District heating and district cooling

Updated: 12 May 2022

Next update: Not yet determined

District heating supplied to consumers
District heating supplied to consumers
6 672
District heating delivered to consumers, district heating price, investments
District heating delivered to consumers, district heating price, investments
2021Share in per centPer cent change compared to last year
District heating delivered to cunsumer (GWh)6 672100.022.9
¬ Households1 71625.717.0
¬ Manufacturing etc.1 1 05515.832.5
¬ Construction1312.014.9
¬ Services3 63354.523.1
Other2 1382.136.6
Average price district heating (taxes excluded) (øre/kWh)92.259.0
Total investments (1 000 NOK)......
1The high increase for the industry from 2020 to 2021 is mainly due to several plants in the statistics.
2Agriculture, sewerage and waste management, own consumption in district heating plants etc.
Explanation of symbols

Selected tables and figures from this statistics

Balance of district heating. GWh
Balance of district heating. GWh1
Gross production of hot water and steam5 2265 8165 5706 0006 4096 6896 9497 1496 6377 899
¬ Delivered for production of electricity431464473484436471404480474448
Net production of district heating4 7945 3515 0975 5165 9736 2186 5456 6696 1637 450
¬ Losses in the distribution net510593569623671676738735735778
Delivered to consumers2 3 4 2844 7594 5274 8935 3025 5435 8085 9345 4286 672
¬ Households9501 0831 0001 0371 2121 3651 4081 5481 4671 716
¬ Manufacturing etc.4825816168478708548017657961 055
¬ Construction..........65117130114131
¬ Services2 8523 0952 9123 0083 2213 1813 3973 3932 9513 633
Other4 ..........788597101138
Memo: Heat not distributed6747051 004828907981870832945844
1Svalbard is from 2022 included in the statistics back to 1996, but has not been included earlier.
2Includes district heating delivered to industries in own enterprices.
3There is a change in the usergroups from 2017, and due to that, the figures are not completely comparable from 2016 to 2017.
4Agriculture, services related to oil and gas extraction, sewerage and waste management and own consumption for steam/heat production
Explanation of symbols
Technical and economic main figures
Technical and economic main figures
Number of district heating enterprises909294100108...........
Sales incomes (taxes excluded) (1 000 NOK)2 364 1912 721 8482 564 3522 718 6733 351 2823 677 9964 500 4204 703 5373 149 0596 153 850
Average price district heating (taxes excluded) (øre/kWh)56.659.258.558.063.566.777.579.358.092.2
¬ Households (taxes excluded) (øre/kWh)55.959.859.657.366.569.681.681.155.9100.8
¬ Manufacturing etc. (taxes excluded) (øre/kWh)27.331.433.737.843.538.442.645.938.344.9
¬ Services (taxes excluded) (øre/kWh)60.161.561.160.467.873.583.985.664.1101.7
Length of the distribution net (km)1 525.41 634.11 766.41 842.01 897.81 905.01 909.41 957.12 008.02 024.2
Total investments (1 000 NOK)2 192 9461 366 1961 466 6171 481 5741 539 0501 253 3751 206 0601 368 9731 386 568...
Investments in production plant (1 000 NOK)1 380 994721 946944 938996 846849 999660 883574 433594 803634 996...
Investments in distribution plant (1 000 NOK)760 506590 813401 640382 627655 019495 245553 180701 939701 269...
Other investments (1 000 NOK)51 44653 437120 039102 10134 03297 24678 44872 23250 304...
Explanation of symbols
Consumption of fuel used for gross production of district heating. GWh
Consumption of fuel used for gross production of district heating. GWh
Total6 577.26 904.06 679.47 277.87 640.37 737.18 226.78 259.17 767.48 983.0
Gas-/diesel oils, heavy fuel oils185.6164.2106.899.6112.470.165.849.724.288.5
Bark, wood chips and wood1 1 591.21 573.41 522.01 879.62 104.12 133.32 354.52 509.42 211.13 074.9
Bio fuel..
Waste3 223.43 559.33 554.43 835.93 724.63 831.43 972.93 966.33 904.13 764.6
Electricity927.8884.3823.6842.4965.0976.0952.5868.3953.21 032.9
Waste heat202.5206.4200.7181.1184.0178.8198.0212.0209.9277.0
Fossil gas2 250.2227.1190.1177.2251.3255.7312.8298.3158.5277.0
Biogas3 26.524.549.128.738.
Memo: Heat not distributed873.0841.11 199.61 031.01 101.81 136.21 070.4984.81 115.4906.0
1Bio fuel was included in wood chips, wood and bark up to and including 2012.
2Natural gas, LPG and blast furnace gas.
3Biogas includes landfillgas. Biogas is included in "fossil gas" for the years before 2010.
Explanation of symbols
Net production of district heating by type of heat central. GWh
Net production of district heating by type of heat central. GWh1
Total net production4 794.35 351.55 096.55 515.95 972.76 218.46 545.16 669.06 163.17 450.3
Refuse incineration plant1 995.82 265.12 494.32 675.52 755.32 923.42 942.62 998.52 927.43 102.8
Oil boilers132.4105.077.472.766.455.355.841.020.774.5
Coal plant68.464.665.461.563.167.969.774.475.690.1
Wood waste2 899.01 072.1873.31 086.81 236.51 312.81 481.81 613.31 319.51 894.0
Bio fuel0.
Electric boilers769.4765.9669.1673.1784.4788.6752.0646.4731.7781.3
Heat pumps439.1521.1467.0542.8574.2602.3643.3694.5663.5735.6
Fossil gas3 287.7284.2215.0190.7258.0253.3320.9323.7183.9293.9
Waste heat202.5206.4200.7181.1184.0178.8198.0212.0209.9277.0
1Svalbard is now included in the statistics, back to 1996
2Bio fuel was included in the category wood waste up to and including 2012
3Natural gas, LPG and blast furnace gas.
Explanation of symbols

About the statistics

The statistics include figures on production and consumption of district heating and district cooling, as well as main technical and economic figures, for example sales incomes.

District heating plant: A plant that delivers heat through a pipe system to customers outside the company from a heating central with a dimensioned effect of at least 1 MW.

District heating: Steam or hot water that are transported through isolated pipes to households and other consumers, and are getting utilised for heating and hot water. The heat is produced by combustion of garbage/wastes, or by utilising sewer, wood, coal, coke, oil, electricity or industrial waste.

Combined heat and power plant / Cogeneration plant: A plant that produce both district heating and electricity

District cooling plant: A plant that delivers cooling through a pipe system to customers outside the company from a cooling central with a dimensioned effect of at least 1 MW.

District cooling: Cold water that is transported through isolated pipes to consumers. District cooling can be produced by using for example heat pumps, free cooling or absorption cooling.

Gross production of district heating. This includes production of district heating, steam and electricity production in district heating- and combined heat and power plants. Earlier this concept also included heat not distributed, which is heat from refuse incineration plants that is cooled and not utilized as district heating. This is now deducted from the gross production concept for all years back to 1983. (See "Comparability over time and place")

Consumer groups: The consumer groups are based on Standard Industrial Classification (SIC2007). More information can be found here: http://stabas.ssb.no/ItemsFrames.asp?ID=8118001&Language=nb


Also includes housing cooperatives


  • 01-03 Agriculture, forestry and fishing
  • 05-09 Mining and quarrying
  • 10-33 Manufacturing


  • 35 Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply
  • 36-39 Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities
  • 41-43 Construction
  • 45-47 Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles
  • 49-53 Transportation and storage
  • 55-56 Accommodation and food service activities
  • 58-63 Information and communication
  • 64-66 Financial and insurance activities
  • 68 Real estate activities
  • 69-75 Professional, scientific and technical activities
  • 77-82 Administrative and support service activities
  • 84 Public administration and defence; compulsory social security
  • 85 Education
  • 86-88 Human health and social work activities
  • 90-93 Arts, entertainment and recreation
  • 94-96 Other service activities
  • 97 Activities of household as employers; undifferentiated goods- and services-producing activities of households for own account
  • 99 Activities of extraterritorial organisations and bodies

The consumption is separated for households, manufacturing and quarrying, services and agriculture according to Norwegian Standard Industrial Classification (SIC2007).

Name: District heating and district cooling

Topic: Energy and manufacturing

Not yet determined

Division for Energy, Environmental and Transport Statistics

National level.


Annual report to the International Eurostat and Energy Agency (IEA). A copy of the report is sent to the UN and Eurostat.

Data per plant are available in Excel sheets back to 1983. There are also some data for the individual plants stored as WK-files (quattro-sheets) back to 1986.

The statistics were started in 1983. District heating was very little widespread in Norway before this time. The purpose is to elaborate statistics for the district heating activity in Norway. The basis for the statistics is data from plants that produce district heating with the purpose to distribute / sell it to third part (other users than the enterprise). Statistics for production, consumption by sector, fuel consumption in the production, and technical and economic main figures as income and investments are prepared and published.

The statistic are used by the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, and by persons working with energy related themes. The data are also reported to and used by International Organisations as Eurostat and OECD/ IEA (International Energy Agency). The statistics are used internal in Statistics Norway (SN) in Division for National Accounts, Division for Environmental Statistics and Division for External Trade, Energy and Industrial Production Statistics. The figures are used in other energy statistics in SN, such as in the Energy accounts and the Energy balance for Norway

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given inthe Statistics Release Calendar.

For more information, see Principles for equal treatment of users in releasing statistics and analyses.

The Division for National Accounts uses the value figures from the district heating statistics in their calculations, while the Division for Environmental Statistics uses the energy figures in their calculations of emissions. The district heating statistics are also used in the Energy balance sheet and the Energy account for Norway. No preliminary figures for district heating are published, only final figures.

Statistics Norway collects district heating data on behalf of Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE).

Acts and regulations:

NVE: Act no. 50 of 29 June 1990: Act relating to the generation, conversion, transmission, trading, distribution and use of energy etc. (The Energy Act) REG. no. 959 of 7 December 1990: Regulations concerning the generation, conversion, transmission, trading, distribution and use of energy etc. (The Energy Act Regulations)

Statistics Norway: The Statistic Act 2019-06-21-32

The issue is included in the regulation for structure statistics (No 58/97) and energy statistics (1099/2008)

The population is all the district heating and cooling plants in Norway that produce district heating and/or cooling with the purpose to distribute / sell it to other customers outside the company. Industrial enterprises that produce heat for their own use only are not included.

The sources are data that are collected from the district heating plants in Norway.

All district-heating plants are included.

Statistics Norway collects district heating data on behalf of Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE). Questionnaires are sent in electronically through Altinn.

The questionnaires are being edited manually. The reported figures are compared with data that are reported for the previous years, to see if some data might have been forgotten or if there are large discrepancies to the figures that have been reported before. Some consistency controls are also done electronic in the Excel-sheet where the reported data are filled in. Consistency of data reported in the different columns in the questionnaire is checked. The plants are contacted if it is discrepancies between the reported figures, or if figures are missing or are very different from data reported in previous years.

The collected data are used directly, and the statistics are presented without any adjustments.

Not relevant

According to § 2-4 of the Statistics Act, collected data are subject to secrecy and must be kept or destroyed in a secure manner. Any use of the data must be in accordance with the rules set out by the Data Inspectorate

Comparable figures are available from 1983. The information is less detailed for the years before 1986.

There is an increase in the quantity of waste used in district heating plants from 2009 to 2010, which is partly due to the fact that the factor for energy content in waste has been changed. Up to 2009, the factor 10.5 Terajoule per 1000 tonnes of waste has been used, while it was changed to 11.5 from 2010. This does not affect the amount of waste in tonnes, but it affects the amount of waste measured in energy units such as Terajoule and GWh. The change is based on results in a report issued by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, "Renewable share in waste in Norwegian refuse incineration plants" 2011, by Jarle Marthinsen, Mepex Consult AS

In the publishing of district heating statistics in 2017, the term "gross production of district heating" was changed for all years backwards in time. Previously, "heat not distributed", was included, while this is now taken out of the gross concept. Heat not distributed is mainly heat from waste incineration plants that, for various reasons, is cooled without being utilized as district heating. The reason for why this now is taken out of the gross concept is that it is not utilized for energy purposes. Another change made in 2017 is that the corresponding waste incinerated without the heat being utilized, is deducted from the fuel consumption in district heating plants in the statistics back to 1983. Since this is heat that potentially could be utilized, we have chosen to show this as additional information as "memo" entries in the tables. The calculation of the waste consumption to be extracted is based on the amount of “heat not distributed” and the ratio of waste consumption to total heat production in waste incineration plants for the individual district heating plants.

All plants are included in the statistic.

All the plants respond.

Some of the district heating do not have complete information about all the figures that are required in the questionnaire, as for instance the consumption of fuels, production, the losses in the distribution lines and the deliveries to different consumer groups. Calculations and judgement have to be used in these cases, principally by the reporting plant.

If no large errors are detected after the release of the statistics, the figures are not revised.