Establishments, enterprises and accounts
regnno, Accounting statistics for non-financial limited companies, operating income, operating expenses, operating profit, net profit, fixed assets, current assets, equity, liabilities, annual accounts, profit and loss account, balance sheet items, assetsAccounts , Establishments, enterprises and accounts

Accounting statistics for non-financial limited companies


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Key figures

12,5 %

companies’ return on equity

Accounting statistics for non-financial limited companies
NOK millionPer cent
201720162016 - 2017
Income statement
Operating income5 292 6644 997 3775.9
Operating profit517 301377 02837.2
Operating profit before tax921 281568 57062.0
Net profit681 479416 10763.8
Balance sheet
Fixed assets8 748 5588 372 7984.5
Current assets3 341 4513 122 9037.0
Equity5 455 4675 066 0037.7
Liabilities6 634 5426 429 6983.2
Per centPercentage points
Key figures
Operating profit margin9.87.52.3
Return on total assets8.56.22.3
Return on equity12.58.44.1
Equity ratio45.144.11.0

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
Selected accounting figures, income statement. NOK million.

Selected accounting figures, income statement. NOK million.
Corrected 3 October 2018.
Operating income5 008 0954 997 3775 292 664
Revenue4 646 5984 633 5384 937 417
Operating expences4 639 9544 620 3494 775 363
Raw materials and consumables used2 310 6612 341 4362 672 241
Payroll expence870 294872 285888 197
Depreciation and write down of tangible and intangible fixed assets (mill. NOK)344 324317 376280 658
Operating profit368 140377 028517 301
Income from subsidiaries, other group entities and from associates (mill. NOK)66 80494 620330 205
Interest income64 05065 69344 133
Interest expence142 395142 423109 520
Write-down of financial assets127 157127 55357 949
Financial items, net26 154191 542403 980
Operating profit before tax394 294568 570921 281
Tax141 859145 936240 002
Net profit250 739416 107681 479
Proposed dividends......
Number of enterprises245 750263 241263 790

Table 2 
Selected accounting figures. Balance sheet. NOK million

Selected accounting figures. Balance sheet. NOK million
Fixed assets8 276 6998 372 7988 748 558
Intangible fixed assets329 626345 642386 472
Tangible fixed assets2 744 1382 800 6122 841 222
Financial fixed assets5 202 9345 226 5455 520 863
Current assets3 035 3043 122 9033 341 451
Inventories384 894410 238439 744
Debitors1 644 4351 690 9011 808 630
Investments325 123325 137347 512
Cash and bank deposits etc680 852696 627745 564
Total assets11 312 00211 495 70112 090 009
Equity4 979 6245 066 0035 455 467
Invested equity3 072 3933 201 4673 386 923
Retained earnings1 907 2301 864 5362 068 544
Liabilities6 332 3796 429 6986 634 542
Provisions540 597539 028516 767
Other long-term liabilities3 253 5563 217 7183 312 735
Short-term liabilities2 538 2252 672 9522 805 040
Total equity and liabilities11 312 00211 495 70112 090 009
Number of enterprises245 750263 241263 790

Table 3 
Key figures for limited companies.

Key figures for limited companies.
1Operating profit in per cent of operating income.
2Operating result before tax in per cent of operating income.
3Operating result before tax + interest expense in per cent of total equity and liabilities at 31 December.
4Operating result in per cent of total equity at 31 December.
5Equity in per cent of total equity and liabilities at 31 December.
6Current assets at 31 December in proportion to short-term liabilities at 31 December.
Operating profit margin17.47.59.8
Operating margin27.911.417.4
Return on total assets34.76.28.5
Return on equity45.28.412.5
Equity ratio544.044.145.1
Current ratio61.201.171.19
Number of enterprises245 750263 241263 790

About the statistics

Accounting statistics for non-financial limited companies provide profit/loss statements, balance sheets and analytical figures for different industry groups and regions.


Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Operating income and operating expenses are ordinary income and expenses outside financial ones. Operating income is divided into sales revenues (taxable and tax-free), rental income, commission revenues, profits from the sale of fixed assets and other operating-related revenues. Operating expenses include changes in stocks, costs of raw materials and consumables used, wages and salaries, depreciation and write-downs of tangible fixed assets and intangible fixed assets as well as a number of different types of other operating expenses. Examples of operating expenses that are specified are subcontracting, repair and maintenance and expenses relating to means of transport.

Cost of raw materials and consumables used includes stock changes of work in progress and finished goods.

Wages and salaries include wages, holiday pay, employers' national insurance premium, pension costs and other personnel expenses.

Financial income and financial expenses are ordinary revenues and expenses relating to investments, securities, receivables and liabilities. The financial items also include share of earnings relating to foreign exchange gains and losses (agio) and value changes of market-based current asset investments.

Extraordinary revenues and expenses apply to material items that are unusual for the business and do not occur regularly.

Taxes represent taxes relating to the accounting result, and consist of taxes payable, expected reimbursement claims from owners and changes in deferred taxes. Taxes payable are the taxes expected to be assessed on the year's taxable income corrected for any discrepancy between calculated and assessed taxes the year before.

Allocation of the profit/loss for the year shows how a profit is allocated and losses are covered. It provides information on transfers to/from equity and dividends to owners.

Fixed assets cover assets that are mainly included in the enterprise's long-term creation of value and are intended for permanent ownership or use, as well as receivables and securities scheduled for repayment later than one year after the time of settlement. This includes tangible fixed assets broken down into buildings and facilities, facilities under construction, transport equipment, machinery etc. Long-term receivables and investments are included as fixed assets, such as investments in other activities and loans to enterprises in the same group.

Current assets are assets relating to the enterprise's sales of goods and services, or which are expected to have a functional period of less than one year in operation. This includes cash and short-term capital investments (cash, bank deposits, shares, bonds etc.), receivables and inventories. Receivables are current assets if it has been agreed or scheduled that they shall be repaid within one year after the end of the financial year.

Equity is the portion of the total capital belonging to the owners, and is shown as the value of assets less liabilities. Equity is classified in two main divisions, invested equity and retained earnings. Invested equity consists of share capital and share premium accounts. Retained earnings consist of fund for assessment differences and other reserves/uncovered losses.

Liabilities cover all obligations that can come to place restrictions on the future use of the enterprise's resources, and are divided into provisions for liabilities and charges (pension commitments, deferred tax liabilities, etc., other long-term liabilities and short-term liabilities. Long-term liabilities are legal or financial obligations not meant to be redeemed during the coming accounting period, and are not related to the enterprise's short-term sales of goods and services. Short-term liabilities are liabilities that fall due for payment within one year from the time of settlement, or are directly related to the enterprise's short-term sales of goods and services.

Standard classifications

Industrial classification is in accordance with the revised Norwegian Standard Industrial Classification . Limited companies operating in several fields are mainly grouped by the activity that contributes the most to the company's overall added value.

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Accounting statistics for non-financial limited companies
Topic: Establishments, enterprises and accounts

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Responsible division

Division for Accounting Statistics and Business Register

Regional level

National level

Frequency and timeliness


International reporting



Statistical files with data from the trading statements that have been put through link and estimation programs are stored.


Background and purpose

The purpose of the statistics is to obtain detailed statistical material for analyses and overviews of economic enterprise.

The statistics were produced for the first time for the 1999 financial year, and the purpose is to provide more detailed information than Accounts Statistics. Annual report statistics for non-financial limited companies.

Users and applications

The major user of the statistics is the National Account Division, in Statistics Norway. In addition, the statistics are used by the Ministry of Finance.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 08 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given inthe Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.

Coherence with other statistics

The statistics cover virtually the same population and reveal the same results as Accounts Statistics. Annual reports for non-financial limited companies . The population furthermore corresponds to a large degree to Income statistics for limited companies .

Legal authority

Statistics Act Sections 2-2 and 3-2.

EEA reference




The population are economically active non-financial limited companies. Limited companies, which operate financial activities such as commercial banks, mortgage companies, finance companies, insurance companies and the like are not included in the population.

The statistical unit is the enterprise (limited company).

Data sources and sampling

The statistics are based on the Tax questionnaire on accounting. The questionnaire documents revenues and expenses vis-à-vis tax authorities, and is an attachment to the tax return in conjunction with the tax assessment of limited companies. Joint-stock companies and other enterprises that prepare annual accounts pursuant to the Accounting Act (tax liable enterprises) should use Tax questionnaire on accounting 2. The questionnaire contains company accounts, not consolidated accounts.

To the data on each enterprise is added industry and institutional sector information from the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises.

A representative sample of limited companies in various industries has been drawn. Limited companies meeting one or more specified criteria have been included in the sample. The criteria is linked inter alia to whether the limited company is listed on Oslo Stock Exchange, or whether it is a public limited company and whether they meet the size criteria determined by employment, operating revenues and/or total assets (balance-sheet amount). A sample among other limited companies was selected.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

The statistics are based on tax questionnaires on accounting obtained for other statistics and have no independent data collection. Furthermore, tax questionnaires reported electronically to the Directorate of Taxes is collected.

The Register of Companies in Brønnøysund and Statistics Norway check the annual reports manually and mechanically to ensure that the information is correctly recorded. More checks are carried out to make sure that there is consistency between some accounts in profit and loss account and the balance sheet.

The controls of the material are done mechanically and manually. Controls have been worked out which apply to consistency both within the individual statement, and in relation to available information, among others, the annual accounts submitted to the Register of Annual Company Accounts in Brønnøysund.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant


As a rule, a figure is not published if it is based on fewer than three units. Also, if one company has a share of 90 per cent or more of the value, or if two companies contribute 95 per cent or more to the value, the figure is not published.

Comparability over time and space

The statistics were first prepared in their present form for the 1999 financial year.

From 2000 and onwards, the statistics do not cover turnover at the Nordic exchange of electric power. From 2000 the amounts of sale and purchase of electricity is net reported.

Preliminary accounting statistics are mainly based on annual reports obtained from the Register of Company Accounts in Brønnøysund. Since not all accounts are available when the statistics are produced, the statistical basis is not complete. Final accounting statistics will be published in spring t+2. The final statistics cover more companies and are mainly based on tax questionnaires on accounting. There are some conceptual differences between accounting information in the tax questionnaire on accounting and accounting information in annual reports.

The preliminary statistics are however combined with the final statistics for the previous years. The aforementioned conceptual differences should be taken into account when the preliminary and final figures are compared.

A new institutional sector classification was introduced in 2012. This had an impact on enterprises in portfolio investments, which were moved from the non-financial limited companies.  

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

In those cases where tax questionnaires on accounting are obtained from the tax authorities, the tax assessment can also cause changes in the questionnaire that cannot be traced back to the items where the change really took place. It should be pointed out that the information on the tax questionnaire in the first instance is to be regarded as the enterprise's assertions vis-à-vis the tax authorities, i.e. in those cases where the tax questionnaire has been obtained directly from the enterprise, it has not been subjected to any tax assessment-related processing. When the tax questionnaires on accounting are obtained from the tax authorities, the vast majority of the questionnaires will not contain changes resulting from of tax assessment processing. It is only in some cases that the tax assessment has caused changes that can be traced back to the tax accounting questionnaire.

Our routine controls disclose errors, when there are logical flaws in the forms, and deviations from the information in the Register of Annual Company Accounts in Brønnøysund. In some areas there are differences between the Accounting Act and the Tax Act, as well as between accounting and tax assessment practice. As a result, data in the accounts filed according the specifications of the Accounting Act and the tax questionnaire on accounting can be different. The controls are therefore in the first instance used as an aid to uncover units in the statistics that contain errors and inconsistencies. In many cases, the findings of the controls will turn out not to be errors in the statement of accounts, but a result of different adjustments the limited company has an opportunity to use.

Non-response in the sample is because the limited company is no longer in operation due to closure, merger or that the company has not prepared or delivered tax questionnaire on accounting for other reasons. The non-response rate is between 5 and 7 per cent. In those cases where one and the same company is included in both the statistics by direct obtainment of the tax questionnaire on accounting from the enterprise, and in the income survey for limited companies that obtains data from tax assessment authorities, the failure to supply information for one survey may be replaced by submissions to the other. When the tax accounting questionnaires are obtained from both the enterprise and tax authorities, it is mainly the questionnaire from the enterprise that is used.

All sample surveys are encumbered by uncertainty. In general, the fewer the observations the more uncertain the results. Groups based on relatively few observations will be very strongly influenced by extreme observations, i.e. observations that deviate greatly from the average. Extreme observations are therefore given a weight equal to 1, so that they only represent themselves in the material.

When drawing the sample, emphasis is placed on including the large joint-stock companies in the various industries in order to prepare reliable macro numbers. This is mirrored in the calculations of weights for the limited companies in the survey. The sample is nonetheless unevenly drawn, in that large joint-stock companies are overrepresented, and that the limited company must be included in the manufacturing statistics, structural statistics, income statistics for limited companies or reported electronically to the Directorate of Taxes in order to be included in the accounts statistics sample.

The quality of the register, which is the basis for drawing the sample and the data from administrative registers have an impact on the quality of the finished result. The sample selection is based on simple register information valid the year before the survey year. Both the administrative and statistical registers are updated continually, and will thus be changed during the production process.

The fact that statistics for some industries can be strongly affected by a single company. For example, the accounting figures for arts, entertainment and recreation are strongly affected by the inclusion of Norsk Tipping Limited in this industry. Norsk Tipping accounts for a large proportion of the activity in the industry and has an accounting structure and profitability which are different from the rest of the industry. This also applies to statistics broken down by regional classifications such as counties.


Not relevant

Fact sheet