The table: Vessels in foreign going trade, freights and costs (NOK million) 2015 - 2017, was published on 4 June 2019
NOK billion in operating profit in 2017
|2017||Per cent change|
|2017||2016 - 2017||2009 - 2017|
|Freight goods||60 158.9||2.1||17.4|
|Pax freights||5 918.7||4.5||44.7|
|Bareboat freights||7 630.9||-22.0||35.4|
|Commision including administrative pool earnings||8 949.5||-23.3||74.3|
|Voyage dependent costs and bunker||27 975.5||23.2||14.5|
|Timecharter paid||20 420.2||-14.1||28.1|
|Bareboat freights paid||7 027.5||-5.9||80.9|
|Other costs||61 357.7||10.4||54.2|
|Operating profit||9 069.8||-40.9||-42.1|
See selected tables from this statistics
|Voyage freights||31 070.8||22 451.2||23 619.1|
|Contract of Affreightment||18 118.3||15 529.7||10 104.1|
|Liner freights||18 458.5||25 890.9||26 435.7|
|Pax freights||5 114.9||5 661.2||5 918.7|
|Timecharter from Norwegian charterers||15 245.6||14 800.2||10 803.0|
|Timecharter from offshore supply vessels||4 374.3||4 471.1||6 990.9|
|Timecharter from foreign charterers||27 986.2||25 888.4||23 143.2|
|Bareboat freights from Norwegian charterers||4 095.8||4 586.8||2 397.7|
|Bareboat freights from foreign charterers||7 581.1||6 709.6||5 233.2|
|Commission including administrative pool earnings||15 482.4||11 669.4||8 949.5|
|Total gross freights||150 099.2||140 920.4||125 850.9|
|Commission to charterers, brokers and agents||2 782.7||3 703.6||2 270.2|
|Voyage dependent costs||18 283.6||15 677.3||14 584.3|
|Bunker||13 790.9||10 866.9||13 391.2|
|Loading and unloading||4 739.5||5 431.7||5 482.6|
|Timecharter paid for hire of Norwegian vessels||2 561.9||4 237.3||3 938.3|
|Timecharter paid for hire of foreign vessels||15 403.4||19 189.1||16 481.9|
|Bareboat freights paid for hire of Norwegian vessels||6 205.4||5 534.7||5 103.8|
|Bareboat freights paid for hire of foreign vessels||1 936.2||2 044.3||1 923.7|
|Gross wage and social benefits to crew members||19 180.9||17 294.6||14 209.6|
|Insurance premium on vessels||1 497.3||2 551.1||1 238.5|
|Costs for repairing and maintenance of vessels||4 116.1||3 643.2||3 096.8|
|Docking costs||3 547.7||2 463.6||1 933.9|
|Gross wage to landbased staff||3 799.1||3 508.2||3 965.6|
|Adm. costs for operation of vessels||5 109.7||6 626.7||4 294.9|
|Other operating costs||24 655.3||22 066.8||24 364.4|
|Total operating costs||128 190.9||125 568.9||116 781.1|
|Operating profit||21 908.3||15 351.6||9 069.8|
|Operating profit in per cent||14.6||10.9||7.2|
|Other freight contracts||2 571.3||3 261.9||2 255.8|
|1Ocean transport includes enterprises in industry subclasses 50.101 Passenger ocean transport, 50.201 Freight ocean transport, 50.203 Tugboats and 50.204 Supply and other sea transport offshore services|
|2Freights from tug and salvage vessels (6) are registered under offshore vessels|
|3In 2009 freights from seismographic research vessels were registered as freights from other (9). This should have been registered as freights from offshore vessels (5)|
|All types of vessel1||96 388 367||116 520 009||120 273 202|
|Tanker||31 486 390||33 415 492||30 414 839|
|Bulk vessel||10 045 894||16 572 614||14 180 325|
|General cargo/other dry cargo vessel||31 232 194||32 851 919||36 610 526|
|Passenger vessels||3 654 532||6 672 332||5 527 017|
|Offshore vessels||17 562 252||24 620 541||30 409 178|
|Tug and salvage vessels2||0||0||0|
|Fishing and hunting vessels||0||0||0|
|Specialized vessels and support vessels||0||0||0|
|Other3||2 407 104||2 387 111||3 131 317|
|Total||13 696 325||13 685 274||12 842 080|
|Passenger transport - domestic sea transport||4 590 142||5 288 798||3 824 327|
|Passenger transport - foreign sea transport||667 440||350 795||215 348|
|Freight transport (freight above 25 kg) - domestic sea transport||3 901 051||3 839 530||3 863 854|
|Freight transport (freight under 25 kg) - domestic sea transport||4 296||29 577||10 099|
|Freight transport - foreign sea transport||113 722||333 735||176 763|
|Car ferry service||1 911 889||1 964 757||2 416 874|
|Offshore supply service - domestic sea transport||0||31 168||44 522|
|Offshore supply service - foreign sea transport||0||0||0|
|Renting of vessels with crew||754 774||757 578||584 586|
|Renting of vessels without crew||383 906||42 402||22 534|
|Tug service||541 368||469 997||120 366|
|Other||827 737||576 937||1 562 807|
See all figures from this statistics
About the statistics
The operating survey of vessels in water transport presents turnover and costs specified by type of service, and freight income by vessel type. Analysis is restricted to enterprises operating in water transport.
Voyage Charters (parties)
Contracts of carriage, in which the charterer pays for the use of a ship's cargo space for one, or sometimes more than one, voyage. Under this type of charter, the shipowner pays all the operating cost of the ship while payment for port and cargo handling charges are the subject of agreement between the parties. Freight is generally paid per unit of cargo, such as tonne, based on an agreed quantity, or as a lump sum irrespective of the quantity loaded. The terms and conditions of the contract are set down in a document known as a voyage charterparty. If it is a consecutive voyage charter party, the document specify the number of voyages, time, amount and weight of the goods to be transported, as the freight rate. Another kind of contract called "Contract of Affreightment" (COA or C.O.A.) is sentered on the volume of goods. Charterparties and bills of lading are contracts of affreightment. All herein includes eqivalent income from agency/pool.
Liner freights, transport of goods
Earned gross freight in the form of liner freights for transportation of goods. This also includes income form pool agreement for liner services. Service provided by a shipping company whereby cargo-carrying ships are operated between scheduled advertised ports of loading and discharge on a regular basis is said to be liner freight or liner service. The freight rates which are charged are based on the shipping company's tariff or, if the company is a member of a liner conference, the tariff of that conference.
Liner freights transport of passengers.
Earned gross freight in form of liner freights for transport of passengers, including income from sale of goods. A liner freight for transport of passengers is a passenger's ship which is operated between scheduled, advertised ports of calling on a regular basis.
Bareboat charter income from Norwegian charterers.
Income from renting out the ship in the form of a bareboat charter party to Norwegian charterers. A bareboat charter or demise charter is when the charterers hire or charter the ship for a long period, appoint the master and crew, and pay all running expenses. In other words, the charterer takes over both, the management and commercial operation of the ship. The hire is calculated at so much per ton dead weight per calendar month. The charter hire may also be on a Lump Sum, q.v., daily basis.
Bareboat charter Income from foreign charterers
Income from renting out the ship in the form of a bareboat charter party to foreign charterers. A bareboat charter or demise charter is when the charterers hire or charter the ship for a long period, appoint the master and crew, and pay all running expenses. In other words, the charterer takes over both, the management and commercial operation of the ship. The hire is calculated at so much per ton dead weight per calendar month. The charter hire may also be on a Lump Sum, q.v., daily basis.
Time charter income from Norwegian time charterers
Income from renting out the ship in the form of a time charterparty to Norwegian time charterers. Under this type of contract, the shipowner places his ship, with crew and equipment at the disposal of the charterer for a period of time, q.v., for which the time charterer pays hire money. Subject to any restrictions in the contract, the charterer decides the time and quantity of cargo to be carried and the ports of loading and discharging. He is responsible for supplying the ship with bunkers and for the payment of cargo handling operations, port charges, pilotage, towage and ship's agency. The technical operation and navigation of the ship remains the responsability of the shipowner. Any amount of time where the ship si "off hire" is deducted from the agreed period of hire contract. Includes eqivalent income from agency/pool.
Time charter income from Offshore supply vessels
Income from renting out the ship in the form of a time charterparty as an offshore supply vessel. Under this type of contract, the shipowner places his ship, with crew and equipment at the disposal of the charterer for a period of time, q.v., for which the time charterer pays hire money. Subject to any restrictions in the contract, the charterer decides the time and quantity of cargo to be carried and the ports of loading and discharging. He is responsible for supplying the ship with bunkers and for the payment of cargo handling operations, port charges, pilotage, towage and ship's agency. The technical operation and navigation of the ship remain the responsability of the shipowner. Time of "off hire" is deducted from the agreed period of hire contract. Includes eqivalent income from agency/pool.
Time charter income from foreign charterers
Income from renting out the ship in the form of a time charterparty to foreign time charterers. Under this type of contract, the shipowner places his ship, with crew and equipment at the disposal of the charterer for a period of time, q.v., for which the time charterer pays hire money. Subject to any restrictions in the contract, the charterer decides the time and quantity of cargo to be carried and the ports of loading and discharging. He is responsible for supplying the ship with bunkers and for the payment of cargo handling operations, port charges, pilotage, towage and ship's agency. The technical operation and navigation of the ship remain the responsability of the shipowner. Time of "off hire" is deducted from the agreed period of hire contract. Includes eqivalent income from agency/pool.
Enterprise In the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) an enterprise is the smallest combination of legal entities that is an organizational unit producing goods or services, which benefits from a certain degree of autonomy in decision making.
Local kind-of-activity unit (local KAU) The SIC defines a local KAU as a functional unit, which at a single physical location is engaged primarily in activities within a specific activity group.
Location Location is according to municipal borders at 1 January 2002. In some industry divisions an enterprise can conduct business in several municipalities and counties without being divided into several KAUs. In such cases, the combined operations of the enterprise are registered at the office address of the enterprise.
Name: Operating survey for vessels in water transport
Topic: Transport and tourism
Division for Structural Business Statistics
Primary data and information on sample units and population are stored permanently as text-files.
The purpose of this survey is to show Norwegian shipping companies activity in foreign going trade. All vessels operated from Norway are included in the survey.
Users include public and private sector agencies, private organizations, individuals and organizations such as the National Accounts and other divisions of Statistics Norway. In addition to the tables included in this publication, a number of other or more detailed tables can be commissioned from Statistics Norway.
No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given inthe Statistics Release Calendar.
This survey is not new, until 2000 it was named "gross freight earnings and operating expenses for vessels in foreign-going trade". The survey was mainly based on collection of questionnaire forms where observation unit was the vessel. There was however low coverage of vessels in foreign ship registers.
Statistics Act Sections 2-2 and 2-3
The structural statistics for water transport are organized according to the NACE-standard (SN2007) and include the following industry divisions:
- 50.1 Sea and coastal passenger water transport
- 50.2 Sea and coastal freight water transport
- 50.3 Inland passenger water transport
The operating survey for vessels in foreign going trade comprise most of the enterprises and local KAUs that is registered in the abovementioned industry divisions, as long as the enterprise or local KAU was registered with activity in Norway in the relevant statistical year.
The exception is enterprises and local KAUs within the public service sectors 110, 510 and 550. Such units are not included in the structural business statistics for transport and tourism even though they should happen to have operations in the abovementioned industry.
However, all other enterprises and local KAUs in the public sector or owned by the public sector, i.e. units with sector codes 610, 630, 635, 660 and 680, are included in the statistics if they have activity in the abovementioned industry.
For a sample of the enterprises in the population, the statistics are based on Trading Statements (NO) and a supplementary questionnaire. The Trading Statements are either attached to the questionnaires or submitted electronically via the Norwegian Internal Revenue Service. Enterprises with more than one local KAU outside the sample are asked to report turnover and number of employees through the structural survey of Statistics Norway.
Information, like the accounts, turnover and number of employees, about the enterprises with only one local KAU outside the sample is obtained from the Register of Annual Company Reports in Brønnøysund, the VAT Register and A-ordningen (A-ordningen -from 2015, earlier from the Register of Employees and Employers, the AA Register). The remaining enterprises with only one local KAU are asked to report turnover through the structural survey of Statistics Norway.
The Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises is used to obtain necessary information about the population. The VAT Register, the Central Coordinating Register for Legal Entities, information from trade organizations and direct input from the enterprises are used to update the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises.
The population consists of all enterprises in the relevant industry divisions with registered activity in the reference year. The population is divided into subpopulations, called strata, after criteria like industrial classification and number of employees. In some of the strata, all enterprises are always included in the sample. From the remaining strata, a representative selection of enterprises is drawn. All enterprises in this sample are asked to report a full set of Trading Statements and to complete a questionnaire.
This detailed survey of accounting data is combined with the additional information from the various registers and the structural survey of Statistics Norway to form the basis for the estimation of the financial structures of the different industries and the transport and tourism sector as a whole.
The questionnaires are sent out within three months after the end of the statistical year, with a response deadline of three or four weeks. The enterprises that do not respond on the first letter will be given reminders in writing for about a further six months from the first deadline.
Editing and corrections are carried out on the information obtained from the sample population and the structural survey. The raw data are checked against reports for last year, the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises, the Register of Annual Company Reports in Brønnøysund and other available sources, and by contacting the respondent if necessary.
To enable an estimation of the total set of data (Trading Statements and questionnaire) for all enterprises that are not included in the sample, the collected material has to be representative for the entire population.
The likelihood of being in the sample increases with the size of enterprise turnover in the previous year. The contribution ratio (i.e. the ratio of turnover in the sample in relation to turnover in the population) is checked after the first selection round. Sampling rates are thereafter adjusted in industries with low contribution ratios.
Including the year 2001 The Standard Industrial Classification 1994 (SIC94) was used, as from 2002 The Standard Industrial Classification 2002(SIC2002) is used. This means that not all industries are comparable backwards on 4- and 5-digit level, this is marked with explanatory notes and/or breakes in the tables affected. The change of classification has no influence on 2- and 3-digit level.
For some industrial subclasses there has been a significant increase in the number of enterprises and local KAUs between 2001 and 2002. This is, to a large extent, due to better register information as a result of the value added tax (VAT) reform and enterprises and local KAUs with low turnover - that were previously not included - are included from 2002.
Updating of industries in the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises may also have caused revisions for some of the industries. These changes have not been dated back.
From 2009 personnell costs includes costs of crew hired through crewing companies. Prior to 2009 personnell coststs where limited to crew in permanent employment contracts.
The results of a statistical survey may contain some collection and processing errors.
Collection errors occur when the provider of the data gives incorrect answers due to forgetfulness, misunderstanding of questions etc. Processing errors are errors from coding or errors that occur during the transferring of information from the questionnaire to a machine-readable medium or during editing.
Sampling errors are errors that may arise in areas subject to sampling.
Variance for other variables than turnover and employment the statistics are based on estimated figures from sample-based surveys and not on figures from full censuses. When basing the statistics on sample-based surveying instead of a full census, there may be a certain statistical deviation between the properties of the sample population and the population. This imbalance in the sample will normally be reduced by increasing the size of the sample, and will therefore be closely connected to sampling rates percentages and contribution ratios for various key variables.
There are no fixed rules on acceptable sampling rates or contribution ratios. In a homogeneous population, that is a population where the units are similar to one another, a relatively low sampling rate or contribution ratio may give satisfactory results. On the other hand, in heterogeneous populations the sampling rate and contribution ratios should be higher.
Groups that are based on relatively few observations will easily be affected by observations that deviate from the group average. To identify and to help deciding what to do with such extreme observations in the production of the statistics, there has been developed a special programme.
Bias: Sample bias may arise when the distribution on some variables in different parts of the sample is not the same as the corresponding distribution in the population. Stratification is used in the structural business statistics to reduce the possibility of imbalance in the sample. When stratifying the population, it is divided into several unique subpopulations after criteria like industrial classification, turnover and number of employees. This is done to ensure that each subpopulation consists of units that are as homogenous as possible. The sample is then drawn from all of the subpopulations.
Non-responses that are not randomly distributes can still make the sample biased. Post-stratification adjusts any imbalances arising in the distribution between the stratification variables due to non-response.
Non-response: Non-response, that is when the respondent does not return the form or returns the form with incomplete information, will always be an aspect of form-based surveys. In the structural business statistics, non-respondent enterprises are treated the same way as enterprises outside the sample population.
In the structural business statistics, the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises, the Register of Annual Company Reports in Brønnøysund, the VAT Register and A-ordningen are used in order to define the population and help collect the necessary data.
Errors in these administrative registers - like time gaps in registration, incorrectly identified unit characteristics etc. may therefore be a potential source of uncertainty in the statistics and may for instance have an impact when dividing the population into adequate strata.
Analyses, articles and publications
Continued decline in gross freights for ocean transportPublished 3 June 2019
Total gross freights for enterprises within ocean transport were NOK 125.9 billion in 2017. The decline has continued in 2017, with a reduction of 10.6 percent from 2016.Read this article