03-05T08:00:00.000Z
Agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing;Income and consumption
en
binfo, Farmers’ income and debt, agricultural income, income from self-employment, farmersIncome and wealth, Agriculture , Income and consumption, Agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing
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Farmers’ income and debt

Updated

Next update

Not yet determined

Key figures

199 900

NOK average entrepreneurial income from agriculture for farmers

Farmers’ income and debt
2018Change in per cent
2017 - 20182013 - 2018
Personal holders (number)37 443-1.6-9.0
 
Average income for holders (NOK)688 2004.020.9
Wages and salaries285 9003.517.6
Entrepreneurial income from agriculture199 900-0.321.1
Other entrepreneurial income82 10010.818.1
Pensions60 1005.333.6
Capital income etc.60 30012.329.7
 
Average debt for holders (NOK)2 161 000-0.220.5

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
Entrepreneurial income from agriculture for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder

Entrepreneurial income from agriculture for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder
Entrepreneurial income from agricultureHolders by entrepreneurial income from agriculture
TotalPer holderHolders, totalWithout positive income1 - 49 999 NOK50 000 - 99 999 NOK100 000 - 249 999 NOK250 000 - 399 999 NOK400 000 and more
NOK millionNOKNumberPer cent
20167 389190 10038 868301313161217
20177 629200 60038 037311213151118
20187 483199 90037 443321212151118
 
2018
County
Østfold (-2019)414203 3002 03734111415818
Akershus and Oslo362188 1001 922341315141014
Hedmark (-2019)698235 8002 959301013141221
Oppland (-2019)905221 0004 094271013161321
Buskerud (-2019)352172 5002 039331414161014
Vestfold (-2019)291230 7001 26334111414919
Telemark (-2019)165124 4001 3224115131489
Aust-Agder (-2019)112172 30065034131219914
Vest-Agder (-2019)170166 6001 02038131113916
Rogaland878228 3003 848271113151221
Hordaland (-2019)316107 9002 9324616111189
Sogn og Fjordane (-2019)447165 5002 703301312181314
Møre og Romsdal435185 0002 349381110131118
Trøndelag - Trööndelage1 243231 7005 363281112141323
Sør-Trøndelag (-2017)000000000
Nord-Trøndelag (-2017)000000000
Nordland461247 7001 861251110151226
Troms - Romsa (-2019)177215 300820271111171321
Finnmark - Finnmárku (-2019)59224 3002613712512926
 
Type of farming
Cereals and oil seeds64099 5006 4314216171465
Other field crops491143 6003 41843161312610
Horticulture and permanent crops349305 6001 142271210171124
Cattle - dairying2 340413 5005 659725152349
Cattle - rearing and fattening708180 0003 932291015191214
Cattle - mixed400459 400871634122254
Sheep87191 3009 5394117151675
Various grazing livestock329134 9002 43545111113912
Granivores756394 0001 9191658151540
Mixed cropping72363 40019928106141133
Mixed livestock223383 0005812146131640
Mixed crops - livestock305231 9001 317341210131021
 
Agricultural area in use
0 - 4 decares226217 9001 0383712913920
5 - 49 decares21756 8003 82460188833
50 - 99 decares41165 4006 282522012933
100 - 199 decares1 233123 4009 9863415171798
200 - 299 decares1 385218 3006 34721914211620
300 - 499 decares1 931326 9005 9071459181935
500 decares or more2 080512 4004 0591026121654
 
Holders by sex
Males6 724213 70031 465311212151220
Females759126 9005 97840141315810

Table 2 
Average income for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder. NOK

Average income for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder. NOK
Total gross incomeWages and salariesEntrepreneurial income from agricultureOther entrepreneurial incomePensionsCapital income etc
2016643 700269 300190 10075 70055 00053 600
2017661 800276 300200 60074 10057 10053 700
2018688 200285 900199 90082 10060 10060 300
 
2018
County
Østfold (-2019)868 400326 700203 300118 70066 500153 200
Akershus and Oslo891 700358 000188 100152 00076 200117 400
Hedmark (-2019)725 100260 400235 800101 20061 00066 800
Oppland (-2019)659 900256 500221 00086 70050 20045 600
Buskerud (-2019)786 700312 000172 500140 30061 700100 100
Vestfold (-2019)856 000342 300230 700108 20067 900106 900
Telemark (-2019)673 200347 000124 40084 60076 00041 200
Aust-Agder (-2019)655 600281 000172 30093 10069 00040 200
Vest-Agder (-2019)656 200301 300166 60081 80060 60046 000
Rogaland692 500275 000228 30067 00056 20066 100
Hordaland (-2019)628 600358 600107 90053 10068 50040 500
Sogn og Fjordane (-2019)583 500268 800165 50044 70064 60039 900
Møre og Romsdal614 200269 600185 00067 40060 60031 500
Trøndelag - Trööndelage658 800271 500231 70066 50045 70043 400
Sør-Trøndelag (-2017)000000
Nord-Trøndelag (-2017)000000
Nordland593 800201 200247 70049 50061 90033 500
Troms - Romsa (-2019)554 500194 900215 30058 70066 60019 100
Finnmark - Finnmárku (-2019)570 300210 900224 30065 30054 00015 800
 
Type of farming
Cereals and oil seeds818 100409 40099 500116 70084 700107 900
Other field crops732 400334 500143 60093 40084 60076 200
Horticulture and permanent crops820 100265 400305 60083 60074 20091 400
Cattle - dairying624 500101 300413 50056 50023 50029 700
Cattle - rearing and fattening666 900293 000180 00089 70046 20058 000
Cattle - mixed664 30088 400459 40069 40021 50025 700
Sheep599 200331 30091 30064 90072 20039 600
Various grazing livestock633 600303 400134 90084 10059 10052 100
Granivores790 800218 400394 00081 00027 00070 400
Mixed cropping794 200237 800363 40068 40067 20057 300
Mixed livestock759 600193 100383 000106 30024 70052 500
Mixed crops - livestock728 100263 100231 90092 00065 10075 900
 
Agricultural area in use
0 - 4 decares674 800271 700217 90064 50071 30049 400
5 - 49 decares625 500362 60056 80057 50094 80053 800
50 - 99 decares630 400358 80065 40065 10089 20051 900
100 - 199 decares639 600323 800123 40074 30066 40051 600
200 - 299 decares667 000260 600218 30083 20046 50058 500
300 - 499 decares735 800208 400326 90088 10032 20080 100
500 decares or more924 100163 600512 400144 60025 70077 800
 
Holders by sex
Males716 200283 900213 70088 70063 70066 100
Females541 100296 600126 90047 00040 70029 800

Table 3 
Holders by entrepreneurial income from agriculture as per cent of gross income, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder

Holders by entrepreneurial income from agriculture as per cent of gross income, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder
Holders, totalShare of holders by entrepreneurial income from agriculture as per cent of gross income
0 per cent1-9 per cent10-49 per cent50-89 per cent90 per cent or more
201638 8683015281513
201738 0373114271513
201837 4433215271512
 
2018
County
Østfold (-2019)2 037341728138
Akershus and Oslo1 922342130105
Hedmark (-2019)2 9593013271713
Oppland (-2019)4 0942712291814
Buskerud (-2019)2 039321831145
Vestfold (-2019)1 263341728147
Telemark (-2019)1 32241182696
Aust-Agder (-2019)650341530148
Vest-Agder (-2019)1 0203815251210
Rogaland3 8482615261617
Hordaland (-2019)2 93246172197
Sogn og Fjordane (-2019)2 7033014291611
Møre og Romsdal2 3493712221514
Trøndelag - Trööndelage5 3632813251717
Sør-Trøndelag (-2017)000000
Nord-Trøndelag (-2017)000000
Nordland1 8612511261721
Troms - Romsa (-2019)8202710261720
Finnmark - Finnmárku (-2019)261378181720
 
Type of farming
Cereals and oil seeds6 43142232951
Other field crops3 41842192595
Horticulture and permanent crops1 1422714282012
Cattle - dairying5 65972193438
Cattle - rearing and fattening3 932291335158
Cattle - mixed87163173441
Sheep9 53941192984
Various grazing livestock2 435451323128
Granivores1 919168272723
Mixed cropping1992810232516
Mixed livestock581216192728
Mixed crops - livestock1 3173413271512
 
Agricultural area in use
0 - 4 decares1 0383713251411
5 - 49 decares3 82460181642
50 - 99 decares6 28252212052
100 - 199 decares9 986341930117
200 - 299 decares6 3472112331916
300 - 499 decares5 907148302624
500 decares or more4 059105253129
 
Holders by sex
Males31 4653015261613
Females5 978391428118

Table 4 
Interest paid and debt for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder

Interest paid and debt for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder
Interest paid, total. NOK millionInterest paid per holder. NOKDebt, total. NOK millionDebt per holder. NOK
20162 45863 20083 1682 140 000
20172 55067 00082 3472 165 000
20182 65170 80080 9052 161 000
 
2018
County
Østfold (-2019)18892 2005 9702 931 000
Akershus and Oslo14575 3004 7282 460 000
Hedmark (-2019)27392 2008 1282 747 000
Oppland (-2019)25161 4007 7011 881 000
Buskerud (-2019)11355 2003 7621 845 000
Vestfold (-2019)11087 2003 4702 748 000
Telemark (-2019)6851 2002 0811 574 000
Aust-Agder (-2019)4061 3001 2621 941 000
Vest-Agder (-2019)6563 8002 0652 024 000
Rogaland35592 10011 3752 956 000
Hordaland (-2019)13044 3004 2461 448 000
Sogn og Fjordane (-2019)10639 3003 4141 263 000
Møre og Romsdal14762 8004 2381 804 000
Trøndelag - Trööndelage45284 20012 9952 423 000
Sør-Trøndelag (-2017)....
Nord-Trøndelag (-2017)....
Nordland14678 4003 6941 985 000
Troms - Romsa (-2019)4757 7001 3421 637 000
Finnmark - Finnmárku (-2019)1662 8004331 658 000
 
Type of farming
Cereals and oil seeds35054 50011 2381 747 000
Other field crops17751 7005 4441 593 000
Horticulture and permanent crops8675 0002 7392 398 000
Cattle - dairying53895 10016 2462 871 000
Cattle - rearing and fattening29976 2009 0302 297 000
Cattle - mixed101115 4003 0213 469 000
Sheep40041 90011 6881 225 000
Various grazing livestock15864 7004 6231 898 000
Granivores317164 9009 6605 034 000
Mixed cropping1993 1006343 184 000
Mixed livestock101173 5003 1445 411 000
Mixed crops - livestock10881 7003 4402 612 000
 
Agricultural area in use
0 - 4 decares9793 0003 0482 937 000
5 - 49 decares16242 4004 9051 283 000
50 - 99 decares25841 1007 6611 220 000
100 - 199 decares47447 50014 2981 432 000
200 - 299 decares41064 50012 3221 941 000
300 - 499 decares55393 60016 8922 860 000
500 decares or more698172 00021 7805 366 000
 
Holders by sex
Males2 33874 30071 2022 263 000
Females31452 4009 7031 623 000

Table 5 
Holders by size of debt, county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder

Holders by size of debt, county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder
Holders, totalHolders by size of debt
NOK 0-0.09 millionNOK 0.1-0.9 millionNOK 1-1.9 millionNOK 2-3.9 millionNOK 4 million or more
201638 8687 37310 4277 1267 7906 152
201738 0377 36310 0236 8827 5616 208
201837 4437 5589 5956 8157 3306 145
 
2018
County
Østfold (-2019)2 037324459320440494
Akershus and Oslo1 922372464311397378
Hedmark (-2019)2 959425725516630663
Oppland (-2019)4 0947731 204819787511
Buskerud (-2019)2 039456541370415257
Vestfold (-2019)1 263226262207281287
Telemark (-2019)1 322314375256249128
Aust-Agder (-2019)65014415512313296
Vest-Agder (-2019)1 020239227174222158
Rogaland3 8487107615658051 007
Hordaland (-2019)2 932810789562526245
Sogn og Fjordane (-2019)2 703774860488396185
Møre og Romsdal2 349531637428467286
Trøndelag - Trööndelage5 3638761 2781 0501 0891 070
Sør-Trøndelag (-2017)......
Nord-Trøndelag (-2017)......
Nordland1 861358534392302275
Troms - Romsa (-2019)82017725017313684
Finnmark - Finnmárku (-2019)2614974615621
 
Type of farming
Cereals and oil seeds6 4311 5791 6491 1951 267741
Other field crops3 418902966633588329
Horticulture and permanent crops1 142241275183243200
Cattle - dairying5 6595831 5259331 1461 472
Cattle - rearing and fattening3 932659950762864697
Cattle - mixed87156220126190279
Sheep9 5392 6742 7801 9441 651490
Various grazing livestock2 435451576530577301
Granivores1 919562462044041 009
Mixed cropping1992841354154
Mixed livestock581487262112287
Mixed crops - livestock1 317281295208247286
 
Agricultural area in use
0 - 4 decares1 038197229136175301
5 - 49 decares3 8241 293930708648245
50 - 99 decares6 2822 0291 7831 150947373
100 - 199 decares9 9862 4722 9692 0211 763761
200 - 299 decares6 3479631 8681 2801 418818
300 - 499 decares5 9074801 3621 0641 4951 506
500 decares or more4 0591244544568842 141
 
Holders by sex
Males31 4655 8448 1235 7056 3055 488
Females5 9781 7141 4721 1101 025657

About the statistics

The statistics present figures for incomes and debt for persons who are operating agricultural holdings, independent of the holding as source of income. The amounts are derived from tax statistics for personal tax payers.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Agricultural holding

A single unit both technically and economically, which has single management and which produces agricultural products. The holding is independent of municipality boundaries. The agricultural holding's headquarter must be located to an agricultural property.



Holder

The person considered responsible for operating the holding.


Gross income

Total wages and salaries, pensions, entrepreneurial income and property income.


Wages and salaries

Comprise payments in cash and in kind, taxable sick pay and unemployment benefit.


Pensions

Cover all benefit paid by social security and private pension and life insurance benefit.


Entrepreneurial income

A result of the activities of a self-employed person, and is estimated from profit and loss account and balance sheet. The entrepreneurial income is transferred to the tax return and is included in the calculation of ordinary income.


Entrepreneurial income from agriculture

This is positive entrepreneurial income from agriculture according to the tax return. In addition, entrepreneurial social security benefits in agriculture, forestry and fishery are included. Deductions such as membership payments to industry organisations, the year's entrepreneurial deficit, interest on debt and a separate agricultural deduction are not deducted. Income from any supplementary industry executed on the holding, e.g. forestry, are included in other entrepreneurial income if the industry concerned are considered as independent according to taxation.


Capital income

Consist of interest income, dividends, realised capital gains, rent and other income from property.

Standard classifications

The following classifications are used in the tables: county where the holding is located, size of holding expressed in decares of utilised agricultural area, type of farming of the holding and sex of holder.

County
Oslo County is merged with Akershus County.





Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Farmers’ income and debt
Topic: Agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing

Responsible division

Division for Housing, Property, Spatial and Agricultural Statistics

Regional level

County

Frequency and timeliness

Annual, about 55 weeks after the reference year

International reporting

Not relevant

Microdata

A data file with anonymous individual data is stored at Statistics Norway.

Background

Background and purpose

The purpose is to present statistics on incomes and debt for persons who are operating agricultural holdings, independent of the holding as source of income. An essential feature of the Norwegian agriculture is that many persons that are running agricultural holdings work part-time in agriculture or the work is concentrated to the growing season. Many holders have wage/salary or entrepreneurial income from other industries as main source of income.

Statistics Norway has produced statistics on the farmers' income, property and taxes based on the tax assessment for personal taxpayers since 1968. More detailed tax return data have been presented from 1999 and onwards.

Users and applications

There is much focus on level, distribution and development of incomes of holders in agriculture. The main users of the statistics are the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, the Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, the Agricultural Budget Commission, the Norwegian Farmers Union, the Norwegian Smallholders Union etc.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 08 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar.

Coherence with other statistics

Yearly, Statistics Norway also presents Income statistics for all self-employed persons . At first level the self-employed persons are classified into two groups: self-employed with main income from industry and self-employed with main income from wages/salaries and pensions. Furthermore, those with main income from industry are classified into primary industries and other industries. Primary industries consist of agriculture, forestry and fishery.

The The Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research yearly presents Account Results in Agriculture and Forestry. This survey shows results for holdings where most of the family's total income are derived from the holding. More information: http://www.nibio.no/.

Legal authority

Statistics Act §§2-1, 3-2

EEA reference

Not relevant

Production

Population

Agricultural holdings are operated by two main types of holders: natural person and legal person. The total number of holdings has been decreasing over many years, while during the last years the number of holdings operated by a legal person has increased. The percentage of holdings operated by a legal person has increased from 1 per cent in 1999 to 6 per cent in 2008. Later, the percentage has been almost unchanged. The statistics on the farmers' income and property cover only agricultural holdings operated by a natural person.

The holdings vary much in size, from hobby-like production to holdings with a turnover of more than NOK 1 million. Some of the holdings have small-scale production under the threshold to be considered an industry by the tax authorities.

The individual person who is considered as responsible for operating the holding is referred to as holder (farmer). Some holdings change holder during the year. Mainly, the holder being holder as per 31 July the year concerned is included. For the holders information has been obtained on any spouse, registered partner or cohabitant. Up to and including 2004, cohabitant included only he/she who had children in common with the holder. As from 2005, also cohabitant who lived together with holder according to the Population and Housing Census 2001 and still has common address is included.

Married couples and registered partners who jointly operate a holding may share the taxable entrepreneurial income. Cohabitants who want to share the entrepreneurial income from a jointly operated holding have to organise the management as a legal entity other than sole proprietorship, or one of them has to be an employee.

The population of persons may differ from one table to another. Mainly, a table either comprises holders only or an aggregate of holders and spouses/registered partners/cohabitants.

Data sources and sampling

The statistics are based on the population of agricultural holdings operated by a natural person and tax return data. Division for Income and Wage Statistics links data from the Tax statistics for personal tax payers to the population of farmers.  The tax statistics for personal taxpayers is a total census based on data from the ordinary tax assessments.

For more information:  http://www.ssb.no/en/inntekt-og-forbruk/statistikker/selvangivelse

Collection of data, editing and estimations

The statistics are based on collocation of data files that have been separately edited when established. Furthermore, the statistics have been examined for extreme values, i.g. values for individual holders or spouses/partners/cohabitants which significantly influence the whole population of agricultural holdings operated by a natural person. Individuals who fulfil one or more of the following conditions are omitted from the statistics: had a gross income of more than NOK 100 million, had a debt of more than NOK 100 million or had property of more than NOK 300 million. Annually, this concerns about 10 individuals.

Some holders and spouses/partners/cohabitants operate holdings separately. To avoid double counting, information from the tax return data are linked to the holding with the largest production. Annually, this concerns about 100 couples.

Average figures for a variable, e.g. wages and salaries for the holder, is estimated by summing up the value of the variable wages and salaries for all holders and divide the sum with the number of total holders. This means that holders without wages and salaries are included in the average figures.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant

Confidentiality

Figures are not presented if there is a risk of identifying any unit.

Comparability over time and space

Changes in the tax regulations influence the data and consequently the statistics over time. The tax regulations were significantly changed as from 1992. The statistics are essentially comparable for the period 1992 - 2002. In 2003, the tax return forms filled in by self-employed persons were considerably changed. Particularly, a separate deduction in entrepreneurial income from agriculture was deducted before the entrepreneurial income was transferred to the tax return form. Due to this neither the entrepreneurial income nor the gross income are comparable with the other years. As from 2004, the agricultural deduction again is stated as a deduction on the tax return.

Changes in tax regulations as from 1 January 2006 increased taxes for certain types of income. Due to this, taxpayers realised income in 2005 to avoid increased taxes in 2006 or later years.

Changes in the regulation concerning governmental production subsidies as per 31 July 2002 have caused increased number of holdings operated by other legal entities than sole proprietorship. This concerns particularly the legal entities general partnership and general partnership with shared liability. Furthermore, the changes of the regulation has influenced the number of holders participating in joint operation (organised as general partnerships) and at the same time running their own enterprise (sole proprietorship). Before 2002, holders participating in joint operation in milk production had to apply separately for area production subsidies. Now, the participants may choose whether they will cultivate fodder in own separate enterprise or operate the area jointly.

From 2002, holders applying governmental production subsidies as a general condition had to be registered in the Value Added Tax Registration List. Later, the minimum turnover for being in this list has increased. In order to still include small holdings, a new condition was introduced; the holding has to have an overall turnover, included withdrawal of commodities, over a certain threshold during the last 12 months. At the time being, this threshold is NOK 20 000. From 2014 there is no threshold.

A revised calculation of type of farming of the holdings was implemented in the Farmers' Income and Property 2007. The revision has caused a fall in the farm types "Various grazing livestock" and "Mixed crops - livestock", while the farm type "Other field crops" has increased. Other farm types are hardly affected.

New changes in the type of farming classification have been introduced as from 2010. Before 2010 standard gross margin (SGM) was used as common unit of measurement for various crop and livestock husbandry within a holding. From 2010 and onwards SGM is replaced by standard output (SO). Some other changes concerning the methodology are also introduced. The two versions are not fully comparable.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

The most important source of error is that taxpayers may fill in incorrect information on income, deductions, property or debt in the personal tax return or place amounts under wrong items. In most cases this will be detected and corrected by the local tax offices. Nevertheless, errors that do not influence the assessment of taxes may be ignored. Furthermore, errors may also originate during the scanning of the tax return forms, despite of the fact that controls are executed.

A non-significant number of holdings are missing information on income etc. No information is imputed for these holdings.

Statistics Norway receives data from the Directorate of Taxes before all complaints from taxpayers are finished.

Revision

Not relevant