Wholesale and retail trade and service activities;Construction, housing and property
efuoi, Business activities and support service activities, turnover index, value index, estate agency, property letting, legal services, accounting services, architectural services, business advisory services, technical consultants, R&D, advertising, veterinary activities, commercial servicesService activities , Property, Wholesale and retail trade and service activities, Construction, housing and property

Business activities and support service activities, turnover index


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Key figures

3.6 %

increase in employment activities

Index of Business activities. Index 2015=100. Preliminary figures
Seasonally adjusted, per centUnadjusted, per centValue index, unadjusted
1st quarter 2018 - 2nd quarter 20182nd quarter 2017 - 2nd quarter 20182nd quarter 2018
1NACE 68.201 House cooperative is excluded.
2Figures for 2nd quarter of 2016 until 2nd quarter of 2018 are not available.
L Real estate activities12:::
M Professional, scientific and technical activities0.65.4112.5
N Administrative and support service activities1.46.5108.2

About the statistics

The aim of the statistic is to measure the changes in turnover among establishments within business activities and real estate activities.


Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Turnover comprises the total revenues invoiced by the observation unit during the reference period, and this corresponds to market sales of goods or services supplied to third parties. Turnover includes all duties and taxes on the goods or services invoiced by the unit with the exception of the VAT invoiced by the unit vis-à-vis its customer and other similar deductible taxes directly linked to turnover. Turnover also includes all other charges (for example transport, packaging) passed on to the customer, even if these charges are listed separately in the invoice. Income classified as other operating income, financial income and extraordinary income in company accounts is excluded from turnover.

Standard classifications

Standard Industrial Classification (SIC2007). For more information: http://www.ssb.no/nace

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Business activities and support service activities, turnover index
Topic: Wholesale and retail trade and service activities

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Responsible division

Division for Structural Business Statistics

Regional level

National level only

Frequency and timeliness

Frequency: Quarterly

Timeliness: The reference period for the index is quarter. The index is published within 60 days after the end of the quarter.

International reporting

The statistic is reported to Eurostat on a 2-digit level (NACE 69, 71, 73, 74, 78, 80 and 82) and on a 3-digit level (70.2 and 81.2) immediately after release in Norway.


Primary data and the compiled statistics are stored electronically in files in the programming language SAS.


Background and purpose

The aim of the statistic is to measure the changes in turnover among establishments within business activities and real estate activities according to EU regulation no. 1165/98 of May 19th 1998. Eurostat compares similar statistics from other EEC-countries and publishes them on EU-level. Data have been collected since first quarter of 1996 and the statistic was published for the first time in 1997.

Users and applications

Users of the statistic are public sector agencies (Central Bank of Norway, Departments, etc.), private sector agencies and organisations within the industries. The statistic is used to analyse and monitor the development of the economy. At Statistics Norway the statistic is used by the Division for National accounts and other research and analysis activity.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given inthe Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway's key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally 

Coherence with other statistics

The turnover index is produced for the same industries as in the structural business statistics for real estate, renting and business activities

The index is used for the compilation of national accounts statistics.

Legal authority

The Statistics Act, Sections 2-1, 2-2 and 2-3

EEA reference

The statistic is published according to EU regulation no. 1165/98 of May 19th 1998.



The population includes all businesses in Section L, M and N in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC2007): Business activities and real estate activities.

Data sources and sampling

Data are collected both in form of questionnaires and the Directorate of Taxes' VAT-register. For the industries that are excluded from VAT (NACE 68.100, 68.209, 72.110, 72.190 and 72.200) we use questionnaires to collect data. For the VAT-bound industries we collect data from the Directorate of Taxes' VAT-register.

Because of the deadline for reporting we will at every publishing be lacking data for the whole reference period. For instance, when the 1st quarter get published we have only received data for the first term (January and February), and we have to estimate the month of March. This estimation is based on the development from the 1st to the 2nd term previous year. When we are publishing the 2nd quarter we are also able to publish the complete data basis for the 1st quarter.

Small businesses with a total turnover of under NOK 1 million per year may apply to submit VAT returns annually (annual year-end returns). This is a potential problem for the index. The VAT returns are submitted at the end of the year, in the sixth period, and might cause the index to increase. We intend to keep updated on the number of annual reports given.

Base year
The base year for the index is 2015 (2015=100).

The sample is about 2000 businesses that are not VAT-bound. The population is stratified by industry, turnover, type (if the enterprise consists of one or multiple businesses) and age of the business.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

The survey is based on a quarterly postal questionnaire. The questionnaire is posted around the 1st after the end of each quarter, and comes with a three weeks deadline. Respondents that haven't returned the questionnaires by the deadline are given a postal reminder together with a one-week extension of the deadline. If the questionnaire still isn't returned, the respondents are given a fine and a one-week final extension of the deadline.

For the VAT-bound industries we collect data from the VAT register.

Statistics Norway receives data from the Directorate of Taxes three times per every two months.

Controls are made on both macro and micro levels.

On a macro level, the turnover data for each industry are compared with the turnover data for the same period the year before.

On a micro level, the businesses that contribute the most (in per cent) to the change in turnover within each industry are scrutinized. If necessary, the businesses are contacted by telephone.

For the VAT-bound industries we get the data from bi-monthly turnover statistics. VAT-units report their turnover to the Division of Taxes using a VAT-number. (Several establishments and enterprises can register under the same VAT-number.) If the VAT-unit is a multiple establishment enterprise, if it reports for multiple enterprises, or if it is a special reporting unit (used for VAT only), the turnover is broken down to all establishments belonging to the same VAT-unit. This estimation is based on data from the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises. However, if the VAT-unit is a single establishment enterprise the turnover needs no estimation.

For the VAT free businesses we use instalment estimation. As inflation factor for identical businesses in a stratum we use the relationship between the population's and the sample's turnover within this stratum. The turnover of the population is gathered from the last yearly file from structural statistics for real estate, renting and business activities.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant


The turnover index is released according to the directions given in the Statistics Act, section 2-6.

Comparability over time and space

New businesses starting up, bankruptcies and changes in NACE can reduce the comparability over time for some industries.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

The total turnover might include revenue from transactions excluded from the definition of turnover, for instance sales of fixed assets.

Some enterprises are registered under the same VAT-number in the VAT-register (VAT-units reporting for multiple enterprises). This is a potential problem in the statistic when the enterprises are registered in different NACE or when they are located in different geographical areas. Another possible error is that the breakdown of turnover from VAT-unit to establishments is based on outdated information.

There is a certain degree of non-response among the sample. Businesses that do not respond will be sent a reminder. Large businesses that do not respond are contacted by phone prior to publication.

Businesses that do not respond are treated in the same way as businesses that are not part of the sample. That means that they are treated in the same way as businesses that are not part of the sample. In other words they are given the same percentage change in turnover as the average change in the strata the business belongs. The non-response is low.

In the case of non-response from a large enterprise, the tax office in the county municipality of the enterprise is contacted. Otherwise, turnover is estimated.

Errors in the sample can occur as a result of errors in the information that the sample is stratified by. So far no calculations concerning variance or bias have been done.

Data is collected from the VAT register. There is a certain time lag in the reporting to the Tax Directorate. As a result, figures for the last quarters released might be revised in subsequent releases.

The Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises is used to both define the population and to get information about the units. Errors in this administrative register - like time gaps in registration, incorrectly identified unit characteristics etc. may therefore be a potential source of uncertainty in the index.

Errors in the administrative registers are difficult to evaluate. However, they are unlikely to represent a significant source of statistical uncertainty or bias.


Not relevant