Discussion Papers

Discussion papers comprise research papers intended for international journals and books. A preprint of a Discussion Paper may be longer and more elaborate than a standard journal article as it may include intermediate calculations, background material etc.

Articles, analysis, and publications


  1. The LOTTE system of tax microsimulation models Article 24 November

    Microsimulation models of the LOTTE system are key tools for tax policy-making in Norway and are extensively used in the budget process.

  2. Emission pricing and CO₂ compensation in the EU Article 26 October

    Unilateral CO₂ emission reduction can lead to carbon leakage, such as relocation of power-intensive and trade-exposed industries.

  3. To what extent are temperature levels changing due to greenhouse gas emissions? Article 25 September

    Weather and temperatures vary in ways that are difficult to explain and predict precisely. In this article we review data on temperature variations in the past as well possible reasons for these variations.

  4. Long-run Effects of School Spending: Evidence from Exiting Cohort Size Variation Article 29 August

    This paper investigates the long-term effects of local government education spending on child outcomes, including income, educational attainment, and family formation in adulthood.

  5. A new approach to estimating private returns to R&D Article 25 August

    This paper revisits the estimation of private returns to R&D. In an extension of the standard approach, we allow for endogeneity of production decisions, heterogeneity of R&D elasticities, and asymmetric treatment of intramural and extramural R&D.

  6. Reconciling estimates of the long-term earnings effect of fertility Article 16 August

    This paper presents novel methodological and empirical contributions to the child penalty literature. We propose a new estimator that combines elements from standard event study and instrumental variable estimators and demonstrate their relatedness.

  7. Emission regulation: Prices, quantities and hybrids with endogenous technology choice Article 20 June

    This paper examines the investment incentives of market-based regulation, with focus on the technology characteristics the different regulatory schemes tend to incentivize.

  8. Taxation of the rich and incentives for investments. The case of Norway Article 12 May

    Taxation of capital income and wealth redistributes from the rich but may harm the Norwegian economy as business investments is distorted.

  9. Taxation of the rich and the cost of raising tax revenue Article 12 May

    Taxation of capital income and wealth designed to redistribute from the rich may harm small open economies with a globalized capital market as investments are distorted.

  10. Controlling for fixed effects in studies of income underreporting Article 4 May

    The expenditure method of Pissarides and Weber (1989) Journal of Public Economics, 39 (1), 17-32) shows how one backs out measure of income underreporting by the self-employed by using food consumption as trace of true income.

  11. Moving beyond expectations Article 8 March

    Population projections are predominantly made using the cohort-component method (CCM). The opportunities for further development within that framework are limited. Lately, with advances in technical and computational capacity, the microsimulation framework has become a serious contender.

  12. The importance of escape clauses: Firm response to thin capitalization rules Article 27 February

    Escape clauses, where small firms are exempt from particular tax rules, is a crucial feature of a number of corporate tax schemes, but creates incentives to avoid taxation by manipulating the measures that determine inclusion.

  13. U.S. tight oil supply flexibility - A multivariate dynamic model for production and rig activity Article 24 February

    This paper examines the supply of U.S. LTO from both a theoretical and empirical point of view. The theory model combines endogenous rig activity and stylized reservoir pressure mechanics with the classic Hotelling model for exhaustible resource extraction.

  14. A probabilistic forecast of the immigrant population of Norway Article 20 January

    We present a probabilistic forecast for the immigrant population of Norway and their Norwegian-born children (“second generation”) broken down by age, sex, and three types of country background: 1. West European countries plus the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand; 2. East European countries that are members of the European Union; 3. other countries.


  1. Internalizing negative environmental impacts from wind power production: Coasian bargaining, offsetting schemes and environmental taxes Article 16 December

    On the one hand, wind power production is necessary for decarbonizing the electricity sector. On the other hand, we risk replacing one environmental problem with other environmental problems, that is, stopping climate change in exchange with increased loss of pristine land and biodiversity.