Employment main source of income for two in three
According to the population and housing census 2011, employment was the main source of income for 69 per cent of the population aged 19-66 years. The percentage was 73 for men and 64 for women.
|19 years or older
|67 years or older
|1Economically dependents are persons with a total income of less than 1.5 times the National Insurance basic amount.
|Income from employment
For the total population, employment was the main source of income for 44 per cent. For 22 per cent, the main source was pensions, for 4 per cent other transfers and for one per cent scholarships. Property income was the main source for less than one per cent.
In total, 29 per cent of the population was what is referred to as economically dependent, meaning that their total income was less than 1.5 times the National Insurance basic amount, which was approximately NOK 117 000 in 2011. More than 80 per cent of these persons were 18 years and younger.
Elderly live on pensions, children are dependents
The main source of income depends very much on a person’s age and family situation. For persons aged 75 years and older, pension was the main source of income for 97 per cent, and even for the age group 67-74 years, pension was the main source for nine out of ten. Almost all persons aged 18 years and younger were economically dependent.
Employment most important for half of the young people
There were also substantial differences between age groups for persons belonging to the economically active population - defined here as persons aged 19-66 years. Employment was the main source of income for approximately half of the youngest age group; 19-24 years. The percentage was somewhat higher for men than for women. One out of four were economically dependent and 13 per cent had scholarships as their main source of income. The percentage with scholarships was higher for women than for men. Many of those classified as economically dependent most certainly also had a scholarship, but the total income was below the defined income limit.
Among young adults more men than women have income from employment
Three out of four persons aged 25-39 years had employment as their main source of income, but there was a large disparity between men and women. For men, the percentage with employment as the main source of income was 81, compared to 66 per cent for women. Among women in this age group, as many as 14 per cent had other transfers as their main source of income. For men, the corresponding figure was just 5 per cent.
The middle aged are working, but the portion with pensions increases by age
The age group 40-54 years had the highest portion of persons with employment as their main source of income, at 78 per cent. The disparity between men and woman was much less than for young adults; with 81 per cent for men and 75 for women. In this age group, 13 per cent had a pension as their main source of income.
For persons aged 55-66 years, the portion with employment as the main source of income had increased to 58 per cent. Approximately one out of three had a pension as their main source of income. The percentage with employment as the main source of income was somewhat higher for men than for women, but for pensions it was the other way round.
Large disparities between mothers and fathers with small children
Among persons aged 19 years or older, who were living as a couple with small children (0-5 years), three out of four had employment as their main source of income. However, this was the situation for nine out of ten men compared to only six out of ten women. For 24 per cent of the women, other transfers were their main source of income. Children’s allowances are important income sources for this group. Furthermore, 9 per cent of all mothers with small children living in a couple were economically dependent. As the children grow older, the disparity between the sexes diminishes. For couples with older children (6-17 years), the percentage with employment as the main source of income was 83 for men and 77 for women.
Less than half of single parents live on employment income
Less than half of all single parents with small children had employment as their main source of income, but there was a large disparity between men and women. Seven out of ten single fathers with small children had employment as their main source of income compared to four out of ten single mothers. More than half of all single mothers with small children had pensions or other transfers as their main source of income. Even for this group, the disparity between men and women diminishes as the children grow older. For single fathers with older children, the portion with employment as the main source of income was 73 per cent compared to 68 per cent for single mothers.
Combining activities and income sources not unusual
When classifying persons by current activity status, all persons working one hour or more in the census week are regarded as employed. Among persons 19 years and older, approximately 85 per cent of all employed persons in census week also had employment as their main source of income in the census year, 6 per cent had pensions and 4 per cent other transfers. In total, 3 per cent were economically dependent. This shows that some persons who were employed in census week did not work the whole year or they combined different sources of income, and employment was not the main source of income on an annual basis.
Census statistics on main source of income for persons is a supplement to the previously published statistics on current activity status. Statistics Norway also publishes annual statistics on households’ income. These statistics present income as an indicator for living conditions and measure the economic resources available in households for savings and consumption. The statistics present the development in income distribution for different types of households. The income statistics do not give information on main source of income for persons and do not offer the possibility to compare with current activity status.
The census statistics on income give distributions by type of household as do the annual statistics on households’ income. Both statistics use basically the same data, but in the income statistics unmarried students registered as residing with a parent are counted as residing at the place of study if the distance from the registered address to the place of study is long. Together with some other adjustments, mainly for persons living in institutions, the result is that in the income statistics there are more one-person households and couples without children and fewer households with adult children than in the census.