Energy and manufacturing
fjernvarme, District heating and district cooling, heating plants, consumption, production, prices, electric supply mains, fuel (for example waste heat, electricity, heating oil), employees, investments, sales revenueEnergy , Energy and manufacturing

District heating and district cooling


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Key figures

5.7 TWh

district heating supplied to consumers

District heating delivered to consumers, district heating price, investments
2018Share in per centPer cent change compared to last year
District heating delivered to cunsumer (GWh)5 747100.04.9
¬ Households1 24921.70.8
¬ Manufacturing etc.94116.40.2
¬ Services3 55761.97.8
Average price district heating (taxes excluded) (øre/kWh)77.816.6
Total investments (1 000 NOK)......

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
Balance of district heating. GWh

Balance of district heating. GWh1
1Svalbard not included.
2Includes district heating delivered to industries in own enterprices.
Gross production of hot water and steam3 7465 0594 5105 1145 6745 4555 8896 3046 5766 833
¬ Delivered for production of electricity102226273392392435445394428359
Net production of district heating3 6444 8334 2384 7225 2835 0205 4445 9106 1496 474
¬ Losses in the distribution net351533508500582559613664671727
Delivered to consumers23 2934 3003 7304 2224 7014 4624 8315 2455 4785 747
¬ Households6921 0237549131 0549671 0071 1841 2391 249
¬ Manufacturing etc.369473405482581616847870939941
¬ Services2 2322 8042 5712 8283 0652 8782 9773 1923 3003 557
¬¬ Education270344281331338334307359....
¬¬ Trade150200160196214204205328....
¬¬ Hotels and restaurants79110103111115108120151....
¬¬ Other services activities1 7332 1512 0282 1892 3992 2332 3452 354....
Memo: Heat not distributed5324777976747381 004828907981870

Table 2 
Technical and economic main figures

Technical and economic main figures
Updated with the investment figures, 18 October 2019.
Number of district heating enterprices57808689919399107.....
Sales incomes (taxes excluded)(1 000 NOK)1 864 3422 728 4592 454 6092 342 5352 699 4502 542 1881 206 0603 330 7493 654 6424 470 454
Average price district heating (taxes excluded) (øre/kWh)57.565.166.056.659.258.5574 433.063.566.777.8
Households (taxes excluded) (øre/kWh)......55.959.859.6553 180.066.568.981.6
Manufacturing etc. (taxes excluded)(øre/kWh)......27.331.433.778 448.043.538.741.0
Services (taxes excluded) (øre/kWh)......60.161.561.160.467.873.885.5
Length of the distribution net (km)991.01 144.01 240.61 498.41 606.81 739.11 814.71 870.51 877.71 885.1
Total investments (1 000 NOK)3 063 0733 606 0133 062 2402 192 9461 366 1961 466 6171 481 5741 539 0501 253 3751 206 060
Investmentes in production plant (1 000 NOK)2 203 9112 505 2212 223 3621 380 994721 946944 938996 846849 999660 883574 433
Investments in distribution plant (1 000 NOK)806 2941 008 988787 694760 506590 813401 640382 627655 019495 245553 180
Other investments (1 000 NOK)52 86864 13951 18451 44653 437120 039102 10134 03297 24678 448

Table 3 
Consumption of fuel used for gross production of district heating. GWh

Consumption of fuel used for gross production of district heating. GWh
1Bio fuel was included in wood chips, wood and bark up to and including 2012
Total3 964.65 788.95 450.16 396.16 713.96 471.07 067.37 424.87 510.27 895.2
Gas-/diesel oils, heavy fuel oils305.9780.2424.0181.7159.993.187.1101.167.864.5
Bark, wood chips and wood1847.21 358.51 265.61 591.21 573.41 522.01 879.62 104.12 133.32 354.5
Bio fuel........
Waste1 574.22 251.02 605.13 223.43 559.33 554.43 835.93 724.63 831.43 972.9
Waste heat173.7198.2157.2202.5206.4200.7181.1184.0178.8198.0
Memo: Heat not distributed618.2603.71 005.5873.0841.11 199.61 031.01 101.81 136.21 070.4

Table 4 
Net production of district heating by type of heat central. GWh

Net production of district heating by type of heat central. GWh
1Bio fuel was included in the category wood waste up to and including 2012
Total net production3 644.54 832.94 237.54 722.05 282.65 020.25 444.45 909.66 148.76 474.3
Refuse incineration plant1 312.61 563.71 754.91 995.82 265.12 494.32 675.52 755.32 923.42 942.6
Oil boilers251.4683.5334.0128.5100.766.562.766.453.454.7
Wood waste1549.7899.2766.9899.01 072.1873.31 086.81 236.51 312.81 481.8
Bio fuel....
Electric boilers703.0662.2549.8769.4765.9669.1673.1784.4788.6752.0
Heat pumps384.6414.2374.2439.1521.1467.0542.8574.2602.3643.3
Waste heat173.7207.6157.2202.5206.4200.7181.1184.0178.8198.0

About the statistics

The statistics include figures on production and consumption of district heating and district cooling, as well as main technical and economic figures, for example sales incomes.


Definitions of the main concepts and variables

District heating plant: A plant that delivers heat through a pipe system to customers outside the company from a heating central with a dimensioned effect of at least 1 MW.

District heating: Steam or hot water that are transported through isolated pipes to households and other consumers, and are getting utilised for heating and hot water. The heat is produced by combustion of garbage/wastes, or by utilising sewer, wood, coal, coke, oil, electricity or industrial waste.

Combined heat and power plant / Cogeneration plant: A plant that produce both district heating and electricity

District cooling plant: A plant that delivers cooling through a pipe system to customers outside the company from a cooling central with a dimensioned effect of at least 1 MW.

District cooling: Cold water that is transported through isolated pipes to consumers. District cooling can be produced by using for example heat pumps, free cooling or absorption cooling.

Gross production of district heating. This includes production of district heating, steam and electricity production in district heating- and combined heat and power plants. Earlier this concept also included heat not distributed, which is heat from refuse incineration plants that is cooled and not utilized as district heating. This is now deducted from the gross production concept for all years back to 1983. (See "Comparability over time and place")

Consumer groups: The consumer groups are based on Standard Industrial Classification (SIC2007). More information can be found here: http://stabas.ssb.no/ItemsFrames.asp?ID=8118001&Language=nb


Also includes housing cooperatives


  • 01-03 Agriculture, forestry and fishing
  • 05-09 Mining and quarrying
  • 10-33 Manufacturing


  • 35 Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply
  • 36-39 Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities
  • 41-43 Construction
  • 45-47 Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles
  • 49-53 Transportation and storage
  • 55-56 Accommodation and food service activities
  • 58-63 Information and communication
  • 64-66 Financial and insurance activities
  • 68 Real estate activities
  • 69-75 Professional, scientific and technical activities
  • 77-82 Administrative and support service activities
  • 84 Public administration and defence; compulsory social security
  • 85 Education
  • 86-88 Human health and social work activities
  • 90-93 Arts, entertainment and recreation
  • 94-96 Other service activities
  • 97 Activities of household as employers; undifferentiated goods- and services-producing activities of households for own account
  • 99 Activities of extraterritorial organisations and bodies

Standard classifications

The consumption is separated for households, manufacturing and quarrying, services and agriculture according to Norwegian Standard Industrial Classification (SIC2007).

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: District heating and district cooling
Topic: Energy and manufacturing

Next release

Responsible division

Division for Energy, Environmental and Transport Statistics

Regional level

National level.

Frequency and timeliness


International reporting

Annual report to the International Eurostat and Energy Agency (IEA). A copy of the report is sent to the UN and Eurostat.


Data per plant are available in Excel sheets back to 1983. There are also some data for the individual plants stored as WK-files (quattro-sheets) back to 1986.


Background and purpose

The statistics were started in 1983. District heating was very little widespread in Norway before this time. The purpose is to elaborate statistics for the district heating activity in Norway. The basis for the statistics is data from plants that produce district heating with the purpose to distribute / sell it to third part (other users than the enterprise). Statistics for production, consumption by sector, fuel consumption in the production, and technical and economic main figures as income and investments are prepared and published.

Users and applications

The statistic are used by the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, and by persons working with energy related themes. The data are also reported to and used by International Organisations as Eurostat and OECD/ IEA (International Energy Agency). The statistics are used internal in Statistics Norway (SN) in Division for National Accounts, Division for Environmental Statistics and Division for External Trade, Energy and Industrial Production Statistics. The figures are used in other energy statistics in SN, such as in the Energy accounts and the Energy balance for Norway

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given inthe Statistics Release Calendar.

For more information, see Principles for equal treatment of users in releasing statistics and analyses.

Coherence with other statistics

The Division for National Accounts uses the value figures from the district heating statistics in their calculations, while the Division for Environmental Statistics uses the energy figures in their calculations of emissions. The district heating statistics are also used in the Energy balance sheet and the Energy account for Norway. No preliminary figures for district heating are published, only final figures.

Legal authority

Statistics Norway collects district heating data on behalf of Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE).

Acts and regulations:

NVE: Act no. 50 of 29 June 1990: Act relating to the generation, conversion, transmission, trading, distribution and use of energy etc. (The Energy Act) REG. no. 959 of 7 December 1990: Regulations concerning the generation, conversion, transmission, trading, distribution and use of energy etc. (The Energy Act Regulations)

Statistics Norway: The Statistic Act §2-2 and 2-3

EEA reference

The issue is included in the regulation for structure statistics (No 58/97) and energy statistics (1099/2008)



The population is all the district heating and cooling plants in Norway that produce district heating and/or cooling with the purpose to distribute / sell it to other customers outside the company. Industrial enterprises that produce heat for their own use only are not included.

Data sources and sampling

The sources are data that are collected from the district heating plants in Norway.

All district-heating plants are included.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Statistics Norway collects district heating data on behalf of Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE). Questionnaires are sent in electronically through Altinn.

The questionnaires are being edited manually. The reported figures are compared with data that are reported for the previous years, to see if some data might have been forgotten or if there are large discrepancies to the figures that have been reported before. Some consistency controls are also done electronic in the Excel-sheet where the reported data are filled in. Consistency of data reported in the different columns in the questionnaire is checked. The plants are contacted if it is discrepancies between the reported figures, or if figures are missing or are very different from data reported in previous years.

The collected data are used directly, and the statistics are presented without any adjustments.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant


According to § 2-4 of the Statistics Act, collected data are subject to secrecy and must be kept or destroyed in a secure manner. Any use of the data must be in accordance with the rules set out by the Data Inspectorate

Comparability over time and space

Comparable figures are available from 1983. The information is less detailed for the years before 1986.

There is an increase in the quantity of waste used in district heating plants from 2009 to 2010, which is partly due to the fact that the factor for energy content in waste has been changed. Up to 2009, the factor 10.5 Terajoule per 1000 tonnes of waste has been used, while it was changed to 11.5 from 2010. This does not affect the amount of waste in tonnes, but it affects the amount of waste measured in energy units such as Terajoule and GWh. The change is based on results in a report issued by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, "Renewable share in waste in Norwegian refuse incineration plants" 2011, by Jarle Marthinsen, Mepex Consult AS

In the publishing of district heating statistics in 2017, the term "gross production of district heating" was changed for all years backwards in time. Previously, "heat not distributed", was included, while this is now taken out of the gross concept. Heat not distributed is mainly heat from waste incineration plants that, for various reasons, is cooled without being utilized as district heating. The reason for why this now is taken out of the gross concept is that it is not utilized for energy purposes. Another change made in 2017 is that the corresponding waste incinerated without the heat being utilized, is deducted from the fuel consumption in district heating plants in the statistics back to 1983. Since this is heat that potentially could be utilized, we have chosen to show this as additional information as "memo" entries in the tables. The calculation of the waste consumption to be extracted is based on the amount of “heat not distributed” and the ratio of waste consumption to total heat production in waste incineration plants for the individual district heating plants.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

All plants are included in the statistic.

All the plants respond.

Some of the district heating do not have complete information about all the figures that are required in the questionnaire, as for instance the consumption of fuels, production, the losses in the distribution lines and the deliveries to different consumer groups. Calculations and judgement have to be used in these cases, principally by the reporting plant.


If no large errors are detected after the release of the statistics, the figures are not revised.