400741
/en/nasjonalregnskap-og-konjunkturer/statistikker/knr/maaned
400741
statistikk
2020-11-17T08:00:00.000Z
National accounts and business cycles
en
knr, National accounts, gross domestic product, GDP, value added, gross product by industry, gross investments, household consumption, consumption in non-profit organisations, public consumption, material production, service production, export, import, wage costs, employment, man-hours, oil investments, mainland NorwayNational accounts , National accounts and business cycles
true

National accounts

Updated

Next update

Key figures

5.2 %

seasonally adjusted volume growth for GDP mainland Norway Q3 2020

Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Seasonally adjusted. Percentage change in volume12
YearRolling three-month sumMonth
20182019April 2020 - June 2020May 2020 - July 2020June 2020 - August 2020July 2020 - September 2020September 2020
1Figures from 2018 onwards are preliminary.
2Volume change in rolling three months is calculated by comparing a three-month period with the previous three-month period, for example GDP in May to July compared with February to April. Furthermore, a quarter will be the sum of three months. For example, the January-March period will refer to the first quarter.
Gross domestic product1.10.9-4.7-0.13.94.60.6
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway2.22.3-6.0-0.24.65.20.6
Petroleum activities and ocean transport-5.0-6.11.80.60.92.10.7
Final domestic use of goods and services2.12.3-7.8-0.55.96.30.0
Final consumption expenditure of households and NPISH1.61.4-10.80.69.89.51.5
Final consumption expenditure of general government0.51.9-2.00.52.53.00.1
Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF)2.24.8-1.8-0.6-1.1-1.15.2
Total exports-1.20.5-7.8-3.71.14.71.9
Total imports1.44.7-17.5-5.86.410.30.4
 
Employed persons1.61.6-2.5..-0.4
Total hours worked1.61.8-4.3..3.4

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
Revised figures of final expenditure and gross domestic product. Quarterly. Percentage change in volume

Revised figures of final expenditure and gross domestic product. Quarterly. Percentage change in volume
 3 rd quarter 20194 th quarter 20191 st quarter 20202 nd quarter 2020
 Seasonally adjusted figuresUnadjusted figuresSeasonally adjusted figuresUnadjusted figuresSeasonally adjusted figuresUnadjusted figuresSeasonally adjusted figuresUnadjusted figures
 Percentage change in volume from the previous periodPercentage change in volume from the same period in the previous yearPercentage change in volume from the previous periodPercentage change in volume from the same period in the previous yearPercentage change in volume from the previous periodPercentage change in volume from the same period in the previous yearPercentage change in volume from the previous periodPercentage change in volume from the same period in the previous year
 New resultFormer resultNew resultFormer resultNew resultFormer resultNew resultFormer resultNew resultFormer resultNew resultFormer resultNew resultFormer resultNew resultFormer result
Gross domestic product (GDP)-0.10.00.81.21.71.51.71.8-1.5-1.71.20.9-4.7-5.1-4.0-4.7
GDP Mainland Norway0.70.63.73.60.00.11.71.8-2.1-2.2-0.1-0.2-6.0-6.3-6.6-6.8
Household final consumtion expenditure0.40.32.12.2-0.4-0.30.80.9-4.3-4.3-3.8-3.9-10.4-10.3-13.4-13.2
Final consumption of general government0.60.62.22.00.70.72.92.60.2-0.22.21.8-2.0-2.2-0.7-1.2
Gross fixed capital formation2.82.58.17.9-0.60.04.55.2-4.8-5.11.60.4-1.8-3.4-4.9-6.4
Exports-1.9-1.5-3.0-1.66.85.54.54.8-1.5-0.93.23.4-7.8-8.7-4.4-5.5
Imports0.1-0.25.36.4-1.4-0.53.03.8-3.4-4.1-2.7-2.5-17.5-16.7-21.3-20.7

Table 2 
Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Monthly. Seasonally adjusted figures. Percentage change in volume from the previous period

Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Monthly. Seasonally adjusted figures. Percentage change in volume from the previous period1
February 2020March 2020April 2020May 2020June 2020July 2020August 2020September 2020
1Figures from 2018 onwards are preliminary
2Gross domestic product is measured at market prices, while value added by industry is measured at basic prices
3Includes oil and gas extraction, transport via pipelines and ocean transport
Final consumption expenditure of households and NPISHs0.9-13.0-8.15.77.23.3-1.41.5
¬ Household final consumption expenditure0.9-13.0-7.96.07.23.3-1.61.5
¬¬ Goods2.2-4.32.84.75.43.4-5.43.8
¬¬ Services-0.4-16.8-13.87.58.82.12.50.4
¬¬ Direct purchases abroad by resident households0.0-55.9-97.434.0162.5220.723.1-45.0
¬¬ Direct purchases by non-residents-2.8-55.9-78.9-5.3-7.891.613.04.2
¬ Final consumption expenditure of NPISHs1.8-12.4-11.8-0.76.12.81.7-0.2
Final consumption expenditure of general governmen-0.1-2.1-1.91.41.30.81.10.1
¬ Final consumption expenditure of central government-0.2-3.0-2.31.83.3-0.20.80.4
¬¬¬ Central government, civilian-0.3-3.4-2.72.03.7-0.20.90.4
¬¬¬ Central government, defence0.30.10.50.00.7-0.20.40.8
¬ Final consumption expenditure of local government-0.1-1.2-1.61.1-0.71.91.4-0.2
Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF)2.4-3.3-2.32.90.2-2.9-1.55.2
¬ Extraction and transport via pipelines (GFCF)-2.41.0-3.9-1.51.6-3.9-0.9-1.8
¬ Ocean transport (GFCF)372.2-98.9....2 699.6-87.7824.5-96.5
¬ Mainland Norway (GFCF)1.4-1.8-1.53.6-0.7-2.1-2.37.6
¬¬ Mainland Norway excluding general government (GFCF)1.7-1.9-4.52.01.9-1.8-3.37.1
¬¬¬ Industries (GFCF)1.8-4.2-5.62.13.4-3.1-2.810.1
¬¬¬¬ Services activities incidential to extraction (GFCF)5.7-5.3-6.4-2.61.6-11.21.11.6
¬¬¬¬ Other services (GFCF)0.5-4.6-7.93.14.2-4.0-1.814.6
¬¬¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GFCF)2.0-0.5-8.30.21.72.0-0.52.1
¬¬¬¬ Production of other goods (GFCF)4.8-5.52.21.22.5-3.7-6.54.6
¬¬¬ Dwelling service (households) (GFCF)1.52.2-2.61.9-0.60.4-4.22.3
¬¬¬ General government (GFCF)0.9-1.55.77.1-6.1-2.70.08.7
Acquisitions less disposals of valuables-1.2-47.3-80.11.039.9288.0-43.0-30.5
Changes in stocks and statistical discrepancies-23.9-18.0-36.3-9.042.55.182.4-35.4
Gross capital formation-2.2-5.3-6.32.03.2-2.17.3-2.0
Final domestic use of goods and services-0.3-8.0-5.93.44.41.01.70.0
Final demand from Mainland Norway (excl. changes in stocks)0.7-7.5-4.73.93.51.3-0.92.4
Final demand from general government0.0-2.0-0.52.6-0.30.10.91.8
Total exports2.1-1.4-8.1-0.32.43.2-0.91.9
¬ Traditional goods (export)2.3-2.4-4.7-3.5-0.66.05.51.8
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (export)6.2-0.6-2.91.64.01.5-4.53.3
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (export)-91.51 717.7-80.818.791.849.2-62.8-70.7
¬ Services (export)-0.5-7.3-15.80.31.61.40.80.8
Total use of goods and services0.4-6.1-6.62.33.81.71.00.6
Total imports-0.6-9.4-15.52.68.23.40.50.4
¬ Tradisjonelle varer (import)-0.9-3.3-9.11.310.06.1-1.20.0
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (import)-13.9-16.8-1.5-28.116.3-31.158.8-38.0
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (import)9.5-11.2-50.0159.97.5-55.727.984.5
¬ Services (import)0.3-18.7-26.0-0.83.38.80.0-2.9
Gross domestic product, market values20.7-5.0-3.82.22.61.21.10.6
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, market values20.3-6.4-4.62.83.21.21.00.6
Petroleum activities and ocean transport32.61.9-0.1-0.3-0.10.91.50.7
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, basic values0.3-6.3-4.82.63.10.71.50.5
¬ Mainland Norway excluding general government (GDP)0.4-6.2-5.12.12.60.91.60.5
¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GDP)0.3-3.2-3.1-1.4-1.00.45.8-1.9
¬¬ Production of other goods (GDP)1.2-3.2-0.81.30.53.2-1.90.8
¬¬ Service activities (GDP)0.3-7.5-6.73.03.80.41.80.8
¬ General government (GDP)-0.2-6.7-3.83.94.60.21.40.3
Taxes and subsidies products0.7-7.2-3.54.13.84.2-2.21.6

Table 3 
Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Rolling three-month sum. Seasonally adjusted. Percentage change in volume

Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Rolling three-month sum. Seasonally adjusted. Percentage change in volume12
December 2019 - February 2020January 2020 - March 2020February 2020 - April 2020March 2020 - May 2020April 2020 - June 2020May 2020 - July 2020June 2020 - August 2020July 2020 - September 2020
1Figures from 2018 onwards are prelimanry
2Rolling three-month growth is calculated by comparing a three-month period with the previous three-month period, for example growth in May to July compared with February to April. Furthermore, March, June, September and December represent the quarters in a year. For example, March will represent the first quarter.
3Gross domestic product is measured at market prices, while value added by industry is measured at basic prices.
4Includes oil and gas extraction, transport via pipelines and ocean transport.
Final consumption expenditure of households and NPISHs-0.5-4.3-10.5-15.6-10.80.69.89.5
¬ Household final consumption expenditure-0.6-4.3-10.5-15.4-10.41.210.29.6
¬¬ Goods-1.6-1.8-1.10.25.510.010.06.0
¬¬ Services0.5-5.7-15.4-22.9-17.9-3.210.912.4
¬¬ Direct purchases abroad by resident households0.7-16.2-50.4-84.2-97.3-87.5-30.8460.2
¬¬ Direct purchases by non-residents4.4-19.0-50.2-79.9-89.4-78.8-33.696.3
¬ Final consumption expenditure of NPISHs1.0-4.1-11.0-19.0-17.6-8.73.57.7
Final consumption expenditure of general governmen1.00.2-1.6-2.8-2.00.52.53.0
¬ Final consumption expenditure of central government2.11.4-1.5-3.4-2.11.33.93.3
¬¬¬ Central government, civilian2.31.6-1.8-3.9-2.61.44.33.6
¬¬¬ Central government, defence0.4-0.30.10.50.90.80.90.8
¬ Final consumption expenditure of local government0.0-0.9-1.8-2.2-1.9-0.21.22.6
Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF)-4.0-4.8-3.5-3.7-1.8-0.6-1.1-1.1
¬ Extraction and transport via pipelines (GFCF)-1.7-6.0-6.2-5.4-4.6-4.1-3.7-4.6
¬ Ocean transport (GFCF)13.0109.6343.1..-91.0-70.5..166.2
¬ Mainland Norway (GFCF)-4.6-5.0-3.4-2.3-0.10.8-1.0-0.4
¬¬ Mainland Norway excluding general government (GFCF)-4.1-4.8-4.0-4.5-3.3-1.1-0.60.2
¬¬¬ Industries (GFCF)-2.7-4.6-5.2-7.4-5.3-2.0-0.21.1
¬¬¬¬ Services activities incidential to extraction (GFCF)-13.1-18.9-14.7-14.2-9.2-11.1-9.4-10.0
¬¬¬¬ Other services (GFCF)-2.8-1.9-4.4-7.9-7.5-2.70.13.2
¬¬¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GFCF)-6.2-10.6-9.2-9.0-7.3-3.90.03.6
¬¬¬¬ Production of other goods (GFCF)0.7-6.3-3.9-4.71.61.2-0.7-4.6
¬¬¬ Dwelling service (households) (GFCF)-6.5-5.1-1.90.50.40.6-1.3-1.5
¬¬¬ General government (GFCF)-6.0-5.7-2.03.17.65.1-1.8-1.8
Acquisitions less disposals of valuables5.8-8.9-42.5-74.9-85.9-49.342.2214.9
Changes in stocks and statistical discrepancies27.031.6-12.1-42.7-46.5-20.348.070.1
Gross capital formation-0.5-0.9-4.5-9.3-8.2-2.93.34.8
Final domestic use of goods and services-0.1-2.2-6.5-10.5-7.8-0.55.96.3
Final demand from Mainland Norway (excl. changes in stocks)-1.1-3.2-6.5-9.1-5.90.65.15.2
Final demand from general government-0.4-1.0-1.7-1.6-0.21.41.62.0
Total exports3.1-1.5-5.0-7.3-7.8-3.71.14.7
¬ Traditional goods (export)-0.9-2.7-3.6-6.5-8.0-5.91.28.8
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (export)7.6-2.4-3.2-2.01.02.63.52.6
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (export)-33.062.4-15.325.2-49.65.7-6.212.6
¬ Services (export)2.5-0.3-8.9-16.9-19.6-12.0-3.13.3
Total use of goods and services0.8-2.0-6.1-9.6-7.8-1.44.55.9
Total imports-0.2-3.4-11.5-18.8-17.5-5.86.410.3
¬ Tradisjonelle varer (import)0.0-1.7-6.1-9.8-7.72.211.312.6
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (import)25.91.1-24.4-33.6-30.1-34.2-14.9-19.5
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (import)-20.324.76.7-6.81.326.30.3-10.1
¬ Services (import)-0.2-8.2-20.5-33.4-35.4-21.9-2.69.8
Gross domestic product, market values31.1-1.5-4.3-6.6-4.7-0.13.94.6
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, market values-0.2-2.1-5.5-8.3-6.0-0.24.65.2
Petroleum activities and ocean transport47.91.41.71.81.80.60.92.1
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, basic values0.1-1.8-5.4-8.3-6.3-0.74.24.9
¬ Mainland Norway excluding general government (GDP)-0.2-1.9-5.4-8.4-6.9-1.63.44.6
¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GDP)0.4-1.3-3.1-5.7-6.3-5.0-0.82.5
¬¬ Production of other goods (GDP)-2.0-0.4-0.8-1.7-1.51.02.62.9
¬¬ Service activities (GDP)0.2-2.4-6.9-10.6-8.4-1.74.35.5
¬ General government (GDP)0.8-1.6-5.4-7.9-4.41.96.55.6
Taxes and subsidies products-1.6-3.9-6.4-8.2-4.33.07.57.2

Table 4 
Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Quarter and year. At current prices. NOK million

Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Quarter and year. At current prices. NOK million1
201820193rd quarter 20194th quarter 20191st quarter 20202nd quarter 20203rd quarter 2020
1Figures from 2019 onwards are prelimanry
2Gross domestic product is measured at market prices, while value added by industry is measured at basic prices
3Includes oil and gas extraction, transport via pipelines and ocean transport.
Final consumption expenditure of households and NPISHs1 526 8771 583 194389 218415 395375 572349 006369 224
¬ Household final consumption expenditure1 446 5351 497 604370 084392 007353 768329 999351 830
¬¬ Goods668 301677 948166 590181 366153 678178 168185 466
¬¬ Services704 739743 791185 559189 196186 000152 205164 937
¬¬ Direct purchases abroad by resident households121 710127 38539 57528 95721 7248545 282
¬¬ Direct purchases by non-residents-48 215-51 520-21 639-7 513-7 634-1 228-3 854
¬ Final consumption expenditure of NPISHs80 34285 59019 13423 38821 80319 00717 393
Final consumption expenditure of general governmen826 111868 066216 554218 133223 620234 741225 223
¬ Final consumption expenditure of central government403 644423 407105 137107 661109 601115 121111 114
¬¬¬ Central government, civilian355 562372 08792 58294 12296 730100 99498 072
¬¬¬ Central government, defence48 08251 32112 55613 53912 87114 12713 042
¬ Final consumption expenditure of local government422 467444 659111 417110 472114 019119 620114 108
 
Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF)850 304914 603234 718243 620219 824223 121222 795
¬ Extraction and transport via pipelines (GFCF)153 077178 12145 90549 80544 52945 40343 342
¬ Ocean transport (GFCF)8 3182 8158449922 053254590
¬ Mainland Norway (GFCF)688 909733 668187 969192 823173 242177 464178 863
¬¬ Industries (GFCF)301 448325 43882 01888 34175 86177 07276 851
¬¬¬ Services activities incidential to extraction (GFCF)2 7153 8719201 098791780567
¬¬¬ Other services (GFCF)182 608192 90647 78550 15047 36845 17445 045
¬¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GFCF)40 42551 58512 55715 86111 30611 26311 117
¬¬¬ Production of other goods (GFCF)75 70077 07720 75621 23316 39619 85620 121
¬¬ welling service (households) (GFCF)193 519194 76349 22348 03344 85845 88145 500
¬¬ General government (GFCF)193 942213 46756 72956 44852 52354 51156 513
Acquisitions less disposals of valuables35739384111911627
Changes in stocks and statistical discrepancies146 479144 84625 83931 91860 2453 21022 235
Gross capital formation997 1401 059 842260 642275 649280 160226 347245 057
 
Final domestic use of goods and services3 350 1283 511 102866 414909 177879 352810 094839 504
Final demand from Mainland Norway (excl. changes in stocks)3 041 8973 184 927793 742826 351772 434761 211773 310
Final demand from general government1 020 0531 081 532273 283274 582276 143289 252281 736
 
Total exports1 349 4761 296 221303 366344 054313 402238 869254 639
¬ Traditional goods (export)410 429432 332103 125113 063108 11295 63195 843
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (export)569 275463 69491 291131 239108 03561 29876 283
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (export)12 02712 4742 7322 1913 7311 9792 058
¬ Services (export)357 745387 721106 21897 56193 52479 96180 455
 
Total use of goods and services4 699 6044 807 3231 169 7801 253 2311 192 7541 048 9631 094 142
 
Total imports1 145 7041 238 835316 592319 385292 955259 277276 674
¬ Tradisjonelle varer (import)680 013736 179179 873188 275181 143175 821187 556
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (import)24 17824 9757 8547 2135 9173 2083 511
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (import)37 88335 57210 1187 3339 20710 2419 040
¬ Services (import)403 630442 109118 747116 56496 68870 00776 567
 
Gross domestic product, market values23 553 9003 568 488853 188933 847899 799789 686817 468
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, market values22 935 3783 068 407751 986795 791784 452726 706737 339
 
Petroleum activities and ocean transport3618 522500 081101 201138 056115 34762 98080 129
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, basic values2 543 0222 669 508652 035691 109691 423632 030637 044
¬ Mainland Norway excluding general government (GDP)1 901 2341 992 855483 120520 996520 128451 480462 725
¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GDP)218 578231 21157 12059 09262 89256 38954 923
¬¬ Production of other goods (GDP)352 825358 77087 71796 99090 19468 02580 372
¬¬ Service activities (GDP)1 329 8311 402 874338 283364 914367 043327 065327 430
¬ General government (GDP)641 788676 653168 914170 113171 295180 550174 318
Taxes and subsidies products392 356398 89999 952104 68193 02994 676100 296

Table 5 
Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Quarter and year. At constant 2017-prices. NOK million

Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Quarter and year. At constant 2017-prices. NOK million1
201820193rd quarter 20194th quarter 20191st quarter 20202nd quarter 20203rd quarter 2020
1Figures from 2018 onwards are preliminary
2Gross domestic product is measured at market prices, while value added by industry is measured at basic prices
Final consumption expenditure of households and NPISHs1 526 8771 548 014384 044404 452359 532333 262357 446
¬ Household final consumption expenditure1 446 5351 465 262365 157382 656338 428316 632341 027
¬¬ Goods668 301668 007164 484178 373153 660175 138179 958
¬¬ Services704 739724 766183 514184 552172 200141 938160 070
¬¬ Direct purchases abroad by resident households121 710122 75238 15727 04719 9507414 682
¬¬ Direct purchases by non-residents-48 215-50 264-20 998-7 316-7 382-1 185-3 683
¬ Final consumption expenditure of NPISHs80 34282 75318 88721 79621 10416 63016 419
Final consumption expenditure of general governmen826 111841 508210 479211 636212 505209 983213 995
¬ Final consumption expenditure of central government403 644411 130103 144103 657105 229103 293106 425
¬¬¬ Central government, civilian355 562361 20390 63090 87092 55390 43993 486
¬¬¬ Central government, defence48 08249 92712 51412 78612 67512 85412 939
¬ Final consumption expenditure of local government422 467430 378107 335107 979107 277106 691107 571
 
Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF)850 304891 426228 703235 410210 828208 965210 790
¬ Extraction and transport via pipelines (GFCF)153 077172 30644 42447 42541 41040 50640 161
¬ Ocean transport (GFCF)8 3182 6428239161 911190468
¬ Mainland Norway (GFCF)688 909716 478183 456187 068167 507168 269170 162
¬¬Næringer (bruttoinvestering)301 448318 27480 38185 71973 13972 89673 322
¬¬¬ Services activities incidential to extraction (GFCF)2 7153 7668981 060753728537
¬¬¬ Other services (GFCF)182 608189 00146 93948 76545 81442 83443 182
¬¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GFCF)40 42550 29312 27015 37010 82910 57510 533
¬¬¬ Production of other goods (GFCF)75 70075 21420 27320 52415 74318 75919 070
¬¬ Dwelling service (households) (GFCF)193 519190 30047 91446 68043 61543 87443 358
¬¬ General government (GFCF)193 942207 90455 16154 66950 75351 49853 482
Acquisitions less disposals of valuables35737881106841424
Changes in stocks and statistical discrepancies146 479145 78826 64732 92658 3486 15121 015
Gross capital formation997 1401 037 592255 431268 442269 260215 130231 830
 
Final domestic use of goods and services3 350 1283 427 114849 954884 530841 297758 375803 271
Final demand from Mainland Norway (excl. changes in stocks)3 041 8973 106 001777 979803 156739 545711 514741 603
Final demand from general government1 020 0531 049 412265 641266 305263 259261 482267 477
 
Total exports1 349 4761 356 582329 619356 192350 147316 837327 519
¬ Traditional goods (export)410 429429 387104 425111 303105 16696 962103 029
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (export)569 275544 745121 334152 122156 107141 228143 593
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (export)12 02712 1952 5652 0083 2621 6441 852
¬ Services (export)357 745370 256101 29590 75985 61277 00379 045
 
Total use of goods and services4 699 6044 783 6971 179 5731 240 7211 191 4441 075 2121 130 789
 
Total imports1 145 7041 199 522307 270300 424278 737240 210259 927
¬ Tradisjonelle varer (import)680 013718 462175 843179 501173 841162 560176 574
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (import)24 17825 3968 0767 1516 9044 9504 700
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (import)37 88333 0159 5566 5748 1968 3067 464
¬ Services (import)403 630422 650113 794107 19889 79764 39571 190
 
Gross domestic product, market values23 553 9003 584 175872 303940 298912 707835 002870 863
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, market values22 935 3783 003 219741 439780 690748 410683 429718 651
 
Petroleum activities and ocean transport618 522580 956130 865159 608164 297151 573152 212
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, basic values2 543 0222 605 506642 257677 713654 604591 715621 222
¬ Mainland Norway excluding general government (GDP)1 901 2341 949 758478 007512 113492 704435 743457 149
¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GDP)218 578224 46853 93958 20757 37752 34051 575
¬¬ Production of other goods (GDP)352 825358 09990 24497 12393 45177 64389 538
¬¬ Service activities (GDP)1 329 8311 367 192333 824356 782341 877305 760316 036
¬ General government (GDP)641 788655 748164 250165 600161 900155 972164 073
Taxes and subsidies products392 356397 71399 182102 97793 80691 71497 429

Table 6 
Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Quarter and year. Percentage change in volume from the same period in the previous year

Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Quarter and year. Percentage change in volume from the same period in the previous year1
201820193rd quarter 20194th quarter 20191st quarter 20202nd quarter 20203rd quarter 2020
1Figures from 2019 onwards are prelimanry
2Gross domestic product is measured at market prices, while value added by industry is measured at basic prices.
3Includes oil and gas extraction, transport via pipelines and ocean transport.
Final consumption expenditure of households and NPISHs1.61.42.30.9-3.6-13.8-6.9
¬ Household final consumption expenditure1.71.32.10.8-3.8-13.4-6.6
¬¬ Goods2.50.01.0-0.3-2.04.19.4
¬¬ Services1.12.83.03.2-3.2-20.6-12.8
¬¬ Direct purchases abroad by resident households0.90.93.2-5.1-21.6-97.7-87.7
¬¬ Direct purchases by non-residents1.84.23.010.5-13.7-91.2-82.5
¬ Final consumption expenditure of NPISHs-0.53.04.63.0-1.6-19.4-13.1
Final consumption expenditure of general governmen0.51.92.22.92.2-0.71.7
¬ Final consumption expenditure of central government-0.11.92.13.23.60.63.2
¬¬¬ Central government, civilian-0.11.61.82.73.50.23.2
¬¬¬ Central government, defence0.33.84.16.53.93.43.4
¬ Final consumption expenditure of local government1.11.92.22.60.8-1.80.2
 
Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF)2.24.88.14.51.6-4.9-7.8
¬ Extraction and transport via pipelines (GFCF)0.712.610.312.310.5-5.8-9.6
¬ Ocean transport (GFCF)738.3-68.2242.1-54.7557.8-69.0-43.2
¬ Mainland Norway (GFCF)1.54.07.33.3-1.4-4.5-7.2
¬¬ Industries (GFCF)3.15.68.84.4-1.3-6.6-8.8
¬¬¬ Services activities incidential to extraction (GFCF)-37.138.760.033.0-6.7-27.2-40.2
¬¬¬ Other services (GFCF)0.73.56.4-0.1-1.5-8.4-8.0
¬¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GFCF)4.024.433.923.4-0.8-9.9-14.2
¬¬¬ Production of other goods (GFCF)11.6-0.61.22.3-0.71.1-5.9
¬¬ Dwelling service (households) (GFCF)-6.5-1.71.5-3.7-8.6-8.6-9.5
¬¬ General government (GFCF)8.17.210.48.35.72.8-3.0
Acquisitions less disposals of valuables-5.25.86.84.5-13.1-85.3-69.8
Changes in stocks and statistical discrepancies20.0-0.58.4-23.5-2.3-76.8-21.1
Gross capital formation4.34.18.10.00.7-12.7-9.2
 
Final domestic use of goods and services2.12.33.91.1-0.9-10.2-5.5
Final demand from Mainland Norway (excl. changes in stocks)1.32.13.42.0-1.5-8.1-4.7
Final demand from general government1.92.93.84.02.80.00.7
 
Total exports-1.20.5-3.04.53.2-4.4-0.6
¬ Traditional goods (export)1.54.65.61.5-3.1-7.8-1.3
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (export)-5.0-4.3-13.35.88.510.918.3
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (export)-33.01.4-15.977.84.4-63.4-27.8
¬ Services (export)2.43.53.35.22.1-18.4-22.0
 
Total use of goods and services1.21.81.92.00.3-8.5-4.1
 
Total imports1.44.75.33.0-2.7-21.3-15.4
¬ Tradisjonelle varer (import)2.95.75.91.5-3.9-10.80.4
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (import)37.15.035.325.447.7-9.9-41.8
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (import)-16.7-12.91.4-17.626.0-20.0-21.9
¬ Services (import)-0.24.72.96.1-4.8-40.0-37.4
 
Gross domestic product, market values21.10.90.81.71.2-4.0-0.2
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, market values22.22.33.71.7-0.1-6.6-3.1
 
Petroleum activities and ocean transport3-5.0-6.1-13.31.87.89.816.3
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, basic values2.32.53.91.80.3-6.5-3.3
¬ Mainland Norway excluding general government (GDP)2.92.64.51.60.4-7.1-4.4
¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GDP)1.72.73.61.21.4-6.1-4.4
¬¬ Production of other goods (GDP)1.21.57.1-0.21.5-1.2-0.8
¬¬ Service activities (GDP)3.52.83.92.10.0-8.7-5.3
¬ General government (GDP)0.82.22.32.50.0-4.9-0.1
Taxes and subsidies products1.51.42.51.2-2.8-7.4-1.8

Table 7 
Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Quarter and year. Percentage change in prices from the same period in the previous year

Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Quarter and year. Percentage change in prices from the same period in the previous year1
201820193rd quarter 20194th quarter 20191st quarter 20202nd quarter 20203rd quarter 2020
1Figures from 2019 onwards are prelimanry
2Gross domestic product is measured at market prices, while value added by industry is measured at basic prices.
3Includes oil and gas extraction, transport via pipelines and ocean transport.
Final consumption expenditure of households and NPISHs2.22.31.91.81.92.21.9
¬ Household final consumption expenditure2.12.21.91.81.81.81.8
¬¬ Goods2.61.50.60.1-1.50.31.8
¬¬ Services1.62.62.72.94.13.91.9
¬¬ Direct purchases abroad by resident households2.83.83.75.96.912.48.8
¬¬ Direct purchases by non-residents3.02.52.42.22.31.21.5
¬ Final consumption expenditure of NPISHs2.23.43.62.43.68.74.6
Final consumption expenditure of general governmen3.93.23.52.73.86.22.3
¬ Final consumption expenditure of central government3.73.02.92.03.16.02.4
¬¬¬ Central government, civilian3.63.02.82.53.26.42.7
¬¬¬ Central government, defence4.72.83.9-1.32.83.70.5
¬ Final consumption expenditure of local government4.13.34.23.44.56.32.2
 
Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF)2.82.62.21.82.74.03.0
¬ Extraction and transport via pipelines (GFCF)1.43.44.72.56.38.24.4
¬ Ocean transport (GFCF)5.16.6-7.810.4-7.327.423.0
¬ Mainland Norway (GFCF)3.02.41.71.61.92.92.6
¬¬ Industries (GFCF)2.82.31.52.02.13.52.7
¬¬¬ Services activities incidential to extraction (GFCF)1.82.82.32.02.84.33.1
¬¬¬ Other services (GFCF)2.52.11.31.61.93.32.5
¬¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GFCF)2.62.61.03.52.33.93.1
¬¬¬ Production of other goods (GFCF)3.52.51.92.02.53.63.1
¬¬ Dwelling service (households) (GFCF)3.32.31.51.01.52.12.1
¬¬ General government (GFCF)3.22.72.11.41.82.92.7
Acquisitions less disposals of valuables-3.03.94.64.55.913.28.3
Changes in stocks and statistical discrepancies13.6-0.62.92.82.9-49.19.1
Gross capital formation4.22.12.32.22.82.53.6
 
Final domestic use of goods and services3.22.52.42.22.73.52.5
Final demand from Mainland Norway (excl. changes in stocks)2.82.52.32.02.43.62.2
Final demand from general government3.83.13.32.53.45.52.4
 
Total exports14.1-4.4-9.4-6.8-9.1-20.6-15.5
¬ Traditional goods (export)6.20.7-0.91.62.7-3.6-5.8
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (export)30.3-14.9-28.2-19.1-26.4-47.8-29.4
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (export)0.92.35.211.216.021.14.3
¬ Services (export)3.04.76.14.15.01.3-2.9
 
Total use of goods and services6.10.5-0.9-0.4-0.7-3.3-2.4
 
Total imports4.43.33.04.23.75.53.3
¬ Tradisjonelle varer (import)4.62.52.02.93.36.23.8
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (import)28.3-1.7-8.01.4-9.2-35.2-23.2
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (import)2.67.76.19.14.614.914.4
¬ Services (import)3.24.64.86.15.25.83.1
 
Gross domestic product, market values26.7-0.4-2.3-1.9-2.1-5.8-4.0
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, market values22.82.22.31.62.92.81.2
 
Petroleum activities and ocean transport329.4-13.9-26.3-18.4-25.9-50.7-31.9
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, basic values2.82.52.71.93.12.81.0
¬ Mainland Norway excluding general government (GDP)2.42.22.21.62.40.60.1
¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GDP)-0.53.08.50.78.44.00.6
¬¬ Production of other goods (GDP)7.80.2-4.5-1.7-6.7-12.6-7.7
¬¬ Service activities (GDP)1.52.63.12.73.93.32.2
¬ General government (GDP)4.33.24.22.75.28.73.3
Taxes and subsidies products2.90.3-0.20.11.22.62.2

Table 8 
Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Quarter and year. Seasonally adjusted figures. At current prices. NOK million

Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Quarter and year. Seasonally adjusted figures. At current prices. NOK million1
201820193rd quarter 20194th quarter 20191st quarter 20202nd quarter 20203rd quarter 2020
1Figures from 2019 onwards are prelimanry
2Includes oil and gas extraction, transport via pipelines and ocean transport.
Final consumption expenditure of households and NPISHs1 526 8771 583 194399 166400 755385 952345 289378 444
¬ Household final consumption expenditure1 446 5351 497 604377 561378 838364 565326 873358 920
¬¬ Goods668 301677 948170 622170 342165 562175 702188 251
¬¬ Services704 739743 791187 335190 561183 081151 562168 738
¬¬ Direct purchases abroad by resident households121 710127 38532 41131 59427 0437844 252
¬¬ Direct purchases by non-residents-48 215-51 520-12 806-13 659-11 121-1 175-2 321
¬ Final consumption expenditure of NPISHs80 34285 59021 60521 91721 38718 41619 524
Final consumption expenditure of general governmen826 111868 066218 774220 758226 175227 530227 495
¬ Final consumption expenditure of central government403 644423 407106 479107 052111 724112 305112 543
¬¬¬ Central government, civilian355 562372 08793 47693 93598 37898 68299 037
¬¬¬ Central government, defence48 08251 32113 00313 11713 34613 62213 506
¬ Final consumption expenditure of local government422 467444 659112 295113 706114 450115 226114 952
 
Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF)850 304914 603234 825234 563226 395226 154222 349
¬ Extraction and transport via pipelines (GFCF)153 077178 12145 43048 10246 32845 91342 826
¬ Ocean transport (GFCF)8 3182 8158409962 070237586
¬ Mainland Norway (GFCF)688 909733 668188 555185 464177 996180 004178 937
¬¬ Industries (GFCF)301 448325 43883 02083 35380 06877 08677 614
¬¬¬ Services activities incidential to extraction (GFCF)2 7153 8711 025992815756669
¬¬¬ Other services (GFCF)182 608192 90649 06548 51147 91145 07546 268
¬¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GFCF)40 42551 58513 42613 71212 31911 56411 938
¬¬¬ Production of other goods (GFCF)75 70077 07719 50420 13719 02219 69018 739
¬¬ Dwelling service (households) (GFCF)193 519194 76349 07647 33645 66545 96545 290
¬¬ General government (GFCF)193 942213 46756 45954 77552 26356 95256 033
Acquisitions less disposals of valuables35739399101891442
Changes in stocks and statistical discrepancies146 479144 84637 77431 21836 2679 89431 324
Gross capital formation997 1401 059 842272 698265 881262 751236 062253 715
 
Final domestic use of goods and services3 350 1283 511 102890 639887 394874 878808 881859 654
Final demand from Mainland Norway (excl. changes in stocks)3 041 8973 184 927806 496806 978790 123752 822784 876
Final demand from general government1 020 0531 081 532275 233275 533278 438284 482283 528
 
Total exports1 349 4761 296 221309 921332 138310 489246 939268 661
¬ Traditional goods (export)410 429432 332106 528110 566108 09895 05899 317
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (export)569 275463 694101 883119 86598 34770 46787 093
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (export)12 02712 4742 7322 1913 7311 9792 058
¬ Services (export)357 745387 72198 77899 516100 31379 43580 194
 
Total use of goods and services4 699 6044 807 3231 200 5601 219 5331 185 3661 055 8201 128 315
 
Total imports1 145 7041 238 835313 617313 371303 186258 423280 707
¬ Tradisjonelle varer (import)680 013736 179184 802183 612181 379174 522192 665
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (import)24 17824 9757 3717 0826 5373 4793 005
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (import)37 88335 57210 1187 3339 20710 2419 040
¬ Services (import)403 630442 109111 326115 344106 06370 18275 998
 
Gross domestic product, market values3 553 9003 568 488886 942906 162882 181797 397847 608
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, market values2 935 3783 068 407776 306780 468772 740729 889759 542
 
Petroleum activities and ocean transport2618 522500 081110 636125 694109 44167 50888 066
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, basic values2 543 0222 669 508676 024680 411675 998635 755659 067
¬ Mainland Norway excluding general government (GDP)1 901 2341 992 855504 917507 906501 774462 551482 508
¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GDP)218 578231 21160 39359 40361 34056 80257 666
¬¬ Production of other goods (GDP)352 825358 77090 40089 42185 40076 95782 010
¬¬ Service activities (GDP)1 329 8311 402 874354 124359 082355 034328 792342 832
¬ General government (GDP)641 788676 653171 107172 505174 225173 204176 559
Taxes and subsidies products392 356398 899100 282100 05796 74294 135100 475

Table 9 
Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Quarter and year. Seasonally adjusted figures. At constant 2017-prices. NOK million

Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Quarter and year. Seasonally adjusted figures. At constant 2017-prices. NOK million1
201820193rd quarter 20194th quarter 20191st quarter 20202nd quarter 20203rd quarter 2020
1Figures from 2018 onwards are preliminary
2Gross domestic product is measured at market prices, while value added by industry is measured at basic prices.
3Includes oil and gas extraction, transport via pipelines and ocean transport.
Final consumption expenditure of households and NPISHs1 526 8771 548 014390 302388 966372 289332 017363 447
¬ Household final consumption expenditure1 446 5351 465 262369 403367 984352 168315 444345 592
¬¬ Goods668 301668 007168 617167 622164 555173 587184 077
¬¬ Services704 739724 766182 075183 817173 389142 318159 964
¬¬ Direct purchases abroad by resident households121 710122 75231 18029 73124 9066753 779
¬¬ Direct purchases by non-residents-48 215-50 264-12 470-13 187-10 681-1 135-2 228
¬ Final consumption expenditure of NPISHs80 34282 75320 89920 98120 12116 57317 855
Final consumption expenditure of general governmen826 111841 508210 996212 385212 788208 440214 614
¬ Final consumption expenditure of central government403 644411 130103 125103 864105 286103 029106 422
¬¬¬ Central government, civilian355 562361 20390 61091 10992 56590 19193 482
¬¬¬ Central government, defence48 08249 92712 51512 75412 72212 83812 940
¬ Final consumption expenditure of local government422 467430 378107 871108 522107 502105 411108 192
 
Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF)850 304891 426228 573227 142216 335212 493210 153
¬ Extraction and transport via pipelines (GFCF)153 077172 30643 60745 90643 16841 20139 325
¬ Ocean transport (GFCF)8 3182 6428189191 927174463
¬ Mainland Norway (GFCF)688 909716 478184 148180 317171 239171 118170 365
¬¬ Industries (GFCF)301 448318 27481 19080 89977 19173 07773 917
¬¬¬ Services activities incidential to extraction (GFCF)2 7153 7661 000958777705635
¬¬¬ Other services (GFCF)182 608189 00148 02547 21946 33542 85444 226
¬¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GFCF)40 42550 29313 11913 21011 80610 94311 333
¬¬¬ Production of other goods (GFCF)75 70075 21419 04619 51218 27318 57517 723
¬¬ Dwelling service (households) (GFCF)193 519190 30048 01346 23443 86944 02943 386
¬¬ General government (GFCF)193 942207 90454 94453 18450 17954 01353 062
Acquisitions less disposals of valuables3573789493851238
Changes in stocks and statistical discrepancies146 479145 78837 80727 33135 97419 23432 724
Gross capital formation997 1401 037 592266 474254 567252 393231 738242 915
 
Final domestic use of goods and services3 350 1283 427 114867 772855 918837 471772 195820 976
Final demand from Mainland Norway (excl. changes in stocks)3 041 8973 106 001785 445781 668756 317711 575748 426
Final demand from general government1 020 0531 049 412265 940265 569262 967262 452267 677
 
Total exports1 349 4761 356 582329 927352 502347 073320 171335 340
¬ Traditional goods (export)410 429429 387106 945108 394105 49097 085105 672
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (export)569 275544 745127 567148 371144 848146 300150 163
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (export)12 02712 1952 5652 0083 2621 6441 852
¬ Services (export)357 745370 25692 85193 72993 47375 14377 654
 
Total use of goods and services4 699 6044 783 6971 197 6991 208 4191 184 5441 092 3661 156 316
 
Total imports1 145 7041 199 522302 648298 424288 222237 849262 447
¬ Tradisjonelle varer (import)680 013718 462179 804176 951173 883160 563180 741
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (import)24 17825 3967 5057 2797 3585 1464 142
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (import)37 88333 0159 5566 5748 1968 3067 464
¬ Services (import)403 630422 650105 784107 62098 78563 83570 101
 
Gross domestic product, market values23 553 9003 584 175895 051909 996896 321854 517893 869
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, market values22 935 3783 003 219757 320757 191741 369696 730732 815
 
Petroleum activities and ocean transport3618 522580 956137 730152 805154 952157 786161 054
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, basic values2 543 0222 605 506657 335657 557645 621605 143634 657
¬ Mainland Norway excluding general government (GDP)1 901 2341 949 758492 996492 296482 977449 704470 491
¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GDP)218 578224 46857 09957 16756 44952 88454 186
¬¬ Production of other goods (GDP)352 825358 09991 52689 65189 28487 92190 510
¬¬ Service activities (GDP)1 329 8311 367 192344 372345 478337 244308 899325 795
¬ General government (GDP)641 788655 748164 339165 261162 645155 439164 166
Taxes and subsidies products392 356397 71399 98599 63495 74891 58898 159

Table 10 
Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Quarter and year. Seasonally adjusted figures. Percentage change in volume from the previous period.

Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Quarter and year. Seasonally adjusted figures. Percentage change in volume from the previous period.1
201820193rd quarter 20194th quarter 20191st quarter 20202nd quarter 20203rd quarter 2020
1Figures from 2019 onwards are prelimanry
2Gross domestic product is measured at market prices, while value added by industry is measured at basic prices.
3Includes oil and gas extraction, transport via pipelines and ocean transport.
Final consumption expenditure of households and NPISHs1.61.40.4-0.3-4.3-10.89.5
¬ Household final consumption expenditure1.71.30.4-0.4-4.3-10.49.6
¬¬ Goods2.50.0-0.2-0.6-1.85.56.0
¬¬ Services1.12.80.71.0-5.7-17.912.4
¬¬ Direct purchases abroad by resident households0.90.91.8-4.6-16.2-97.3460.2
¬¬ Direct purchases by non-residents1.84.2-0.65.7-19.0-89.496.3
¬ Final consumption expenditure of NPISHs-0.53.00.50.4-4.1-17.67.7
Final consumption expenditure of general governmen0.51.90.60.70.2-2.03.0
¬ Final consumption expenditure of central government-0.11.90.60.71.4-2.13.3
¬¬¬ Central government, civilian-0.11.60.60.61.6-2.63.6
¬¬¬ Central government, defence0.33.80.81.9-0.30.90.8
¬ Final consumption expenditure of local government1.11.90.50.6-0.9-1.92.6
 
Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF)2.24.82.8-0.6-4.8-1.8-1.1
¬ Extraction and transport via pipelines (GFCF)0.712.60.45.3-6.0-4.6-4.6
¬ Ocean transport (GFCF)738.3-68.237.212.4109.6-91.0166.2
¬ Mainland Norway (GFCF)1.54.03.3-2.1-5.0-0.1-0.4
¬¬ Industries (GFCF)3.15.64.1-0.4-4.6-5.31.1
¬¬¬ Services activities incidential to extraction (GFCF)-37.138.71.8-4.3-18.9-9.2-10.0
¬¬¬ Other services (GFCF)0.73.52.9-1.7-1.9-7.53.2
¬¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GFCF)4.024.48.60.7-10.6-7.33.6
¬¬¬ Production of other goods (GFCF)11.6-0.64.22.4-6.31.6-4.6
¬¬ Dwelling service (households) (GFCF)-6.5-1.7-0.2-3.7-5.10.4-1.5
¬¬ General government (GFCF)8.17.25.3-3.2-5.77.6-1.8
Acquisitions less disposals of valuables-5.25.81.3-1.0-8.9-85.9214.9
Changes in stocks and statistical discrepancies20.0-0.5-6.5-27.731.6-46.570.1
Gross capital formation4.34.11.4-4.5-0.9-8.24.8
 
Final domestic use of goods and services2.12.30.7-1.4-2.2-7.86.3
Final demand from Mainland Norway (excl. changes in stocks)1.32.11.1-0.5-3.2-5.95.2
Final demand from general government1.92.91.5-0.1-1.0-0.22.0
 
Total exports-1.20.5-1.96.8-1.5-7.84.7
¬ Traditional goods (export)1.54.6-0.21.4-2.7-8.08.8
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (export)-5.0-4.3-4.016.3-2.41.02.6
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (export)-33.01.4-43.0-21.762.4-49.612.6
¬ Services (export)2.43.51.20.9-0.3-19.63.3
 
Total use of goods and services1.21.80.00.9-2.0-7.85.9
 
Total imports1.44.70.1-1.4-3.4-17.510.3
¬ Tradisjonelle varer (import)2.95.7-1.1-1.6-1.7-7.712.6
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (import)37.15.047.1-3.01.1-30.1-19.5
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (import)-16.7-12.9-7.9-31.224.71.3-10.1
¬ Services (import)-0.24.70.71.7-8.2-35.49.8
 
Gross domestic product, market values21.10.9-0.11.7-1.5-4.74.6
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, market values22.22.30.70.0-2.1-6.05.2
 
Petroleum activities and ocean transport3-5.0-6.1-3.910.91.41.82.1
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, basic values2.32.50.70.0-1.8-6.34.9
¬ Mainland Norway excluding general government (GDP)2.92.60.7-0.1-1.9-6.94.6
¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GDP)1.72.70.00.1-1.3-6.32.5
¬¬ Production of other goods (GDP)1.21.51.7-2.0-0.4-1.52.9
¬¬ Service activities (GDP)3.52.80.60.3-2.4-8.45.5
¬ General government (GDP)0.82.20.50.6-1.6-4.45.6
Taxes and subsidies products1.51.40.6-0.4-3.9-4.37.2

Table 11 
Revised figures of final expenditure and gross domestic product. Quarterly. Percentage change in volume

Revised figures of final expenditure and gross domestic product. Quarterly. Percentage change in volume
 3 rd quarter 20194 th quarter 20191 st quarter 20202 nd quarter 2020
 Seasonally adjusted figuresUnadjusted figuresSeasonally adjusted figuresUnadjusted figuresSeasonally adjusted figuresUnadjusted figuresSeasonally adjusted figuresUnadjusted figures
 Percentage change in volume from the previous periodPercentage change in volume from the same period in the previous yearPercentage change in volume from the previous periodPercentage change in volume from the same period in the previous yearPercentage change in volume from the previous periodPercentage change in volume from the same period in the previous yearPercentage change in volume from the previous periodPercentage change in volume from the same period in the previous year
 New resultFormer resultNew resultFormer resultNew resultFormer resultNew resultFormer resultNew resultFormer resultNew resultFormer resultNew resultFormer resultNew resultFormer result
Gross domestic product (GDP)-0.10.00.81.21.71.51.71.8-1.5-1.71.20.9-4.7-5.1-4.0-4.7
GDP Mainland Norway0.70.63.73.60.00.11.71.8-2.1-2.2-0.1-0.2-6.0-6.3-6.6-6.8
Household final consumtion expenditure0.40.32.12.2-0.4-0.30.80.9-4.3-4.3-3.8-3.9-10.4-10.3-13.4-13.2
Final consumption of general government0.60.62.22.00.70.72.92.60.2-0.22.21.8-2.0-2.2-0.7-1.2
Gross fixed capital formation2.82.58.17.9-0.60.04.55.2-4.8-5.11.60.4-1.8-3.4-4.9-6.4
Exports-1.9-1.5-3.0-1.66.85.54.54.8-1.5-0.93.23.4-7.8-8.7-4.4-5.5
Imports0.1-0.25.36.4-1.4-0.53.03.8-3.4-4.1-2.7-2.5-17.5-16.7-21.3-20.7

About the statistics

The national accounts provide an overview of the state and development in the Norwegian economy. Key figures are gross domestic product (GDP), consumption, gross investment, exports and imports, employment and wages, profitability in industries and productivity. 1st to 3rd quarter is published with monthly national accounts in May, August and November. 4th quarter will be published February the following year, figures for t-2 in August.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

See Concepts and definitions in national accounts for explanations.

Valuation

Registration of values: A transaction may be registered at different values, depending on under which circumstances it is registered. Different concepts regarding valuation are also relevant for the general aspect of registration (cf. cash values or accruals values, and other principles for the recording of statistical data). The transactions of variables in the national accounts follow the accrual principle. Thus, taxes and subsidies on production should be registered as accrued values and not as cash values as recorded in the government accounts.

In the description of the transaction of goods and services several price concepts are used. Output is valued at basic prices. Basic price is the price the seller receives, after corresponding taxes on the product are deducted (and subsidies added). The use categories, both intermediate consumption and final use, are valued at purchaser prices, that is the price the purchaser must pay. Exports are valued at fob (free on board), while imports are valued at cif (cost-insurance-freight).

The value added of an industry is "valued" at basic prices (calculated as output at basic prices less intermediate consumption at purchaser prices). The total value added of all the industries is also "valued" at basic prices.

GDP is "valued" at market prices, which means that taxes on products, including VAT, less subsidies on products are added to the total value added of the industries at basic prices.

 

Standard classifications

The accounting system of the Norwegian national accounts is based on the international standards for national accounts, i.e. 2008 SNA and ESA 2010. The accounting system outlines the framework and contents for production of national accounts statistics. The level of detail in the classifications used for compilation of quarterly and preliminary annual national accounts are more aggregated than in that used for calculation of the annual national accounts.

In addition to accounting structure, the international standards give recommendations of groupings or classifications to be used in the national accounts:

Activity classification

The classification of Industries in the National Accounts follows the Norwegian Standard Industrial Classification (SN2007), which is based on NACE Rev.2. Several levels of aggregation have been introduced for publication and reporting purposes.

Classification of non-financial assets and gross fixed capital formation

Non-financial assets are classified by type of aggregates defined in 2008 SNA, such as fixed assets, inventories, valuables, and non-produced assets, including both tangible assets such as land, subsoil-assets, water resources etc., and intangible assets such as transferable contracts etc. Gross fixed capital formation is grouped by main type within building and construction, machinery and equipment and transportation equipment.

Product classification

The product classification used in the national accounts is based on the EU's standard product classification CPA - Statistical Classification of Products by Activity in the European Community. The CPA groups products by activities, i.e. it defines characteristic products within each activity and connects them to the activity classification NACE Rev.2. The annual accounts supply and use tables contain about 700 products, in addition to which some products are also incorporated purely for technical reasons. The system to elaborate preliminary annual and quarterly accounts contains about 90 products. The separation on products might to large extent be considered as a tool to balance the national account system and to undertake calculations in constants prices.

Classification of individual consumption by purpose

The classification of Consumption expenditure groups in the National Accounts is based on the international classification COICOP - Classification of Individual Consumption by Purpose, published by the UN.

Classification of the functions of government

The classification of the functions of government by purpose applies to all types of general government expenses, such as government final consumption expenditure, gross fixed capital formation, subsidies, property rents (i.e. expenses), capital transfers and other transfers for use in government financial accounts and in the national accounts. This classification is based on the international classification COFOG - Classification of the Functions of Government, published by the UN.

Classification of the purpose of non-profit institutions serving households (NPISH)

This is a minor purpose classification which applies to expenses of NPISHs. It is based on the international classification COPNI - Classification of the Purposes of the Non-Profit Institutions Serving Households, published by the UN.

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: National accounts
Topic: National accounts and business cycles

Next release

Responsible division

Division for National Accounts

Regional level

National level.

Frequency and timeliness

The monthly national accounts (MNA) are published about 40 days after the end of the given month.

The quarterly national accounts (QNA) are published about 40 days after the end of the given quarter. Quarterly figures are calculated as the sum of three months (from monthly national accounts).

The first estimates of the preliminary year is published about 40 days after the end of the year.

 

International reporting

Published figures are reported to Eurostat, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

Microdata

Not relevant

Background

Background and purpose

The national accounts (NA) statistics are designed to provide a consistent and comprehensive survey of the overall national economy. The national accounts give both a summarised description of the economy as a whole and a detailed description of transactions between different parts of the Norwegian economy, and between Norway and the rest of the world. The national accounts also provide information on capital stocks and employment.

The first Norwegian national accounts based on modern principles were published by Statistics Norway in 1952. Annual series national accounts were calculated back to 1865 during the 1950th.

Final annual national accounts figures are based on all available final economic statistics and therefore take time to produce. The purpose of the quarterly national accounts is to provide updated information about short-term developments in the Norwegian economy based on an overall, consistent accounting system. Statistics Norway has produced and released quarterly national accounts (QNA) on a regular basis from 1953 but were not published at fixed intervals from the 1970s to the beginning of the 1980s. A new model for a QNA system was developed at the beginning of the 1980s and has been used since 1985, with some modifications.

National accounts are used as a tool to compare the economic situation in different countries, and therefore it is important that the national accounts in various countries are based on a common template. Staff involved in elaborating national accounts in Statistics Norway participated actively in developing international recommendations and concepts regarding national accounts. The first international standard for national accounts, 1953 System of National Accounts (1953 SNA), was published by UN in 1953.

 From time to time adaptations or changes are made to the common international recommendations for national accounts. This requires corresponding changes in the construction of the Norwegian national accounts. At different time intervals, new source statistics are produced and indicate that parts of the national accounts figures need to be revised. Since one objective of the national accounts is to provide a picture of the development over time which is as correct as possible, it is not possible to introduce such changes from one year to another. With different time intervals, it will therefore be necessary to carry out major revisions of the national accounts figures, so-called main revisions, in order to introduce adaptations due to new international recommendations or introduce new levels based on new statistical sources. As part of these main revisions the time series are also revised so that the revised national accounts can give a consistent picture of the economic development over time.

In recent decades, Statistics Norway has carried out main revisions published in 1995, 2002, 2006, 2011 and 2014. The main purpose of main revision published in November 2014, was to incorporate updated international recommendations in 2008 SNA and ESA 2010. Changes due to this main revision are described, among else, in the article Main revision 2014. Planned changes in the national accounts statistics. See About the statistics for the annual national accounts for more information about main revisions. The publication History of national accounts in Norway. From free research to statistics regulated by law also provides more information about the history of national accounts in Norway, including main revisions. In the future main revisions of the national accounts normally will be carried out every five years.

Since the QNA are completely harmonised with the annual national accounts, it is also necessary to revise the QNA figures once the annual national accounts figures have been revised.

Users and applications

The quarterly figures are mostly used for observation and analysis of the current economic cycle. The QNA figures also serve as a basis for making forecasts of the future economic development, the government’s work with the national budget and other economic planning. In addition, the QNA contribute with material for research and development. Annual and quarterly national accounts are a useful tool for analyses of the economic development and structures in Norway. The national accounts are also used to compare the economy in different countries.

The annual and quarterly national accounts therefore have a wide group of users, from school pupils and students to public and private institutions that actively use the statistics in their analyses and investigation of economic structure and development. Active users include the Research Department in Statistics Norway, the Ministry of Finance, Norges Bank, international organisations such as the IMF, the OECD, the World Bank, the UN and Eurostat, resident and non-resident financial sector analysts, and the media.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 08.00 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.

Coherence with other statistics

The monthly figures are the basis for quarterly figures, quarterly figures are calculated as the sum of three months. Quarterly figures will be updated when publishing the third month in the quarter. This means that there may be deviations between the monthly and quarterly figures in the two months before the new quarter is calculated. The deviations will mainly apply to seasonally adjusted figures. In addition, the monthly publication includes a table showing rolling numbers for three and three months. The three-month growth is calculated by comparing a three-month period with the previous three-month period. For example, the volume change in the rolling table for July is given by comparing the period May-July with February-April. Figures for March, June, September and December will correspond to growth for a quarter.


All historical figures are consistent with both preliminary and final annual national accounts figures in fixed and current prices

The Norwegian Balance of Payments (BOP) is an integrated part of the Norwegian system of national accounts, and the BOP figures are fully consistent with other preliminary and final quarterly and annual national accounts figures. Furthermore, quarterly and annual national accounts figures are fully consistent and compatible with the institutional sector accounts. The regional national accounts, and various satellite accounts (environment, tourism, health,non-profit institutions) are consistent with the above mentioned national accounts statistics. Previous published figures from the regional accounts and various satellite accounts are, however, not revised as a part of main revision of the national accounts, so figures for previous years may not necessarily be compatible with updated NA time series.

As mentioned in the chapter "Production: Data sources and sampling", the national accounts are based on various statistical sources. The source statistics may not use the same definitions or groupings as used in the national accounts. As a result, figures in the source statistics may be adapted or corrected before being used in the national accounts. Published figures in the source statistics of certain industries may therefore not correspond to published figures in the national accounts.

 

Legal authority

Not relevant

EEA reference

  • Regulation (EU) No 549/2013 (ESA 2010).
  • The European Parliament and of the council of 21 May 2013 on the European system of national and regional accounts in the European Union (text with EEA relevance).

Production

Population

The coverage of the national accounts is defined by international guidelines in the 2008 System of National Accounts (2008 SNA), published by the UN, the OECD, the IMF, the World Bank, and the Commission of the European Communities, and the European System of National and Regional Accounts (ESA 2010).

The total national economy, and the distinction between the national economy and foreign countries, is defined in terms of resident units. A unit is defined as a resident unit of the country when it has a centre of economic interest in the economic territory of the country - i.e. when it is involved in economic activities on this territory for an extended period of time (one year or more).

Two basic types of information are recorded in the national accounts: flows and stocks. Flows refer to actions and effects of events that take place within a given period of time, for example the output of an industry in one year. Stocks refer to positions at a certain point of time, for example the value of capital stock or the number of employed persons.

The national accounts consist of two main sets of tables; supply and use tables (SUT), also described as the real accounts, and the institutional sector accounts. The real accounts are based on local kind-of-activity units (KAUs), while the institutional sector accounts are based on institutional units. Institutional units are economic entities that are capable of owning goods and assets, of incurring liabilities and of engaging in economic activities and transactions with other units in their own right. An institutional unit contains one or more local kind-of-activity units (local KAUs). The local KAUs are classified by type of activity. An activity is characterised by an input of products, a production process and an output of products. All local KAUs engaged in the same or similar kind-of-activity constitute an industry.

The SUT at current and constant prices gives a structured overview of the supply (output and import) and use (final consumption, gross fixed capital formation, changes in inventories, export and intermediate consumption) of products (goods and services) in the economy. For each industry the value added is calculated as the difference between output and intermediate consumption. The value added in an industry can also be decomposed into compensation of employees, consumption of fixed capital, other taxes on production (net of subsidies) and operating surplus. The real accounts also give information on fixed assets, as well as wages, hours worked, full-time equivalent persons and employed persons by industry. Monthly national accounts does not include figures for employment etc..

Furthermore, the real accounts provide the basis for the calculation of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and other central macroeconomic measures. The annual growth in volume and price are calculated for most variables.

The non-financial sector accounts are based on institutional units. Institutional units are capable of providing a full set of accounts. The non-financial sector accounts describe all economic transactions in the various sectors. The accounts also provide information on the stocks financial and non-financial capital. Financial sector accounts are also based on institutional units. The institutional units are grouped in institutional sectors on the basis of their principal economic functions, behavior and objectives. The non-financial sector accounts are consistent with the real accounts. The further description of the national accounts covers the part of the national accounts that is based on the annual SUT (the real accounts).

The coverage of the preliminary annual and quarterly real accounts is the same as the final annual SUT

The accounting structure in the system that produces monthly, quarterly and preliminary annual figures (MNA) is, however, more aggregated than in the system that produces the final annual SUT. While the SUT in the annual accounts consists of about 130 industry groups and 700 product groups, the SUT in the MNA consists of about 80 industry groups and 120 product groups. The MNA and QNA system produces tables with seasonal adjusted figures for industries' value added, household consumption for aggregated consumption groups and for central macroeconomic measures. However, only tables for final expenditure and gross domestic product are published on a monthly basis, while the QNA contain more details.

Data sources and sampling

The calculations of the annual real accounts are based on statistics from several different sources, such as the structural business statistics for manufacturing and other industries, accounting statistics for general government and enterprises, statistics for wages and earnings, external trade statistics, household consumer surveys and employment statistics. Some parts of the national accounts are compiled more or less directly from the source statistics, while other parts are based on calculations and estimates.

Monthly information is used for compiling monthly national accounts, such as the production index of industrial production, the index for retail sales, consumer price index, building statistics, producer price indices and much more. For some service industries where we lack explicit production indicators, monthly information about jobs, working days and absence is obtained from the A-ordning. For investments where we only have quarterly information, such as oil investments, quarterly figures are conventionally distributed by month. In the months before we get the so-called oil census, the development is used in the planned investment figures reported together with those performed for a quarter. In connection with the work on the QNA, quarterly information is incorporated and an update of the previous months is made. Quarterly national accounts will appear as the sum of the three months in the quarter.

The source statistics used to calculate national accounts are with a few exceptions produced by Statistics Norway.

Having the reporting responsibility to Eurostat, the Division for National Accounts occasionally documents the calculations for the final annual national accounts, see Norwegian National Accounts - GNI Inventory for ESA95.

In addition, there are a number of reports giving more detailed documentation of calculation of figures for various specific industry groups or other parts of the national accounts (mostly in Norwegian only).

The documentation report for the Quarterly national accounts gives an overview of central sources and methods used for quarterly accounts compilation. This will be updated in the autumn of 2018 to include monthly national accounts.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Compilation of the final annual real accounts

The annual national accounts are mainly based on statistics collected by other divisions in Statistics Norway. To some extent data produced by external suppliers are also used.

The process of compiling the final annual national accounts starts with the calculation of independent supply and use estimates for all goods and services at current prices. To some extent, source data are extracted directly from the databases and converted into national accounts codes and format. Other parts of the economy are based on more complex calculations, by means of different statistical sources and/or assessments.

The source data are critically evaluated and compared with alternative sources (for some parts of the economy). In some areas, the statistics have to be adjusted in order to satisfy the requirements of the national accounts. In areas where the statistics are incomplete, evaluations are essential. In the process of estimating national accounts data, estimated national accounts figures are critically evaluated and controlled in several steps.

Finally, supply and use for each of these goods and services are balanced using supplementary information and quality assessments of the various statistical sources. This results in integrated supply and use tables at current prices.

The figure below gives an outline of the calculation system for final annual national accounts figures. First, detailed figures are calculated and balanced in current prices. Then the system calculates figures in constant prices, based on the detailed current price figures and corresponding price indices. The deflation (current values being divided by price indices) takes place at the most detailed product level: A price index is allocated to each detailed product. The individual products are as price homogeneous as possible. Constant price figures in the annual national accounts are calculated using the price level of the previous year, which means that the base year is changed every
year.

The deflation approach has in fact two dimensions, (i) differentiated by main categories of supply and use (deflating output, imports, exports and implicitly for domestic use), and (ii) differentiated through valuation (deflating current values at basic prices by price indices and implicitly determining the other value components, including adjustments against values at purchaser prices). The method used to calculate constant figures is called double deflation, i.e. a separate deflation of output and intermediate consumption is carried out in order to arrive at value added at constant prices as a balancing item, based on a detailed input-output framework (supply and use tables).

Figure 1. The calculation system for final annual NA figures  (Click)

For a more detailed  documentation, see Norwegian National Accounts - GNI Inventory for ESA95.

Compilation of the MNA and QNA

The majority of the short-term statistics produced by Statistics Norway are transferred to the MNA system by use of a direct link to the relevant databases. The information in the data sources about growth is used more or less directly in the MNA system. Some other input data series in the MNA system, however, are based more or less on calculations and estimations, using various types of information from Statistics Norway and other sources. Quarterly figures are calculated as the sum of three months

The national accounts data for a specific month, quarter or year are revised in accordance with an ordinary publication and revision cycle. The quarterly figures within a specific year t become final 21 months later after the end of the year t. In addition, periodical main revisions generate revised figures.

In the process of calculating MNA or QNA figures for a specific month or quarter, the short-term statistics source data are critically evaluated and compared with alternative sources (for some parts of the economy). In some cases, the information in the source statistics must be adjusted in order to satisfy the requirements of the quarterly national accounts. In the process to estimate MNA data estimated MNA figures are critically evaluated and controlled in many steps.

Monthly process

The figure below gives an overview of the Norwegian MNA and QNA estimation process. The figure shows that the MNA system is based on two main pillars: a) The SUT for the (final) annual national accounts and b) short-term statistics.

Figure 2. The computing system in the Norwegian MNA/QNA

knr1-en

The main principle in the MNA system is that the national accounts figures for the current quarter are computed based on the development of short-term indicators and the current-price figures from the base year. The base year (t-2) is the latest calculated final version of the annual national accounts. The method is the same for most common variables: The value in the base year is given the same growth rate (percentage change) as in the appropriate indicator, or a grouping of different relevant indicators.

A simple projection method, based on the development in previous periods, is used if an indicator does not cover the whole period from the base year to the current quarter.

The indicator compilations are made in the indicator process (box 2 in the figure).

However, the indicator process alone does not give a complete harmonised account at current and constant prices. To calculate values for variables that are not calculated in the indicator compilations, and to harmonise the accounts, we use an input-output model (box 3 in the figure).

The input-output model includes a commodity-flow balance, a price input-output system and a set of equations for summaries and definitions. It now comprises over 12 000 equations in total. The input-output coefficients are calculated from the SUT in the base year. The variables calculated in the indicator compilations are transferred to the input-output model as exogenous variables. To calculate balanced accounts at current prices we need price indices on all supply and use categories. These are computed in the model by weighting together product price indices with the input-output coefficients as weights. Each product gets three different price indices, one for resident output delivered to the home market (to resident users), a second for import and a third for export.

The price index for an industry’s total output is then calculated as a weighted average of the price indices for the home and export market using the input-output coefficients as weights. The price indices of intermediate consumption, final consumption expenditure and gross fixed capital formation are calculated in a similar way, using the import and home market price indices and the input-output coefficients.

The model also calculates variables which are not covered by short-term statistics or other information and therefore not calculated in the indicator process. These calculations are based on simple assumptions. For instance, intermediate consumption for most industries at constant prices (the total except FISIM) is assumed to be a fixed proportion of total output for the relevant industry. The distribution of intermediate consumption (except FISIM) on different products at constant prices is also assumed to be the same as in the base year. The industries’ use of FISIM as intermediate consumption is supposed to equal the growth in total output of FISIM services. Output in the retail and wholesale trade activities in constant prices is assumed to follow the development of the use of the various goods in constant prices, such as household consumption, intermediate consumption and gross fixed capital formation of the various specific goods (that means supposed fixed margins).

Changes in stock of separate products are (for most products) calculated as the difference between the total supply and use of the product. As in the annual NA, the changes in stock may be adjusted if that seems reasonable after an evaluation of the figures.

The results are stored in the time series database (box 4 in the figure), which, among other things, provides the basis for different sets of tables (box 6). At the moment there are two different sets of tables (with seasonal unadjusted figures), sets for internal checks and analyses of data and more aggregated sets of data for publishing.

Process 1-4 describes how the quarterly seasonally unadjusted figures are estimated. The unadjusted figures are seasonally adjusted (box 5) using a seasonal adjustment program.

The method adopted to compile the MNA is highly mechanical. This applies to the update of variables in the national accounts based on short-term statistics as well as the balancing of commodities, the computation of indirect taxes and factor incomes and the overall balancing of the GDP and main aggregates. Technically, the data systems are programmed in FAME and TROLL (the latter is used for the input-output model only).

Checks and/or the evaluation of data are, however, performed in several steps. The MNA system offers a unique opportunity to compare different types of input data. The evaluation of the different sources is done in close contact with the relevant statistics divisions in Statistics Norway. A more thorough evaluation is being done when processing and publishing quarterly figures, while the monthly process is more automated and less profound. Therefore, only final expenditure and gross domestic product are published on a monthly basis while the quarterly accounts offer more details.

Quarterly figures are calculated as the total of three months at quarterly releases. Quarterly figures will be updated only when publishing the third month in the quarter. This means that there may be a mismatch between the monthly and quarterly figures in the interim months. This applies mainly to seasonally adjusted numbers. That is, when you get a new observation (new month), it will normally affect the seasonally adjusted figures back in time. We do not update the QNA numbers that have also been sent to international organizations before the next quarters release. At the same time, we show figures for three-month growth. This is calculated by comparing a three-month period with the previous three-month period. For example, the volume change in July is given by comparing the period May-July with February-April. Figures for March, June, September and December will correspond to growth for a quarter. This means that users may get a continuous update of the quarterly figures by looking at the monthly publication.

Annual process and alignment

The MNA system is updated with a new base year every year (i.e. the latest final version of the annual accounts). The database for the annual accounts (box 1a), as well as the base data and coefficients in the harmonisation model (box 3) are updated. At the same time, it is possible to implement new indicators, carry out changes in the input series and in the model, etc. Such changes are not carried out in an ordinary monthly or quarterly process.

The recalculation of the monthly accounts is carried out by distributing the annual figures between the months using the original monthly figures as keys. The recalculated monthly accounts will then add up to the annual accounts at constant and current prices.

The harmonisation is based on the principle that the differences between the monthly changes to the original and harmonised series shall be as small as possible. The monthly accounts should add up to the figures in the annual accounts.

When the base year is updated the MNA for that year is aligned automatically.

Reference year

All figures are published at current prices and (for most sizes) constant prices (i.e. the accounts also specify volume and price changes). Constant-price estimates in the national accounts are calculated based on the previous year's prices; i.e. the base year is changed every year. Subsequently, data on volume changes are constructed in terms of growth rates and corresponding implicit data on changes in prices. In parallel, time series of volume figures are constructed by using prices from a reference year. The constant-price estimates are consistent with the data on changes in volume in the series of growth rates. Since the chaining is carried out separately for all items, the table components do not, however, necessarily add up to the totals of the same table.

The publication Quarterly national accounts gives more information about sources, methods and the processes used to calculate quaterly NA figures. This will be updated in the autumn of 2018 to include monthly national accounts.

 

Seasonal adjustment

The methods and routines used to produce seasonally adjusted figures are described in the chapter About seasonal adjustment.

Confidentiality

§ 2-6 of the Statistics Act states that data under no circumstances shall be published in such a way that they may be traced back to the supplier. This means that the general rule is not to publish data if there are fewer than three enterprises in an industry. In practice, this means that for some detailed industry categories, figures must be aggregated up to a more aggregated industry group before they can be published.

Comparability over time and space

Consistent monthly time series will exist back to 2016. Consistent quarterly time series will exist back to 1978 and annual time series back to 1970. Annual NA figures for the years 1865-1970 are based on the previous standards used for the national accounts and are not compatible with the up to date figures after the latest main revision of the NA.

Quarterly figures are calculated as the sum of three months. Quarterly figures will be updated only when publishing the third month in the quarter. This means that there may be mismatch between the monthly and quarterly figures in the interim months, see the description of the monthly process above.

Monthly figures, and thus quarterly figures, are aligned with the final annual national accounts figures, both in fixed and current prices. The other parts of the national accounts, such as income and capital accounts, and foreign accounts are also consistent and consistent with MNA.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

The national accounts are based on various statistical sources. The sources are either survey data from establishments, enterprises or households, or data from registers. National accounts statistics reflect the inaccuracy in the statistical sources and the methods of compilation. Weaknesses and inaccuracy in the statistical sources are normally described in the documentation of the relevant sources.

Since the national accounts are an integrated system with balancing methods and consistency checks, the national accounts may reduce some of the inaccuracies in the statistical sources. On the other hand, national accounts require the compilation of statistics in areas where the sources are unsatisfactory, and the inaccuracy in such areas may therefore be significant. Some of the figures in the national accounts are estimated as residuals, and the uncertainty may be substantial in these areas. Examples are the compilation of changes in inventories and operating surplus by activity.

The EU Commission and Eurostat have completed a quality evaluation of the national accounts in all EEA countries. The conclusion was that "The Norwegian national accounts are of a high quality, soundly based on reliable and exhaustive sources, integrated in a system with a detailed product breakdown". (Report on the sources and methods used in compiling GNP in Norway, Eurostat/B1/CPNB/237/EN, 9 December 1997, Luxembourg.)

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) completed an evaluation of central parts of Norwegian macroeconomic statistics in autumn 2002, including the Norwegian national accounts. In the report IMF (2003), the Norwegian macroeconomic statistics, including the national accounts, got positive reviews: "In summary, Norway's macroeconomic statistics are of generally high quality." About the national accounts, the IMF also expressed that: "The source data for both the annual and the quarterly national accounts are generally sound and timely, and sufficiently portray reality."

The production of several of the sources that are used in the national accounts takes a considerable amount of time. Consequently, preliminary figures are more inaccurate than final figures.

In 2003, Statistics Norway carried out a project to evaluate the quality of the Norwegian QNA. The task of the project was to describe and evaluate the different processes in the system, and set up a plan for further work to improve quality. A project report was released in April 2004 (in Norwegian only). The report lists a variety of measures to increase quality, such as changes in the organisation of the QNA process, technical changes in the data system, an increase and improvement of the documentation related to the QNA system etc.

Another way of measuring the general quality of the QNA figures is to compare the preliminary annual figures from the first version of the annual accounts (by adding up the quarters in the QNA) with the final version. This was done in 2004. The article (in Norwegian only) looks at the growth rates of the main aggregates: GDP, GDP for mainland Norway, household consumption, government consumption, gross fixed capital formation, exports, imports and compensation of employees. For most variables, the study covers the years 1972-2002, while for some variables it covers the years 1993-2002. The study concludes that the preliminary figures generally had underestimated the growth rate in relation to the final figures, but that the overall picture did not differ too much.

 

Revision

The national accounts data for a specific month, quarter or year are revised in accordance with an ordinary publication and revision cycle. The monthly and quarterly figures within a specific year t have the status final 21 months after the end of the year. See Administrative information, Frequency and timeliness. In addition, periodical main revisions give revised figures. See Background and purpose. The table below shows the publication cycle for yearly and quarterly national accounts figures. In addition to what is stated in the table, monthly data will be published about 40 days after the end of the month. In May, year t (which coincides with the QNR for the first quarter), all months, also in year t-1, can be revised. After May year t, only the monthly figures for the current year are subject to revision.

Publication cycle for quarterly and yearly national accounts figures

Release date in:

 1st quarter year t

2nd quarter year t

3rd quarter year t

4th quarter year t

May, year t

First preliminary version

Revised 3 for year t-1

Revised 2 for year t-1

Revised 1 for year t-1

August, year t

Revised 1

Revised 5 for year t-1

Final for year t-2

First preliminary version

Revised 4 for year t-1

Final for year t-2

Revised 3 for year t-1

Final for year t-2

Revised 2 for year t-1

Final for year t-2

November, year t

Revised 2

Revised 1

First preliminary version

Revised 3 for year t-1

February, year t

Revised 3 for year t-1

Revised 2 for year t-1

Revised 1

First preliminary version for year t-1

About seasonal adjustment

General information on seasonal adjustment

What is seasonal adjustment?

Monthly and quarterly time series are often characterised by considerable seasonal variations, which might complicate inter-period comparability. Such time series are therefore subjected to a process of seasonal adjustment in order to remove the effects of seasonal fluctuations. Once data have been adjusted for seasonal effects by X-12-ARIMA or some other seasonal adjustment tool, a clearer picture of the time series emerge.

For more information on seasonal adjustment, please refer to Statistics Norway’s: metadata on methods: seasonal adjustment .

Why seasonally adjust these statistics?

Because of climatic conditions, public holidays and holidays in July and December, the intensity of the production varies throughout the year. The same applies to household consumption and other parts of the economy.

This makes a direct comparison of two consecutive months or quarters difficult. In order to adjust for these conditions, the quarterly national accounts are seasonally adjusted which makes it possible to conduct an analysis of the underlying change in economic activity between periods.

It is important to mention some factors of the seasonally adjustment of the MNA which has to be given specific attention compared to other short time economic indicators:

·        The series for the main aggregates in the MNA is a result of aggregation of many components. Statistics Norway has chosen that consistency between the components and the main aggregates also applies to the seasonally adjusted series to make it easy to identify which series contribute the most to the results.

·        Data may be exposed to some revisions each month as well as major revisions when the the preliminary national accounts are reconciled with final national accounts

Background information

·        To seasonally adjust the GDP (and all other aggregates) we use an indirect method. This is done in order to be able to explain the contributions to GDP-growth, and consensus is that this is the preferred method for this kind of data. Please see chapter below for more details on the direct vs. indirect approach to seasonal adjustment.

·          This method has given us some challenges related to the seasonally adjusted historical series. The reason is that series older than the base year are not additive. When a new base year is established, and the time series are updated, we use identical seasonal adjustment factors as before. This means that changes in seasonally adjusted data are only due to changes in the unadjusted data.

·          We use information from the entire period of the time series to estimate seasonal adjustment factors, but we use this information only from the year before the base year to the present.

The method chosen is in accordance with the ESS-Guidelines on seasonal adjustment .

Seasonally adjusted series

Over a thousand series are seasonally adjusted every month. The series are adjusted at a disaggregated level and then summed up to the main aggregates.

The series for gross value added at industry level are adjusted directly, as opposed to being calculated as the difference between production and intermediate consumption.

For final consumption expenditure of households, the series are seasonally adjusted by applying the seasonal factors that are estimated for the index of household consumption of goods (see the documentation for seasonal adjustment of the index of household consumption of goods).

 

Pre-treatment

Pre-treatment routines/schemes

Pre-treatment is an adjustment for variations caused by calendar effects and outliers.

  • We run a pre-treatment of some series/main series.

Calendar adjustment

Calendar adjustment involves adjusting for the effects of working days/trading days and for moving holidays. Working days/trading days adjustments are made for both the number of working days/trading days and for the varying composition of days from one month to another.

  • It is performed calendar adjustments on all series showing significant and plausible calendar effects within a statistically robust approach, such as regression or RegARIMA (a regression model with an ARIMA structure for the residuals).

Methods for trading/working day adjustment

  • RegARIMA correction – in this case, the effect of trading days is estimated in a RegArima framework. The effect of trading days can be estimated by using a correction for the length of the month or leap year, regressing the series on the number of working days, etc. In this case, the residuals will have an ARIMA structure.

Correction for moving holidays

  • We run an automati correction with X-12-ARIMA. The utomatic correction of raw data will be based on Norwegian holidays.

National and EU/euro area calendars

  • Use of the Norwegian calendar with X-12-ARIMA.

Treatment of outliers

Outliers, or extreme values, are abnormal values of the series

  • Outliers are detected automatically by the seasonal adjustment tool. The outliers are removed before seasonal adjustment is carried out, and then reintroduced into the seasonally adjusted data.

Model selection

Pre-treatment requires choosing an ARIMA model, as well as deciding whether the data should be log-transformed or not.

Decomposition scheme

The decomposition scheme specifies how the various components – basically trend-cycle, seasonal and irregular – combine to form the original series. The most frequently used decomposition schemes are the multiplicative and additive.

  • Manual selection of decomposition scheme after graphical inspection of the properties to the specific series.

Comments : Additive decomposition is used for series with (potential) negative values or values equal zero, otherwise multiplicative decomposition is used.

Seasonal adjustment

Choice of seasonal adjustment approach

  • X-12-ARIMA

Consistency between raw and seasonally adjusted data

In some series, consistency between raw and seasonally adjusted series is imposed.

  • No constraints are applied.

 

Consistency between aggregate/definition of seasonally adjusted data

In some series, consistency between seasonally adjusted aggregates and its components is imposed. For some series there is also a special relationship between the different series, e.g. GDP which equals production minus intermediate consumption.

  • Definitions and relationships that hold for unadjusted figures also apply for seasonally adjusted figures.

Comments : The supply side equals the use side also for seasonally adjusted figures. This implies that changes in stocks/statistical discrepancies are treated as a residual in the seasonally adjusted figures (balancing item). The series for gross value added are adjusted directly (see chapter 1.3) and are not required to match the difference between seasonally adjusted series for production and intermediate consumption (thus, vertical – not horizontal – consistency is imposed).

Direct versus indirect approach

Direct seasonal adjustment is performed if all time series, including aggregates, are seasonally adjusted on an individual basis. Indirect seasonal adjustment is performed if the seasonally adjusted estimate for a time series is derived by combining the estimates for two or more directly adjusted series.

  • Mixed indirect approach is applied

Comments : MNA uses aggregation routines outside X-12-ARIMA.

Horizon for estimating the model and the correction factors

When performing seasonal adjustment of a time series, it is possible to choose the period to be used in estimating the model and the correction factors. Correction factors are the factors used in the pre-treatment and seasonal adjustment of the series.

  • The whole time series is used to estimate the model and the correction factors

 

Audit procedures

General revision policy

Seasonally adjusted data may change due to a revision of the unadjusted (raw) data or the addition of new data. Such changes are called revisions, and there are several ways to deal with the problem of revisions when publishing the seasonally adjusted statistics.

  • Seasonally adjusted numbers are revised in accordance with a well-defined and publicly available revision policy and release calendar.

 

Concurrent versus current adjustment

  • The model, filters, outliers and regression parameters are re-identified and re-estimated as new or revised data become available.

Horizon for published revisions

  • The individual series will be revised when seasonal factors are re-estimated. Concerning the main aggregates the period of revisions is limited from the base year to the present.

Comments : This applies as long as the unadjusted figures before the base year remains unchanged. When a new base year is established, and the time series are updated, we use identical seasonal adjustment factors as before. This means that changes in seasonally adjusted data are only due to changes in the unadjusted data.

Quality of seasonal adjustment

Evaluation of seasonally adjustment data

  • Continuous/periodical evaluation using standard measures proposed by different seasonal adjustment tools.

 

Special cases

All series are sufficiently long to perform a seasonal adjustment.

 

Posting procedures

Data availability

  • Both unadjusted (raw), seasonally adjusted and sum rolling three months data are available.

Press releases

  • In addition to raw data, at least one of the following series is released: pre-treated, seasonally adjusted, seasonally plus working day adjusted trend-cycle series.
  • Both levels and growth rates are presented.
  • Empirical values are presented to evaluate revisions of data in earlier press releases.

References

Analyses, articles and publications

Declining growth rate for mainland GDP through Q3

Declining growth rate for mainland GDP through Q3

Published 17 November 2020

Seasonally adjusted figures from the national accounts show that Mainland Norway's GDP rose 0,6 per cent in September, making it the fifth consecutive estimation of monthly growth. The level of activity in September was still close to 3 per cent lower than in February. Q3 2020 showed a growth of 5,2 per cent.

Read this article
Final National Accounts for Norway 2018 for production and value added

Final National Accounts for Norway 2018 for production and value added

Published 17 November 2020

2018 was a good year for the Norwegian Economy. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for Mainland Norway grew by 2.2 per cent from the previous year, in line with preliminary estimates published in February 2019. Final figures have not changed the overall macroeconomic picture of the Norwegian economy but provide more information about the annual economic development on a more detailed level.

Read this article
Revision of national accounts time series

Revision of national accounts time series

Published 5 June 2019

On 29th August this year Statistics Norway will publish revised national accounts time series. Both the level and the growth rates of GDP are only to a minor extent affected by the revisions.

Read this article
Concepts and definitions in national accounts

Concepts and definitions in national accounts

Published 16 April 2012

Read about important concepts and definitions in national accounts.

Read this article
Industries in the National Accounts

Industries in the National Accounts

Published 15 May 2013

Main categories of industries used in national accounts.

Read this article

Supply and Use and Input-Output tables

Published 6 November 2019

The supply and use tables give a statistical picture of total supply and total uses for all goods and services in the economy. The input-output tables are derived from the supply and use tables based on the assumption of a fixed product sales structure, and they show flows from each industry to other industries and to final uses.

Read this article