48 000 non-EEA labour immigrants immigrated to Norway in the period 1990-2020. Of these, 51 per cent were still living in the country at the beginning of 2021. Non-EEA labour immigrants came from 138 countries. The largest groups were from India, Serbia, and the United States. 7 out of 10 are male and more than half live in Oslo or Viken.
25 000 family members have come to non-EEA labour immigrants in the same period. Of these, 57 per cent were still residents in the country. This gives a ratio of 0.58 family members per resident non-EEA labour immigrant. Family members are a female-dominated group and came from 146 countries, with the largest groups from India, Serbia, and the Philippines.
About 3 out of 4 non-EEA labour immigrants have completed tertiary education, while close to 14 per cent have upper secondary school level and 12 per cent have primary school as the highest level of education achieved. This is a significantly higher level of education than among labour immigrants from the EEA, immigrants in total, and the Norwegian population.
Labour immigrants from countries outside the EEA had an employment rate of 78.4 per cent, which was the same level as the population excluding immigrants. More than 62 per cent of the employed had academic or college occupations, compared with 44 per cent among the employed population excluding immigrants. The most common occupation groups are such as Realists, civil engineers, ICT advisors, Engineers, etc. and Teaching professions. Iranians had the largest share in academic or college occupations with 92.5 per cent. In the second place, we find the United States, with 74 per cent employed in these occupations. The groups with the lowest share are Serbians and Ukrainians with 42 and 46.8 per cent respectively.
Almost 40 per cent of non-EEA labour immigrants were employed in the industries ICT industries, Teaching (mainly at higher education level) and Real estate and technical services.
Labour immigrants from countries outside the EEA had the highest average monthly earnings of NOK 55 800 in the 4th quarter of 2020. They earned 30 per cent more than other labour immigrants, and 10 per cent more than the non-immigration population. Their wage levels can be explained by the high proportion with completed tertiary education, among other things. Average earnings vary by citizenship. Among the largest groups, the United States had the highest earnings level (NOK 64 000).
Many non-EEA labour immigrants have a high household income compared with other non-Nordic labour immigrants and the population as a whole. Work income is the main source of livelihood for most households, and the reception of welfare benefits is limited. Many of these households are overrepresented in the upper part of the income distribution in Norway. However, the risk of persistent low income varies a lot. Among non-EEA labour immigrants with a short time of residence, we find a high risk of persistent low income in all groups regardless of which country they came from.