Labour market and earnings;Social conditions, welfare and crime;Immigration and immigrants;Education
arbstatus, Attachment to employment, education and welfare benefitsLevel of education, Education, Social security and benefits , Social conditions, welfare and crime, Employment , Labour market and earnings, Social conditions, welfare and crime, Labour market and earnings, Immigration and immigrants, Education

Attachment to employment, education and welfare benefits

Final figures for 2019 have been published in the StatBank.


Next update

Key figures

17.3 %

of the population combined employment with education or benefits in 2019

Residents 15 years and over by main labour force status1
 Persons 2019Per cent 2019Persons, change from previous year
1Residents 15 years and over.
Total4 431 712100.038 662
Labour force2 781 63162.827 589
Employed only1 967 15844.413 611
Combine employment with other activities or benefits765 65517.316 936
Employed and in ordinary education320 2107.28 590
Employed and recipients of work assessment allowance27 2350.6-2 673
Employed and recipients of disability benefits59 6321.31 683
Employed and recipients of pensions157 5953.64 375
Other employed200 9834.54 961
Registered unemployed48 8181.1-2 958
Outside of the labour force1 650 0813.711 073
Participants in labour marked measures48 0061.1-6 569
In ordinary education298 6706.7-3 857
Recipients of work assessment allowance55 6421.3-4 653
Recipients of disability benefits257 5785.810 393
Recipients of contractual early retirement pension67 9971.510 292
Recipients of retirement pension697 45715.710 260
Other benefits51 6461.2-1 385
Unknown status173 0853.9-3 408

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
Youth not in employment, education or training (NEET)

Youth not in employment, education or training (NEET)1
1Residents 15-29 years
2Not in employment, education or training
Total1 033 1741 036 6731 036 2621 034 3991 030 619
Employed persons595 813599 209610 277617 838620 389
Participants in labour marked measures21 32824 35125 26820 49717 392
In ordinary education291 216292 112287 343284 959282 564
NEET2124 817121 001113 374111 105110 274
Share of NEET12.111.710.910.710.7

About the statistics

The statistics shows the population's attachment to employment, education and public welfare benefits. For individuals in the labour force, the statistics shows how work is combined with education or receiving welfare benefits. Individuals outside the labour force are divided into groups of statuses based on benefits they receive. The statistics includes all residents aged 15 years and over.


Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Residents are persons who are expected to stay for more than six months in the country and are thus registered as residents in the Central Population Register (Det Sentrale Folkeregisteret). Measurement period for the number of residents in the statistics is the 4th quarter (third week of November) in the reference year.

Labour force is the sum of the employed and the registered unemployed, ie people with the attachment to the labor market.

Persons outside the labour force are persons who were neither employed nor registered unemployed in the reference week.

Employed persons are persons aged 15 years or more who performed work for pay or profit for at least one hour in the reference week, or who were temporarily absent from work because of illness, holidays etc. Conscripts are classified as employed persons. Persons engaged by government measures to promote employment are also included if they receive wages. This follows recommendations from the International Labour Organization, ILO.

Other employed comprises employees who also receive benefits not mentioned in other groups of employees in the statistics. These benefits include sickness benefits, pensions other than from NAV, unemployment benefits, cash-for-care benefits etc.

Unemployed is defined as persons who are seeking income-earning work and who are available to carry out such work. In addition, these persons must not have had any work for pay or profit in the preceding two weeks.

Participants in labour market measures are jobseekerswho, during the reference period, took part in a measure aimed for jobseekers.

Work assessment allowance ensures income during periods when, due to illness or injury, assistance is required from NAV to get back to work. Assistance may consist of work-related measures, medical treatment or other measures by NAV.

Disability benefits ensure income for persons who have their income permanently reduced due to illness or injury.

Contractual early retirement pension (AFP) is an early retirement scheme that can be received from the age of 62 years in the public and parts of the private sector.

Retirement pension through the National Insurance Scheme (folketrygden) ensures income in old age, as well as it allows for gradual transition from work to retirement. The level of retirement pension depends on the income through life and how many years one has lived in Norway. At the same time, everyone is guaranteed the minimum pension level even if they have not been employed.

Other benefits include for example recipients of cash-for-care benefits, single mother/father benefit and social assistance.

Unknown status means that there is missing information about the person in the registries that have been used to produce the statistics. Reasons for this can for example be:
- emigration without reporting to the Population Register,
- some welfare benefits (social assistance, cash-for-care benefit) are provided to the entire household and may be registered with another person in the household,
- some activities are not included in the data base, such as adult education.

Immigrants are individuals born abroad by foreign-born parents.

NEET is an abbreviation of "Not in Education, Employment or Training" used to describe youth outside work, education or training.

Working hours are calculated using the number of hours per week that constitute a full-time position, the percentage of the position and the number of paid hours. 

Contractual percentage of full-time equivalent is what you have agreed to work according to your contract of employment. The employer shall not consider additional work, overtime or different types of absence from work or if the hours have been paid or not. The information on contractual percentage of full-time equivalent is based on what is reported to the a-ordningen. For persons that are paid by the hour without contractual working hours per week, e.g. on-call temporary workers, the employer can report 0 as contractual percentage of full-time equivalent. Statistics Norway will then calculate contractual percentage of full-time equivalent from what is reported as paid hours and number of hours that corresponds to a 100 per cent position in the moth of reporting.

Contractual working hours per week: By combining information regarding contractual percentage of full-time equivalent and number of hours per week in a full position, contractual working hours per week is calculated for each employment (job) and wage earner (person). The number of hours in a full position is the number of working hours that makes a full position in a similar employment. Unpaid lunchbreaks are withdrawn, but it is not adjusted for potential additional work, overtime or different types of absence from work.

Monthly earnings are the main term in Statistics Norway’s wage statistics. Monthly earnings cover basic salaries, variable additional allowances and bonuses. Overtime pay is not included in monthly earnings.

Basic salaries are the actual payment at the time of the census and are often described as salary by scale or regular basic wage. Qualification/skill allowance and other regular personal allowances are included in this type of wage. The wage or salary may be payment by the hour, week, fortnight or month.

The statistics shows monthly earnings and basic monthly salary in full-time equivalents.

Full-time equivalents: In the statistics, employees who work less than 100% are defined as part-time employees. In order to compare salaries between full-time and part-time employees, the wages of part-time employees are converted to the equivalent for full-time work. This is done using the percentage of each part-time employee’s position as a conversion factor. Monthly wages per full-time equivalent for part-time employees can then be merged with the monthly salary of full-time employees so that the average monthly earnings for all employees can be calculated.

Standard classifications

The educational classification is in accordance with the Norwegian Standard Classification of Education Revised 2000 (NOS C 617).

 In the statistics, only one status is calculated for the individual's attachment to the labour market, education and benefits. For persons active in multiple statuses at the same time, the highest priority status (for employed two highest priority statuses) is displayed. This status is based on a priority that takes into account the following criteria:
- The labour force has the highest priority when calculating a status. This ensures consistency with other registry-based employment statistics. This is also in line with the International Labour Organization's (ILO) recommendations on labour market statistics;
- Among people outside the labour force, the priority shows the degree of proximity to the labour force, and temporary activities / benefits are prioritized in front of more lasting activities / benefits;
- The decision about which status has priority must be based on good data quality.

Priority of activities/welfare benefits, ordered from highest to   lowest


In the labour force

Registered   unemployed

Participants in labour market   measures

Outside of   the labour force

In ordinary   education

Recipient of work assessment   allowance

Recipient of   disability benefits

Recipient of contractual early   retirement pension

Recipient of   retirement pension

Other benefits (cash-for-care, social   assistance etc)

Unknown status

 This priority implies for example that a person who is registered both in ordinary education and as a recipient of disability benefits, will be placed in the group “In ordinary education” in the statistics.

Information on educational attainment applies as of 1 October in the statistical year. In this statistics, an education grouping standard is used, where the highest completed education is classified in the following way: http://www.ssb.no/klass/klassifikasjoner/36/varianter/843

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Attachment to employment, education and welfare benefits
Topic: Labour market and earnings

Next release

Responsible division

Division for Labour Market and Wage Statistics

Regional level


Frequency and timeliness

Annual per 4th quarter

International reporting

Not relevant


Source data are permanently stored


Background and purpose

The main purpose of the statistics is to break down the large and heterogeneous group of people outside the workforce by dividing them into main groups of statuses. This will indicate how far away from employment they are and what public benefits they receive. The statistics also describes how employees combine employment with education or receiving public benefits.
The statistics was first published in December 2018, with time series back to 2008.

Users and applications

Public administration, researchers and the media are the most central users of the statistics.

Equal treatment of users

No external users can access the statistics before it is published at https://www.ssb.no/ after a preliminary notification 3 month in advance in the Statistics Calendar.

Coherence with other statistics

The statistics "Attachment to work, education and welfare benefits" is not directly comparable to other employment statistics. Even though the data sources and population definitions are the same, there may still be some discrepancies between the two statistics due to different reference periods or withdrawal times from the registers. For more information, see note "What do the different employment statistics show?" (in Norwegian).

Legal authority

The Official Statistics and Statistics Norway Act § 10, cf. The employer's reporting of employment and income conditions Act, etc. (the a-opplysnings Act) § 3.


EEA reference

Not relevant



The statistics includes all residents aged 15 years and older per 4th quarter of the reference year.

Data sources and sampling

The figures in the statistics are based on information from the system for personal data (SFP). This system consists of records containing data on areas such as employment, education and welfare benefits meant to compensate for missing income. In SFP, there are also demographic background variables, such as gender and age. Most variables are retrieved directly from the different registers, while some are constructed by combining data from different sources. The countdown is the fourth quarter of each year.
The most important data sources in SFP are Statistics Norway's register-based employment statistics and education statistics (ongoing education), the Central Population Register (DSF) and NAV's registries of unemployed and people on various welfare benefits.
The figures for employed until 2014 are based on data from the Ee-register, The Register of End of the Year Certificates (Register of Wage Sums), The Register for Personal Tax Payers and The Register of Wage Sums. From 2015 onwards a new joint reporting solution called a-ordningen gathers the reporting from the employers to the Ee-register, produced by the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration, as well as some reports to the Tax Administration and Statistics Norway. A-ordningen is a coordinated digital collection of data on employment, income and tax deductions to the Tax Administration, the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organization and Statistics Norway. This new joint collection provides Statistics Norway with information on wages and employed persons directly from a-meldingen, which is the electronic message containing all the information collected, rather than the multiple sources used until 2014. You can find more information about the new reporting at www.altinn.no/en/a-ordningen. In addition to the a-ordningen, other registers are used, the most important being the tax return register administered by the Tax Directorate, the register of consular officers from Vernepliktsverket and the Unit Register. Read more about the data sources for employed in the "About Statistics" for registry-based employment statistics.

Figures for registered unemployed and jobseekers on labour market measures are based on data from NAV's case processing system, ARENA (former SOFA applicant). The register includes, among other things, persons registered as fully unemployed, persons in ordinary labor market measures, and persons with reduced working capacity.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Imputation of education: Most 15-year-olds and 16-year-olds have not yet completed compulsory school, but in the statistics they are still encoded as having completed elementary school. This is done for the education-level tables to better show the main features of the labour market and the level of educational attainment.
Statistics Norway lacks information about educational level for some immigrants. For this group, SN has estimated (imputed) the level of education to provide better statistics on the aggregate level of educational attainment for immigrants. In this statistics, the imputed numbers are used from 2008 onwards. For a detailed description of the imputation method, see Jentoft (2014) and statistics on the population's level of education.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant


Not relevant

Comparability over time and space

Figures are available back to 2008.
Employed: Figures on employees from 2015 are based on a new data base for wage earners. The main source until 2014 was NAV's Employee Register (Ee-register). In 2015, reporting to this register was coordinated with reporting of salary and personnel data to the Tax Administration and Statistics Norway. This reporting system is called the a-ordningen. A-ordningen provides a better data base because it is more accurate at the individual level and it covers more payroll relationships than the Ee- registry. However, changes in the data source mean that the figures for employed starting from 2015 are not comparable to previous years. You can find more information about changes in the data base of register-based employment statistics here.
The statistics "Attachment to work, education and welfare benefits" is not directly comparable to other employment statistics. Even though the data sources and population definitions are the same, there may still be some discrepancies between the two statistics due to different reference periods or withdrawal times from the registers. For more information, see note "What do the different employment statistics show?" (in Norwegian).

Work assessment allowance: On March 1, 2010, unemployment benefits, rehabilitation benefits and time-limited disability benefits were replaced by work assessment allowance (AAP). Therefore, in these statistics, the number of recipients of AAP represents the sum of recipients of these three benefits in the years before 2010.

Disability benefits: In the years 2008-2009, disability benefits include both temporary and permanent disability pensions. After changes in the disability scheme from 1 January 2015, disability pension was replaced with disability benefits. In this statistic, the term "disability benefits" is used throughout the time series and also includes disability pension in the years before 2015. This is to ensure consistency in the grouping of statuses.