329173
/en/utenriksokonomi/statistikker/muh/maaned
329173
statistikk
2018-11-15T08:00:00.000Z
External economy
en
muh, External trade in goods, import, export, balance of trade (export minus import), mainland exports, imports excluding ships and oil platforms, trade ( between countries, continents and trade regions), international product groups (for example hs, sitc and bec), product groups (for example food, crude oil and metals)External trade , External economy
true

External trade in goods

Updated

Next update

Key figures

99.5

billion NOK – Exports of goods in October 2018

External trade in goods1
NOK BillionChange in per centNOK Billion - so far this yearChange in per cent - so far this year
October 2018September 2018 - October 2018October 2017 - October 2018October 2018October 2017 - October 2018
1The figures are marked with the symbol *. This is Statistics Norways standard symbol for indicating preliminary figures. Due to the data collection method, the preliminary monthly figures published for ships and oil platforms are often incomplete. In retrospect, therefore, the trade in these goods could in some cases lead to revisions. Please see tables 1-3 for the impact these figures have on the external trade.
Exports99.520.032.2827.717.6
Crude oil28.812.264.0227.524.9
Natural gas27.041.435.9207.427.6
Natural gas condensates0.537.379.15.229.1
Ships and oil platforms0.0-99.5-93.37.6-20.5
Mainland exports43.219.015.3380.110.0
Fish9.729.710.378.53.8
 
Imports64.66.514.3594.38.7
Ships and oil platforms0.075.0-97.02.1-87.5
 
The trade balance34.957.285.9233.448.9
The mainland trade balance-21.512.1-13.8-212.1-14.7

See more tables on this subject

Table 1 
Imports of goods, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted main figures. NOK Million

Imports of goods, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted main figures. NOK Million
Total importsCommodities excl. ships and oil platformsShipsOil platforms
UnadjustedUnadjustedSeasonally adjustedUnadjustedUnadjusted
Yearly figures
2013527 722516 826.10 896-
2014562 455549 943.6 1786 334
2015615 485588 519.8 71518 251
2016629 042609 376.19 666-
2017684 585662 504.11 86710 214
 
Monthly figures (last 25 months)
October 201652 74651 14850 6251 599-
November 201657 28752 10647 6955 181-
December 201649 31648 47750 432839-
January 201751 86648 54051 8653 326-
February 201748 82947 20649 8481 622-
March 201757 19255 88749 7781 305-
April 201743 98143 95950 16823-
May 201759 79859 09355 532705-
June 201767 15765 62862 3361 529-
July 201746 97846 03551 473943-
August 201754 86853 15152 5261 717-
September 201759 72654 63453 909984 994
October 201756 52456 29453 266230-
November 201784 95179 51673 2522155 220
December 201752 71452 56157 148154-
January 201854 84654 03755 573809-
February 201851 13650 77353 725363-
March 201864 39264 05367 034339-
April 201863 29062 81960 706471-
May 201864 97964 93660 09143-
June 201859 20459 19758 5067-
July 201854 68554 68158 4684-
August 201856 44256 42957 30913-
September 201860 69860 69461 9114-
October 201864 61964 61359 2247-

Table 2 
Exports of goods, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted figures. NOK Million

Exports of goods, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted figures. NOK Million
Total exportsCommodities excl. ships and oil platformsMainland exportsShipsOil platforms
UnadjustedUnadjustedSeasonally adjustedUnadjustedSeasonally adjustedUnadjustedUnadjusted
Yearly figures
2013916 532909 538.364 367.6 993-
2014909 036901 683.387 295.7 353-
2015835 267826 330.403 973.5 6113 326
2016751 583739 078.386 536.12 506-
2017860 692849 666.418 543.11 026-
 
Monthly figures (last 25 months)
October 201668 95565 69262 06230 83730 7543 263-
November 201670 55068 88565 77633 16331 3411 665-
December 201672 37169 66866 64732 26432 7922 704-
January 201777 50373 78768 69031 83532 6393 716-
February 201770 34268 25970 70131 72933 2062 082-
March 201777 12275 91172 54038 77234 1361 211-
April 201767 95567 93268 62632 11035 14423-
May 201768 84968 45170 82435 03834 904398-
June 201768 38067 57370 07737 27834 571807-
July 201762 94562 94566 88032 12335 433--
August 201768 80368 45271 54734 51735 476351-
September 201766 48865 68270 40934 67134 862806-
October 201775 29675 17770 86737 44535 810119-
November 201778 85177 76374 39437 93236 5531 087-
December 201778 15777 73374 24135 09336 475424-
January 201883 51780 95975 49537 18237 0982 557-
February 201872 49672 40674 95935 70537 32491-
March 201878 36878 31774 96637 70137 28850-
April 201881 95681 94982 46937 94137 2457-
May 201880 52779 02281 67737 80637 4151 505-
June 201880 90079 95482 56239 79837 869946-
July 201880 61080 10785 42134 29236 334502-
August 201886 88786 45089 98840 21541 149437-
September 201882 90481 44388 01736 28438 1861 461-
October 201899 51899 51093 95143 16240 1258-

Table 3 
The trade balance. NOK Million

The trade balance. NOK Million
Exports-importsExports-imports (both excl. ships and oil platforms)Mainland exports - imports excl. ships and oil platforms
Yearly figures
2013388 809392 712-152 459
2014346 581351 740-162 649
2015219 782237 811-184 546
2016122 541129 701-222 841
2017176 107187 162-243 961
 
Monthly figures (last 25 months)
October 201616 20914 544-20 310
November 201613 26316 779-18 943
December 201623 05521 191-16 213
January 201725 63725 246-16 705
February 201721 51321 053-15 477
March 201719 93020 024-17 115
April 201723 97323 973-11 849
May 20179 0519 358-24 055
June 20171 2231 945-28 351
July 201715 96716 910-13 912
August 201713 93615 301-18 634
September 20176 76211 048-19 963
October 201718 77218 883-18 849
November 2017-6 100-1 753-41 584
December 201725 44325 173-17 467
January 201828 67126 922-16 855
February 201821 36021 633-15 069
March 201813 97614 264-26 351
April 201818 66619 130-24 879
May 201815 54814 086-27 130
June 201821 69620 758-19 398
July 201825 92425 426-20 389
August 201830 44530 020-16 214
September 201822 20620 748-24 410
October 201834 89934 897-21 451

Table 4 
Exports of crude oil, natural gas and natural gas condensates, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted figures. NOK Million

Exports of crude oil, natural gas and natural gas condensates, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted figures. NOK Million
Crude oil, natural gas and natural gas condensates in totalCrude oilNatural gasNatural gas condensates
UnadjustedSeasonally adjustedUnadjustedSeasonally adjustedUnadjustedSeasonally adjustedUnadjusted
Yearly figures
2013545 171.288 126.248 778.8 268
2014514 388.282 663.223 625.8 100
2015422 356.197 116.220 676.4 565
2016352 542.187 595.161 129.3 817
2017431 123.223 073.203 064.4 986
 
Monthly figures (last 25 months)
October 201634 85432 15918 20317 16116 22014 837432
November 201635 72233 39118 74318 67316 60814 226371
December 201637 40434 20620 72420 65116 55913 825121
January 201741 95237 49321 95622 15619 56116 492434
February 201736 53037 00518 87620 27817 06415 943590
March 201737 13935 56618 01418 35318 63115 802493
April 201735 82235 68219 33918 46816 05616 477426
May 201733 41435 35418 64818 12514 46616 731300
June 201730 29634 92517 06318 24412 97716 619256
July 201730 82232 47215 05914 76315 26917 062494
August 201733 93535 99618 68717 98114 77617 880472
September 201731 01134 78216 94817 91813 81417 879249
October 201737 73234 77017 56416 66419 88518 211283
November 201739 83137 23918 80318 68320 20717 330822
December 201742 64038 91222 11521 76320 35817 076167
January 201843 77739 04519 34219 27923 79520 040640
February 201836 70137 13917 56818 82018 36617 178767
March 201840 61639 16121 30321 66619 31316 482-
April 201844 00843 69922 25621 35921 06721 462686
May 201841 21743 50922 75122 10517 67720 515788
June 201840 15646 25722 09123 52118 06523 115-
July 201845 81548 35923 52223 30521 84724 347447
August 201846 23549 09324 14823 43421 13125 461955
September 201845 15850 78225 67127 15919 11824 771369
October 201856 34852 21228 81027 74627 03224 763507

Table 5 
Imports of goods, main groups by SITC

Imports of goods, main groups by SITC
NOK MillionChange in per centNOK MillionChange in per cent
October 2017October 2018October 2017 - October 2018So far this yearOctober 2017 - October 2018
October 2017October 2018
Total56 52464 61914.3546 920594 2928.7
Of which:
Ships and oil platforms (part of SITC 793)2307-97.016 4922 059-87.5
Imports excl. Ships and oil platforms56 29464 61314.8530 427592 23311.7
 
0 Food and live animals4 1124 3856.635 67837 8516.1
00 Live animals other than animals of div.03142581.5193167-13.1
01 Meat and meat preparations9310411.61 2531 157-7.7
02 Dairy products and birds' eggs10312521.31 0441 20014.9
03 Fish, crustaceans, molluscs and prep. thereof493489-0.83 5743 8126.7
04 Cereals and cereal preparations47061831.54 3194 83612.0
05 Vegetables and fruit9551 0035.010 00910 5034.9
06 Sugars, sugar prepatations and honey184177-3.51 3741 255-8.7
07 Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices422407-3.53 3913 068-9.5
08 Feeding stuff for animals (not cereals)7647721.05 6696 32911.6
09 Miscellaneous edible products6146668.44 8525 52313.8
 
1 Beverages and tobacco989927-6.37 7788 1795.2
11 Beverages56161810.25 0145 51710.0
12 Tobacco and tobacco manufactures429309-27.82 7642 662-3.7
 
2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels2 8914 52056.331 10439 27326.3
21 Hides, skins and furskins, raw1111.51313-1.5
22 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits13415817.71 7171 7180.1
23 Crude rubber111424.711914118.4
24 Wood, lumber and cork4344636.84 0274 0991.8
25 Pulp and waste paper325156.14314391.8
26 Textile fibres and their waste12139.1971057.7
27 Crude fertilizers and crude minerales20230149.02 4252 87818.7
28 Metalliferous ores and metal scrap1 8253 29580.519 81127 27337.7
29 Crude animal and vegetable materials240224-6.32 4642 6075.8
 
3 Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials3 2193 2711.626 29938 06844.7
32 Coal, coke and briquettes17419914.51 7431 95011.9
33 Petroleum, petroleum products2 7152 8274.122 59132 39143.4
334 Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (other than crude); preparations, n.e.s., containing by weight 70% or more of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparation1 8402 09013.615 12417 27614.2
34 Gas , natural and manufactured204110-46.37241 12154.7
342 Liquefied propane and butane200105-47.26301 07370.4
35 Electric current1261356.81 2412 606110.0
 
4 Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes949864-9.06 0345 988-0.8
41 Animal oils and fats4454623.72 4152 6379.2
42 Fixed vegetable fats and oils, crude, refined or fractionated477375-21.43 4293 141-8.4
43 Animal or vegetable fats and oils, processed27270.918920910.6
 
5 Chemicals and related products n.e.s.5 7227 03923.057 03060 5036.1
51 Organic chemicals67486027.77 4988 0317.1
52 Inorganic chemicals41753528.24 2584 6499.2
53 Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials30635917.32 9683 2579.7
54 Medicinal and pharmaceutical products1 5511 91023.115 29616 2326.1
55 Essential oils and resinoids etc7348069.86 2026 84210.3
56 Fertilizers16129181.42 0842 54722.2
57 Plastics in primary forms4684782.14 0894 2904.9
58 Plastics in non-primary forms51259115.54 8695 35510.0
59 Chemical materials and products, n.e.s.9001 20934.49 7659 301-4.8
 
6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material8 4959 2959.487 15192 3105.9
61 Leather, leather manufactures, furskins53553.4473444-6.1
62 Rubber manufactures, n.e.s.49161525.24 4624 90810.0
63 Cork and wood manufactures7537823.96 4166 5632.3
64 Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof7457723.66 3066 5103.2
65 Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles68876811.66 4507 0218.9
66 Non-metallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.9641 0003.77 8568 3816.7
67 Iron and steel1 4361 418-1.311 83613 98318.1
68 Non-ferrous metals8681 00415.67 93110 11627.6
69 Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.2 4962 88215.435 42234 383-2.9
 
7 Machinery and transport equipment20 74124 05816.0212 457226 0036.4
71 Power generating machinery and equipment8322 355183.010 03814 91348.6
72 Machinery for special industries2 1602 43812.920 41022 58810.7
73 Metal working machinery12416532.61 2391 38912.1
74 General industrial machinery and equipment2 9153 28512.725 19429 10015.5
75 Office machines, data processing machines1 4421 70018.013 64815 35012.5
76 Telecommunications apparatus and equipment2 2392 4539.620 34020 8782.6
77 Electrical machinery and apparatus3 1383 74119.226 90930 99115.2
78 Road vehicles6 7907 0814.363 11466 4315.3
781 Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons4 4134 4400.639 71341 1643.7
79 Other transport equipment including ships1 102839-23.931 56524 364-22.8
 
8 Miscellaneous manufactured articles9 31210 1719.282 42085 1503.3
81 Prefabricated buildings9941 0344.17 6087 9554.6
82 Furniture and parts thereof1 3121 46811.912 82313 1412.5
83 Travel goods, handbags etc.1461609.61 4471 5275.6
84 Articles of apparel and accessories1 9342 15811.617 41018 1174.1
85 Footwear4484909.44 7645 0626.2
87 Professional and scientific instruments1 2971 49515.213 18013 5642.9
88 Photographic and optical goods2822913.12 5202 6404.8
89 Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s2 8993 0756.122 66823 1452.1
 
9 Commodities and transactions9590-4.8969969-0.1
91 Postal packages not classified according to kind00.0-.
93 Special transactions and commodities not classified according to kind323614.23493778.2
96 Coin (other than gold coin), not being legal tender115.091562.0
97 Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold, ores and concentrates)6253-14.6612577-5.7

Table 6 
Exports of goods, main groups by SITC

Exports of goods, main groups by SITC
NOK MillionChange in per centNOK MillionChange in per cent
October 2017October 2018October 2017 - October 2018So far this yearOctober 2017 - October 2018
October 2017October 2018
1Due to confidentiality in commodity group 56, this group can not be published separately. This group is included in group 59.
Total75 29699 51832.2703 684827 68217.6
Of which:
Crude oil (part of SITC 333)17 56428 81064.0182 155227 46124.9
Natural gas (SITC 343)19 88527 03235.9162 499207 41127.6
Natural gas condensates (part of SITC 333)28350779.23 9975 16029.1
Ships and oil platforms (part of SITC 793)1198-93.39 5147 565-20.5
Mainland exports37 44543 16215.3345 518380 08610.0
 
0 Food and live animals9 35610 49012.180 73384 3824.5
00 Live animals other than animals of div.0354-21.2304966.2
01 Meat and meat preparations283626.9227221-2.8
02 Dairy products and birds' eggs7866-16.3648624-3.6
03 Fish, crustaceans, molluscs and prep. thereof8 8329 74010.375 67378 5183.8
04 Cereals and cereal preparations374314.231234611.0
05 Vegetables and fruit1916-16.513216725.9
06 Sugars, sugar prepatations and honey3434.7384826.4
07 Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices274461.332436011.2
08 Feeding stuff for animals (not cereals)19735479.92 0142 65932.0
09 Miscellaneous edible products13018441.91 3371 3914.1
 
1 Beverages and tobacco8711127.875084012.1
11 Beverages8711128.274283112.0
12 Tobacco and tobacco manufactures00-56.681020.1
 
2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels1 4811 67413.013 49614 89310.4
21 Hides, skins and furskins, raw273738.0450401-10.8
22 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits11149.05725.3
23 Crude rubber55-12.64536-19.1
24 Wood, lumber and cork28632915.02 7203 15916.1
25 Pulp and waste paper21525619.02 3562 3550.0
26 Textile fibres and their waste232614.12162317.2
27 Crude fertilizers and crude minerales32236112.23 1243 52112.7
28 Metalliferous ores and metal scrap56161710.04 2474 78412.6
29 Crude animal and vegetable materials4141-0.433339920.0
 
3 Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials43 72064 40547.3404 258512 68626.8
32 Coal, coke and briquettes130-98.1453-94.0
33 Petroleum, petroleum products21 51934 48560.3221 311280 22526.6
334 Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (other than crude); preparations, n.e.s., containing by weight 70% or more of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparation3 6185 10341.034 66846 97735.5
34 Gas , natural and manufactured21 67529 10634.3178 151226 14026.9
342 Liquefied propane and butane1 5131 80319.213 36916 13020.7
35 Electric current51481458.54 7526 31933.0
 
4 Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes19524023.31 7431 92710.5
41 Animal oils and fats9512328.88391 00019.2
42 Fixed vegetable fats and oils, crude, refined or fractionated5124-52.2421341-19.0
43 Animal or vegetable fats and oils, processed499391.748458621.1
 
5 Chemicals and related products n.e.s.4 7215 87924.545 29050 18710.8
51 Organic chemicals1 1201 87867.813 08614 0967.7
52 Inorganic chemicals72986819.26 7637 3408.5
53 Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials15718215.81 5621 71810.0
54 Medicinal and pharmaceutical products56567018.55 0776 45427.1
55 Essential oils and resinoids etc13917526.61 1841 31310.9
56 Fertilizers1::::::
57 Plastics in primary forms4825126.24 6545 0167.8
58 Plastics in non-primary forms156135-13.41 3411 273-5.0
59 Chemical materials and products, n.e.s.1 3741 4586.111 62312 97611.6
 
6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material7 2767 9629.467 38772 7227.9
61 Leather, leather manufactures, furskins75-31.560622.9
62 Rubber manufactures, n.e.s.6765-3.4656596-9.1
63 Cork and wood manufactures1501649.11 3121 3916.0
64 Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof41551323.84 2844 6879.4
65 Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles12916023.31 2801 3404.7
66 Non-metallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.14716512.31 3901 346-3.2
67 Iron and steel1 2031 39916.312 51412 121-3.1
68 Non-ferrous metals4 5744 6150.939 00443 96912.7
69 Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.58487750.16 8897 2104.7
 
7 Machinery and transport equipment6 2476 7207.668 99070 6542.4
71 Power generating machinery and equipment44973563.86 7566 697-0.9
72 Machinery for special industries8961 20434.48 3029 95719.9
73 Metal working machinery8735-60.0700500-28.6
74 General industrial machinery and equipment1 1791 33313.012 45812 9694.1
75 Office machines, data processing machines2182399.82 0432 1736.3
76 Telecommunications apparatus and equipment54462214.45 0755 2754.0
77 Electrical machinery and apparatus1 4991 216-18.911 32912 58011.0
78 Road vehicles68175010.16 2086 7088.1
79 Other transport equipment including ships694586-15.516 11913 794-14.4
 
8 Miscellaneous manufactured articles2 1301 957-8.120 35518 692-8.2
81 Prefabricated buildings189174-7.81 2871 223-5.0
82 Furniture and parts thereof2382536.52 2712 2850.6
83 Travel goods, handbags etc.511115.1789825.7
84 Articles of apparel and accessories103102-0.9736734-0.3
85 Footwear141722.111513921.1
87 Professional and scientific instruments880809-8.08 7137 688-11.8
88 Photographic and optical goods22246.5202199-1.5
89 Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s679566-16.66 9526 324-9.0
 
9 Commodities and transactions8280-3.16816992.7
91 Postal packages not classified according to kind00.00.
93 Special transactions and commodities not classified according to kind00-70.1210320.0
96 Coin (other than gold coin), not being legal tender00-77.822-17.1
97 Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold, ores and concentrates)8280-2.46766871.6

Table 7 
Imports and exports of goods, by trade areas, continents and countries.

Imports and exports of goods, by trade areas, continents and countries.
ImportsExports
NOK Million - so far this yearChange in per centNOK Million - so far this yearChange in per cent
October 2017October 2018October 2017October 2018
Total546 920594 2928.7703 684827 68217.6
 
Trade areas
Nordic countries110 118120 9369.894 760112 07518.3
EFTA8 9778 617-4.06 4036 9658.8
EU331 965359 9748.4566 761678 96019.8
OECD419 167454 3308.4629 152748 76419.0
Developing countries103 644108 1144.351 24157 63912.5
LDC - least developed countries3 1893 56111.72 6014 33666.7
 
Continents and countries
Europe359 093390 6448.8583 601695 24619.1
Belgium8 6399 2216.733 07442 02527.1
Denmark30 49132 7677.532 41740 18824.0
Estonia4 5414 8587.01 2661 3678.0
Finland12 30713 54110.010 37212 58321.3
France17 00519 17312.743 27251 54619.1
Greece58267916.7930816-12.3
Ireland4 6333 938-15.08 5169 0236.0
Iceland2 4592 043-16.93 8024 54419.5
Italy17 58718 9787.99 69411 60419.7
Lithuania6 1197 00014.45 4175 382-0.6
Netherlands21 62821 6400.167 78594 16438.9
Poland18 90219 9005.316 11018 64515.7
Portugal2 1232 2043.84 1544 4346.7
Romania2 0293 00047.97167322.2
Russia10 38114 37638.51 8052 08415.5
Slovakia2 7053 01911.627939943.0
Spain11 04312 14710.015 86115 062-5.0
United Kingdom27 01731 13215.2154 875176 96514.3
Switzerland6 4666 5230.92 5892 420-6.5
Sweden64 21971 75911.747 33154 17014.4
Czech Republic5 8816 80915.81 6711 7202.9
Turkey5 8055 389-7.25 5245 162-6.6
Germany63 20264 6572.3108 075131 13321.3
Hungary2 2282 4118.276699429.8
Austria4 1875 30226.61 7371 95212.4
Other countires in Europe6 9148 17818.35 5636 13210.2
 
Asia119 142113 200-5.058 65258 8320.3
Hong Kong83197817.71 2321 47719.9
India3 3243 86716.32 0261 902-6.1
Japan11 68111 109-4.98 2659 38713.6
China54 37457 9226.514 28416 99919.0
Malaysia2 6613 10716.81 8801 357-27.8
Singapore2 4892 7239.47 1153 718-47.7
South Korea24 16316 282-32.66 4869 07139.9
Taiwan3 5863 478-3.01 4021 66618.8
Thailand5 2602 845-45.92 1301 959-8.0
Vietnam3 7654 0507.62 6871 373-48.9
Other countires in Asia7 0086 839-2.411 1459 923-11.0
 
North and Central America48 52367 14338.445 38348 7417.4
Canada10 92014 69434.68 5616 954-18.8
United States34 36648 60541.432 99337 99215.2
Other countries in North- and Central-America3 2373 84418.83 8293 795-52.4
 
South America12 13914 19116.94 8346 17127.7
Brazil8 16010 11123.93 5053 214-8.3
Chile7918021.45051 163130.3
Peru1 3911 4141.79512733.7
Other countries in South-America1 7971 8643.77291 667128.7
 
Africa6 6977 1857.39 66715 58861.2
Angola28143410.71 1551 056-8.6
Botswana14215710.6-0.
South Africa1 9592 54229.85131 129120.1
Other countires in Africa4 5684 343-4.97 99913 40367.6
 
Oceania1 3261 92945.51 5473 103100.6
Australia9931 63264.41 3061 98652.1
New Zealand330291-11.8201969382.1
Other countires in Oceania36100.040148270.0

Table 8 
Imports and exports of goods (imports excl. ships and oil platforms and mainland exports), by trade areas, continents and countries.

Imports and exports of goods (imports excl. ships and oil platforms and mainland exports), by trade areas, continents and countries.
Imports excl. ships and oil platformsMainland exports
NOK Million - so far this yearChange in per centNOK Million - so far this yearChange in per cent
October 2017October 2018October 2017October 2018
Total530 427592 23311.7345 518380 08610.0
 
Trade areas
Nordic countries109 209120 88710.766 57275 20413.0
EFTA8 1148 6086.16 3426 9659.8
EU328 645359 7329.5225 278252 49812.1
OECD404 530452 88012.0276 854311 32912.5
Developing countries101 500107 3415.848 87652 5117.4
LDC - least developed countries3 1893 56111.72 4754 32874.9
 
Continents and countries
Europe353 788389 97310.2240 958269 36511.8
Belgium8 6399 2216.712 05814 47720.1
Denmark30 48532 7567.420 05425 14725.4
Estonia4 5414 8587.01 2661 3678.0
Finland12 27413 52310.26 2926 5504.1
France17 00519 17312.711 39912 72711.7
Greece58267916.7881812-7.8
Ireland4 6333 938-15.03 3283 6178.7
Iceland1 5962 03327.43 7414 54421.5
Italy15 27218 97824.37 1367 7939.2
Lithuania6 1177 00014.43 4223 5714.4
Netherlands21 54321 6030.333 51644 68633.3
Poland18 83319 9005.714 69015 4064.9
Portugal2 1232 2043.84 0653 886-4.4
Romania2 0293 00047.97167322.2
Russia10 38114 37638.51 8041 9447.8
Slovakia2 7053 01911.627939943.0
Spain11 02512 14710.28 7309 67910.9
United Kingdom26 89831 00515.329 68630 4122.4
Switzerland6 4666 5230.92 5892 420-6.5
Sweden64 21271 75011.735 88138 3736.9
Czech Republic5 8816 80915.81 6711 7202.9
Turkey4 6854 9716.14 5744 7564.0
Germany62 53464 6193.325 87826 1561.1
Hungary2 2282 4118.276699429.8
Austria4 1875 30226.61 7371 95212.4
Other countries in Europe6 9148 17518.24 7995 2459.3
 
Asia108 338111 8493.257 51752 637-8.5
Hong Kong831725-12.81 2321 43416.4
India3 3243 86716.31 7831 9026.7
Japan11 15811 109-0.48 2659 19511.3
China54 04857 6056.614 20915 2817.5
Malaysia2 6613 10716.81 8801 357-27.8
Singapore1 7952 72351.76 8023 620-46.8
South Korea15 35115 5011.06 3456 080-4.2
Taiwan3 5863 478-3.01 4021 5047.3
Thailand5 2602 845-45.92 0041 756-12.4
Vietnam3 3404 05021.32 6871 373-48.9
Other countries in Asia6 9846 839-2.110 9089 135-16.3
 
North and Central America48 16167 14339.431 36437 08018.2
Canada10 92014 69434.63 9523 475-12.1
United States34 36648 60541.425 32630 93622.2
Other countries in North and Central America2 8753 84433.72 0862 66927.9
 
South America12 13914 19116.94 8344 607-4.7
Brazil8 16010 11123.93 5053 043-13.2
Chile7918021.450565830.3
Peru1 3911 4141.79512733.7
Other countries in South America1 7971 8643.77297796.9
 
Africa6 6777 1467.09 32114 07851.0
Angola28143410.71 1551 056-8.6
Botswana14215710.6-0.
South Africa1 9592 50327.851360117.2
Other countries in Africa4 5484 343-4.57 65312 42162.3
 
Oceania1 3241 92945.71 5252 31952.1
Australia9931 63264.41 3061 98652.1
New Zealand330291-11.820129546.8
Other countries in Oceania16500.01838111.1

Table 9 
Imports of goods from selected trade areas and countries, commodity groups by SITC. NOK million

Imports of goods from selected trade areas and countries, commodity groups by SITC. NOK million
So far this year
October 2018
Total importsFood and live animalsBeverages and tobaccoCrude materials, inedible, except fuelsMineral fuels, lubricants and related materialsAnimal and vegetable oils, fats and waxesChemicals and related products n.e.s.Manufactured goods classified chiefly by materialMachinery and transport equipmentMiscellaneous manufactured articlesCommodities and transactions
Total594 29237 8518 17939 27338 0685 98860 50392 310226 00385 150969
 
EU (incl. the Nordic countires)359 97423 7467 44114 25425 4572 12643 59959 242138 37944 808921
Nordic countries120 9369 0512 1707 30215 9601 44611 46723 25933 85315 576853
Developing countries108 1148 70915611 3118681 6543 46611 99739 03330 88832
Russia14 3761 052165614 5011 4801 1325 425601490
India3 8677341480294521 1114291 0630
Japan11 10965512404642 0977 6008620
China57 92281902006891 6706 59929 07719 46117
Singapore2 72317177011 1031398015840
South Korea16 28231147752969 5766 0173010
United States48 6058111925286 3953166 6461 79126 9494 9689
Canada14 6942761411 05381902762401 6733420
Brazil10 1112 54716 18200181176997207
South Africa2 542457411 17602121326480118

Table 10 
Exports of goods to selected trade areas and countries, commodity groups by SITC. NOK Million

Exports of goods to selected trade areas and countries, commodity groups by SITC. NOK Million
So far this year
October 2018
Total exportsFood and live animalsBeverages and tobaccoCrude materials, inedible, except fuelsMineral fuels, lubricants and related materialsAnimal and vegetable oils, fats and waxesChemicals and related products n.e.s.Manufactured goods classified chiefly by materialMachinery and transport equipmentMiscellaneous manufactured articlesCommodities and transactions
Total827 68284 38284014 893512 6861 92750 18772 72270 65418 692699
 
EU (incl. the Nordic countries)678 96056 89253712 438467 4971 07229 36459 14241 12010 798101
Nordic countries112 07514 3103053 91952 4044418 04913 71714 1604 74624
Developing countries57 63910 694301 64914 38927812 8684 15611 6641 9120
Russia2 08431011103124659566214610
India1 90216030301650647238460
Japan9 3873 31721022 027101 1501 2141 4001660
China16 9993 026157791 677226 9498832 9796680
Singapore3 7184801438716511461 5814660
South Korea9 0712 1881602 992295739631 7654990
United States37 9925 25914222215 6853953 1424 5635 8882 6970
Canada6 9545268254 754222165396472180
Brazil3 21471537717149965236071170
South Africa1 129240016529110052149410

Table 11 
Mainland exports by county of production.

Mainland exports by county of production.1
NOK MillionChange in per centNOK Million - so far this yearChange in per cent
October 2017October 2018October 2017 - October 2018So far this yearOctober 2017 - October 2018
October 2017October 2018
11) County of production is defined as the county with the highest value added. Where the export consists of a mix of goods from different counties, and the county of production is difficult to determine, the goods are regarded as originating from several counties. Where the value of an imported intermediate good is more than doubled, the good is considered to be produced in Norway. Otherwise, it is considered to be an export of a good produced abroad.
The whole country37 44543 16215.3345 518380 08610.0
 
County of production
Østfold1 7901 636-8.614 24614 5412.1
Akershus49164531.44 4335 52024.5
Oslo726617-15.07 2226 235-13.7
Hedmark36242818.23 3003 89518.0
Oppland723670-7.35 8176 3589.3
Buskerud9569640.811 84910 129-14.5
Vestfold1 4282 43870.717 27119 95715.6
Telemark1 8362 26423.317 40319 77913.7
Aust-Agder23929925.12 5892 94813.9
Vest-Agder2 4843 30132.923 62427 17715.0
Rogaland3 4944 01915.030 62935 10614.6
Hordaland5 3506 48321.254 81265 11018.8
Sogn og Fjordane1 6251 297-20.211 68410 915-6.6
Møre og Romsdal4 2644 4454.232 63934 1854.7
Trøndelag.2 643..23 256.
Sør-Trøndelag (-2017)1 706.-100.016 091.-100.0
Nord-Trøndelag (-2017)426.-100.04 784.-100.0
Nordland2 5662 402-6.422 81824 1035.6
Troms - Romsa8291 06828.87 3238 13811.1
Finnmark - Finnmárku623588-5.64 9765 1062.6
Svalbard13--100.0441-97.7
Jan Mayen--.--.
Norwegian goods produced in several counties1 3681 75328.113 19214 81212.3
Re-exports of goods produced abroad3 6084 19116.233 28835 3486.2
County not stated5381 0105 4827 46636.2

Table 12 
Mainland exports by county of production, commodity groups by the SITC. NOK million

Mainland exports by county of production, commodity groups by the SITC. NOK million
October 2018
Total mainland exportsDistribution by the SITC
Food, beverages and tobaccoFish (subgruop 03 of SITC 0)Crude materials except fuelsFuelsManufactured goods except food, beverages and tobacco
1County of production is defined as the county with the highest value added. Where the export consists of a mix of goods from different counties, and the county of production is difficult to determine, the goods are regarded as originating from several counties. Where the value of an imported intermediate good is more than doubled, the good is considered to be produced in Norway. Otherwise, it is considered to be an export of a good produced abroad.
2Nord-Trøndelag and Sør-Trøndelag is one county from January 2018 on.
3The text is changed from the point in time of publication of figures for March 2017. Direct transit was erroneously included.
The whole country43 16210 6019 7401 9148 05722 590
 
County of production1
Østfold1 63698420111 336
Akershus64514122181485
Oslo617655441508
Hedmark42824141610241
Oppland67031202645
Buskerud96430581903
Vestfold2 438130711 492863
Telemark2 26419572432 131
Aust-Agder29935019-244
Vest-Agder3 30112101603 273
Rogaland4 0195923961631 6761 588
Hordaland6 4831 1861 1512163 9221 159
Sogn og Fjordane1 29754354136-718
Møre og Romsdal4 4452 5612 50918501 699
Trøndelag22 6431 8081 7871210714
Sør-Trøndelag (-2017)......
Nord-Trøndelag (-2017)......
Nordland2 4021 1721 13271-1 159
Troms - Romsa1 0681 0061 0037-55
Finnmark - Finnmárku58845044930999
Svalbard------
Jan Mayen------
Norwegian goods produced in several counties1 75358651331081443
Re-exports of goods produced abroad34 191108357054 007
County not stated1 010177163240809

Table 13 
Revisions on preliminary monthly figures so far this year on imports, commodity groups by SITC

Revisions on preliminary monthly figures so far this year on imports, commodity groups by SITC1
New figuresChange from last publication of figuresChange from first publication of figures.
NOK millionPer centPer cent
Measure period so far this year
September 2018
1Revision since last publication of figures: The sum of the monthly figures ("so far this year") as they exist now, compared to the sum of the monthly figures as they were the first time they were published. Revision since first publication of figures: The sum of the monthly figures ("so far this year") as they are now, compared with the sum of the monthly figures ("so far this year") as they existed in the previous publication of updated figures for the current period. In the previous publication, the figures for months preceding the month indicated in the table header were already revised a number of times (see review of the revision practice in "About the statistics"). The normal trend is largest revisions from the first publication month - and minor changes throughout the year. This is illustrated in this table by the fact that the percentage change in "change from first publication of figures" is usually higher than in " change from last publication of figures ".
Total529 6730.11.1
Of which:
Ships and oil platforms (part of SITC 793)2 0530.6159.4
Imports excl. ships and oil platforms527 6200.10.9
 
0 Food and live animals33 4660.0-0.1
00 Live animals other than animals of div.03143-0.1-0.2
01 Meat and meat preparations1 0530.0-0.1
02 Dairy products and birds' eggs1 0750.0-0.1
03 Fish, crustaceans, molluscs and prep. thereof3 3230.0-0.1
04 Cereals and cereal preparations4 2180.0-0.2
05 Vegetables and fruit9 5010.00.0
06 Sugars, sugar prepatations and honey1 0780.0-1.1
07 Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices2 6610.0-0.1
08 Feeding stuff for animals (not cereals)5 5570.0-0.2
09 Miscellaneous edible products4 8580.00.0
 
1 Beverages and tobacco7 2510.00.0
11 Beverages4 8990.0-0.1
12 Tobacco and tobacco manufactures2 3530.00.1
 
2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels34 753-0.1-0.2
21 Hides, skins and furskins, raw12-0.1-0.9
22 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits1 5600.00.0
23 Crude rubber1270.0-4.0
24 Wood, lumber and cork3 6350.0-0.1
25 Pulp and waste paper3880.0-0.1
26 Textile fibres and their waste91-0.2-0.1
27 Crude fertilizers and crude minerales2 5780.0-0.2
28 Metalliferous ores and metal scrap23 979-0.1-0.3
29 Crude animal and vegetable materials2 3820.00.1
 
3 Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials34 7972.316.4
32 Coal, coke and briquettes1 751-0.30.1
33 Petroleum, petroleum products29 5642.820.0
334 Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (other than crude); preparations, n.e.s., containing by weight 70% or more of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparation15 1860.40.5
34 Gas , natural and manufactured1 0110.0-1.5
342 Liquefied propane and butane9680.0-1.5
35 Electric current2 4710.00.0
 
4 Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes5 1240.30.2
41 Animal oils and fats2 1760.60.5
42 Fixed vegetable fats and oils, crude, refined or fractionated2 7660.00.0
43 Animal or vegetable fats and oils, processed182-0.10.6
 
5 Chemicals and related products n.e.s.53 4650.0-0.2
51 Organic chemicals7 1710.0-0.2
52 Inorganic chemicals4 1140.00.0
53 Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials2 8980.0-0.2
54 Medicinal and pharmaceutical products14 3230.0-0.3
55 Essential oils and resinoids etc6 0370.0-0.1
56 Fertilizers2 2550.0-0.4
57 Plastics in primary forms3 8110.0-0.3
58 Plastics in non-primary forms4 7640.0-0.2
59 Chemical materials and products, n.e.s.8 0920.0-0.2
 
6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material83 0150.00.3
61 Leather, leather manufactures, furskins3890.0-0.1
62 Rubber manufactures, n.e.s.4 2930.0-0.2
63 Cork and wood manufactures5 7810.0-0.2
64 Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof5 7380.0-0.1
65 Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles6 2530.0-0.2
66 Non-metallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.7 3820.0-0.2
67 Iron and steel12 5650.0-0.6
68 Non-ferrous metals9 112-0.1-0.3
69 Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.31 501-0.11.3
 
7 Machinery and transport equipment201 9450.00.6
71 Power generating machinery and equipment12 5580.00.2
72 Machinery for special industries20 150-0.1-0.1
73 Metal working machinery1 2240.0-0.5
74 General industrial machinery and equipment25 8150.0-0.3
75 Office machines, data processing machines13 6490.0-0.1
76 Telecommunications apparatus and equipment18 425-0.1-0.1
77 Electrical machinery and apparatus27 250-0.1-0.2
78 Road vehicles59 3490.0-0.1
79 Other transport equipment including ships23 5250.16.6
 
8 Miscellaneous manufactured articles74 9790.0-0.2
81 Prefabricated buildings6 9200.30.1
82 Furniture and parts thereof11 673-0.2-0.3
83 Travel goods, handbags etc.1 3670.0-0.2
84 Articles of apparel and accessories15 9590.0-0.2
85 Footwear4 5720.0-0.1
87 Professional and scientific instruments12 069-0.1-0.3
88 Photographic and optical goods2 3490.0-0.3
89 Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s20 0700.0-0.3
 
9 Commodities and transactions8780.00.0
91 Postal packages not classified according to kind00.00.0
93 Special transactions and commodities not classified according to kind3410.00.0
96 Coin (other than gold coin), not being legal tender140.00.0
97 Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold, ores and concentrates)5240.00.0

Table 14 
Revisions on preliminary monthly figures so far this year on exports, commodity groups by SITC

Revisions on preliminary monthly figures so far this year on exports, commodity groups by SITC1
New figuresChange from last publication of figuresChange from first publication of figures
NOK MillionPer centPer cent
Measure period so far this year
September 2018
1Revision since last publication of figures: The sum of the monthly figures ("so far this year") as they exist now, compared to the sum of the monthly figures as they were the first time they were published. Revision since first publication of figures: The sum of the monthly figures ("so far this year") as they are now, compared with the sum of the monthly figures ("so far this year") as they existed in the previous publication of updated figures for the current period. In the previous publication, the figures for months preceding the month indicated in the table header were already revised a number of times (see review of the revision practice in "About the statistics"). The normal trend is largest revisions from the first publication month - and minor changes throughout the year. This is illustrated in this table by the fact that the percentage change in "change from first publication of figures" is usually higher than in " change from last publication of figures ".
2Due to confidentiality in commodity group 56, this group can not be published separately. This group is included in group 59.
Total728 1640.50.5
Of which:
Crude oil (part of SITC 333)198 6520.00.0
Natural gas (SITC 343)180 3790.0-0.6
Natural gas condensates (part of SITC 333)4 6530.00.0
Ships and oil platforms (part of SITC 793)7 5578.133.1
Mainland exports336 9241.00.8
 
0 Food and live animals73 8920.0-0.3
00 Live animals other than animals of div.03450.0-0.2
01 Meat and meat preparations185-0.1-0.3
02 Dairy products and birds' eggs5590.0-0.5
03 Fish, crustaceans, molluscs and prep. thereof68 7780.0-0.3
04 Cereals and cereal preparations3040.0-0.1
05 Vegetables and fruit1510.0-0.4
06 Sugars, sugar prepatations and honey430.00.0
07 Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices3160.0-0.2
08 Feeding stuff for animals (not cereals)2 3050.0-1.0
09 Miscellaneous edible products1 207-0.1-0.1
 
1 Beverages and tobacco7290.0-0.4
11 Beverages7200.0-0.4
12 Tobacco and tobacco manufactures90.00.0
 
2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels13 2190.0-0.1
21 Hides, skins and furskins, raw365-0.20.2
22 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits50.00.0
23 Crude rubber320.0-0.5
24 Wood, lumber and cork2 8300.0-0.3
25 Pulp and waste paper2 0990.00.0
26 Textile fibres and their waste205-0.1-0.3
27 Crude fertilizers and crude minerales3 1590.0-0.2
28 Metalliferous ores and metal scrap4 1670.0-0.1
29 Crude animal and vegetable materials3580.01.4
 
3 Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials448 2810.0-0.2
32 Coal, coke and briquettes20.00.0
33 Petroleum, petroleum products245 7400.00.0
334 Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (other than crude); preparations, n.e.s., containing by weight 70% or more of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparation41 8750.10.0
34 Gas , natural and manufactured197 0340.0-0.4
342 Liquefied propane and butane14 3270.01.0
35 Electric current5 5050.00.0
 
4 Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes1 686-0.1-1.8
41 Animal oils and fats877-0.10.2
42 Fixed vegetable fats and oils, crude, refined or fractionated316-0.1-3.6
43 Animal or vegetable fats and oils, processed493-0.3-4.0
 
5 Chemicals and related products n.e.s.44 3080.0-0.2
51 Organic chemicals12 2170.0-0.2
52 Inorganic chemicals6 4720.50.6
53 Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials1 5360.0-0.1
54 Medicinal and pharmaceutical products5 7840.0-0.8
55 Essential oils and resinoids etc1 138-0.1-0.4
56 Fertilizers2:::
57 Plastics in primary forms4 5050.0-0.2
58 Plastics in non-primary forms1 1380.0-0.2
59 Chemical materials and products, n.e.s.11 518-0.1-0.2
 
6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material64 7615.25.1
61 Leather, leather manufactures, furskins570.0-9.8
62 Rubber manufactures, n.e.s.5320.0-0.2
63 Cork and wood manufactures1 2270.0-0.2
64 Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof4 1740.00.0
65 Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles1 180-0.1-0.8
66 Non-metallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.1 1810.00.1
67 Iron and steel10 7220.1-0.1
68 Non-ferrous metals39 3558.98.8
69 Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.6 3330.0-0.2
 
7 Machinery and transport equipment63 9340.92.6
71 Power generating machinery and equipment5 9630.0-4.0
72 Machinery for special industries8 7530.0-0.7
73 Metal working machinery465-0.9-1.6
74 General industrial machinery and equipment11 636-0.10.0
75 Office machines, data processing machines1 933-0.1-1.0
76 Telecommunications apparatus and equipment4 6530.00.1
77 Electrical machinery and apparatus11 3640.0-0.4
78 Road vehicles5 959-0.1-0.6
79 Other transport equipment including ships13 2084.818.4
 
8 Miscellaneous manufactured articles16 734-0.1-0.8
81 Prefabricated buildings1 0480.0-3.4
82 Furniture and parts thereof2 032-0.1-0.3
83 Travel goods, handbags etc.870.10.0
84 Articles of apparel and accessories632-0.2-1.0
85 Footwear1220.0-0.4
87 Professional and scientific instruments6 879-0.1-0.5
88 Photographic and optical goods1750.0-0.2
89 Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s5 7580.0-1.0
 
9 Commodities and transactions6190.00.1
91 Postal packages not classified according to kind00.00.0
93 Special transactions and commodities not classified according to kind100.00.0
96 Coin (other than gold coin), not being legal tender10.00.0
97 Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold, ores and concentrates)6070.00.1

About the statistics

The external trade statistics comprise the development in Norway's trade with other countries in terms of value and volume figures. Aggregated as well as detailed imports and exports figures between Norway and partner countries, trade regions and continents are provided.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Imports and exports
Imports comprise mainly foreign manufactured goods entering Norway. This can also include re-importation of originally Norwegian-produced goods and processed goods. Exports comprise domestically produced goods sent out of Norway, i.e. the Norwegian statistical territory as defined in Section of population. Also included are reexportation of originally foreign-produced goods and processed goods.

Trade in goods is based on the physical movement of goods across borders, but for some items, such as ships, oil platforms and aircraft, trading often takes place without the occurrence of such movement. Whether there has been an import or export of such goods is therefore determined based on whether a change in economic ownership has taken place cf. also described in the Section of population. Economic ownership is defined as the person entitled to claim the economic benefit and who has the legal responsibility for the risk of the item.

Mainland exports
As from March 2013, the statistics on external trade in goods will use the term mainland exports on the exportation of goods other than crude oil, natural gas, natural gas condensates, ships and oil platforms. Previously, we also used the term traditional goods for these exports, as well as for imports excluding ships and oil platforms. (Balance of payments and the research department still use the term traditional goods. The balance of payments also includes items such as naphtha, propane and butane in its collective term crude oil and natural gas, external trade in goods does not.)

Goods

A good is a physical object. Trade in goods, both relate to and are bound by trade in services. Services are more intangible by nature than goods. Production and consumption of goods is often independent of each other, while a service is difficult to distinguish in the same manner. Sometimes it is difficult to determine whether an object is a commodity or a service, e.g. software. Software may be defined as a service even if it is stored in a physical product and production and consumption take place independently. The content, i.e. the developed software, is mostly a service.

Country
Country of origin is used for imports. With regard to exports, the country of destination is used.

For raw materials, the country of origin is determined according to where the goods are produced. For manufactured goods (processed and refined goods), this is the country in which the goods have obtained the form they have at the time of import. The country of destination is defined as the country, which, on the date of export, is the last known country for which the goods are intended.

For more specific principles in relation to country of origin, the rule for ships, aircraft and oil platforms is that country of origin is the country that previously owned the goods (economic ownership). For Norwegian-produced goods sold abroad and subsequently bought in Norway, the country from which the goods are imported shall be given as the country of origin (manufacturing country).

Mode of transport
Mode of transport is defined as the means of transportation used when goods cross the border, either by import or export (in the Database for Standard Classifications there is a detailed description of mode of transport ).

Quantity
For most goods, the quantity is expressed in kilograms (weight excluding packaging), except for ships and electricity, which are measured by gross tonnes and kWh respectively. However, for many goods, the quantity is also available in a different unit of measurement, such as pieces, barrels, cubic metres, carat, litres, pairs etc.

Statistical value
Statistical value is the value when crossing the Norwegian border. Duties, VAT and other taxes are not included in the statistical value.

Upon import, the value should be set to the CIF (Cost Insurance Freight) value, i.e. the value of the goods at the Norwegian border, including the costs associated with the delivery of goods to the border, transport costs and insurance. Similarly, for exports it is the value at the Norwegian border, including the costs associated with transporting it there, called FOB (Free On Board) value. CIF and FOB are two types of delivery terms called Incoterms. The delivery terms are an agreement between buyer and seller as to who bears the risk, responsibility and cost of transportation of the goods to the agreed place. In the Database for Standard Classifications there is an overview of the different delivery terms .

For crude oil exported by ship directly from installations on the Norwegian continental shelf, the value upon departure from the installation is used. In the case of crude oil and natural gas that is piped abroad, this value is determined based onon when it leaves the Norwegian continental shelf. The value of transport in international waters and into a terminal abroad is regarded as export of services.

The statistical value of exports and imports of ships is the transfer value including takeover of debt. With regard toto fish landed abroad (exported) by Norwegian vessels and caught outside the Norwegian customs border, the statistical value is the value of the fish paid to the fishing operator upon the sale of stock (minus the sales organisation fee).

County of production
The county of production is defined as the county in which the added value is greatest.

Standard classifications

Classification of goods
The classification by HS (the international customs and statistics nomenclature, the Harmonized System) is a 6-digit grouping of goods organised primarily according to the material characteristics of goods at the time of crossing the border. Only in exceptional cases is the later use of the goods of any significance to the classification. The WCO (World Customs Organization) is responsible for this nomenclature.

The Norwegian customs tariff is based on the HS, but has two more digits, which are national codes. The 7th digit reflects national customs divisions/tariff rates (bound in the WTO - World Trade Organization). The 8th digit is used to cover the national statistical needs and and among others the interests of the Norwegian Agricultural Authority and Ministry of Foreign Affairs interests with regard to import and export regulations. In some cases, the 8th digit is also used to distinguish between goods subject to duties and/or fees. The Norwegian version is published annually on our website along with a text version of the nomenclature developed by Statistics Norway. The detailed commodity list , which includes all commodity numbers, also provides information about the validity of each commodity number.

Due to technological developments and changes in international trade, the HS nomenclature is normally updated every 5 years – with the most recent implementation on 1 January 2012. In addition, minor changes are made in the Norwegian customs tariff every year. The EU also uses the nomenclature of the HS in its publication of foreign trade figures. However, the EU version; the Combined Nomenclature (CN) - which also has eight digits - is more detailed than the Norwegian version. As mentioned previously, only the first 6 digits are common internationally.

When publishing external trade figures, the UN Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) is mainly used. Here the goods are grouped by level of processing (raw materials, semi-finished and finished goods). As from 1988 to 2006, the SITC-Rev.3 is used, but as of 2007 the SITC-Rev. 4 is used.

The classification BEC (Broad Economic Categories); the UN classification of commodities by end use, which is based on the SITC, is also used to some extent. This classification is not considered to be a "standard classification" in the same way as for example the SITC, and it is officially acknowledged that countries may have their own version of this grouping in order to satisfy national needs. In the Database for Standard Classifications the Norwegian version of this classification is found.

The various nomenclatures are listed on the UN’s website , as well as correspondence tables between the different nomenclatures HS, SITC and BEC and their different versions.

The product classification CPA divides goods by industry group, and in external trade we use extracts from this. CPA (Statistical Classification of Productivity by Activity in the European Community) is the EU's central Product by Activity classification. It is a product group that is closely linked to industry, i.e. distinctive products within each activity can be linked to the activity classification NACE Rev.2.

Grouping by country
The Norwegian list of countries used follows the international standard ISO-3166. EU countries use the same standard, except for some deviations of less importance.

In the external trade publications these country groupings are frequently used:

Nordic countries - trade with Sweden, Denmark, Greenland, Faroe Islands, Finland, Åland and Iceland
EFTA - trade with Iceland, Switzerland and Liechtenstein
EU – in the Database for standard classifications current member states at any given time is available
OECD - for current member states at any given time see the OECD's website

Developing countries – as from 2007, the figures are according to the OECD’s DAC (DAC stands for Development Assistance Committee) for definitions of countries at any given time that are recognised as recipients of official foreign aid. The DAC list also includes a section on LDCs (Least Developed Countries - defined by the UN) - which we also use in the statistics.
(Until 2006, these countries were defined as developing countries in the Norwegian trade statistics: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), Croatia, Macedonia, Malta, Slovenia - Africa except South Africa - Asia excluding Japan, North and South America except USA, Canada and Greenland - Oceania except Australia and New Zealand.)

Former Comecon (only European Comecon countries in the Norwegian trade statistics): Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Estonia, Georgia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Hungary, Uzbekistan.

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: External trade in goods
Topic: External economy

Next release

Responsible division

Division for External Trade Statistics

Regional level

Statistics on imports and exports of goods are published at country level. Export figures are also given by county of production.

Frequency and timeliness

Monthly figures are released on the 15th of the month after the observation period (the previous month), or the first subsequent working day. These figures are preliminary. With regard to the current year, all the monthly figures are updated in every publication

Corresponding yearly figures are published together with the monthly figures for December. With regard to the current year, all the monthly figures are updated in every publication. Final figures for the preceding year are released twice. For the first time in May the following year, while the corrected final figures are published in May one year later.

International reporting

Reports are sent to the EU statistical office (Eurostat), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization (WTO), International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the United Nations (UN).

Microdata

Non-revised and revised micro data are stored in accordance with Statistics Norway's guidelines for storing computer files (DataDok).

Background

Background and purpose

The purpose of the external trade statistics is to provide information about the commodity flows between Norway and other countries. Exports and imports are important economic indicators both in describing structural changes and in monitoring the economic trends. The monthly statistics of external trade in goods have been published since 1913 (value figures were published for the first time in 1866).

With regard to essential changes in the statistics, the commodity classification in line with the Harmonised System that was introduced in 1988 entailed a comprehensive restructuring of the distribution at a detailed level in relation to the earlier CCCN nomenclature (the Customs Cooperation Council Nomenclature).

The statistics are mainly financed from State assignments, but also rely to some extent on market income.

Users and applications

The external trade statistics are a part of the national and international statistical system, and are used in the compilation of the national accounts and the balance of payment statistics in Statistics Norway. The statistics are aimed at covering the business sector’s need for data in this area for their planning of production, marketing and sales.

The statistics are also intended for prognoses and analyses performed by public authorities, research institutions and private organisations. International organisations such as the UN´s statistical office, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD),  the statistical office of the EU (Eurostat) and others make use of the information provided in the external trade statistics.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.

Coherence with other statistics

The figures for external trade statistics are an important part of the quarterly balance of payments and national accounts and the annual national accounts .

Operational accounts (balance of payments comprises operating accounts and capital accounts), however, include several items on both the export and import side that are not included in the statistics on external trade. This applies to the export and import of services in their entirety. External trade statistics only cover the non-financial sector, while the balance of payments cover all institutional sectors (the non-financial sector produces goods and non-financial services, while financial firms are mainly concerned with financial disclosure and financial assistance services).

The balance of payments also collects estimates of trade in goods which are transported directly from abroad to the Norwegian continental shelf, imports of fuel and other oil products to Norwegian ships, aircraft and units abroad. Moreover the external account interprets some of the goods from the external trade statistics in goods as a service, such as computer games, software and licenses.

In the publication of the figures for external trade we give figures for crude oil, natural gas and condensates, while the balance of payments use the collective term “crude oil and natural gas”. Terms in foreign accounts also encompass items such as naphtha, propane and butane, while the external trade statistics do not.

In addition to the statistics mentioned, external trade figures are included in many of the other statistics published by Statistics Norway, for example:

- Exports of salmon ,  weekly figures of salmon exports are published in addition to the regular monthly trade figures
- Indices of volume and price of external trade in goods mainly use external trade data as the basis for calculating figures. In addition, the total number of imports and exports, as well as fish and some selected commodity numbers for waste paper and scrap metal, are used as basic data in the producer price index  and the  price index of first-hand domestic sales
- External trade data are also used as basic data for statistics on transport  , the external trade in ICT goodsstatistics on fishery and emissions of greenhouse gases

 

Mirror statistics
Mirror statistics, in the context of external trade statistics, refer to a comparison between the statistics of two or more countries: exports of goods from one country should in principle equal the imports of the same goods in the partner country.

However, discrepancies are often identified in these figures for several reasons. Although there are international guidelines for the production of external trade statistics, there may still be differences in what the countries include. An example is differences in the usage of statistical trade systems, general or special trade, which causes delimitations to the statistics content. Countries may also have different methods for data collecting and processing, which can create distortions. Furthermore, some countries collect data from customs authorities and others directly from companies. 

Basically, there should be a certain difference in value between the countries, as the exporting country provides the FOB-value while the importing country in addition to this adds costs for insurance and freight all the way to the location of delivery, the CIF-value (see Definitions). Some countries collect data from customs authorities, others directly from companies. A common source of error between countries is caused by different information about which is the country of destination. Different threshold-values for inclusion of data can also create distortions, f.ex. in Norwegian external trade statistics, declarations with value less than NOK 1 000 are excluded from the import statistics. Other countries may have other delimitations. Different practise of confidentiality and demands for confidentiality, inaccurate definitions of certain commodities as well as conscious and unconscious misuse of codes can lead to use of different classification codes between countries.

From a Norwegian point of view, there is a need for comparing external trade data with the corresponding statistics of our main trading partners, principally European countries. It is in this context important to have knowledge of the rules practiced by the individual partners.

The Statistical Office of the European Union, Eurostat, publishes external trade data for EU countries, totally for the Union and separate for each member country. This statistics are produced according to EU regulations, which defines external trade as trade between the European Union trade and third countries. As a consequence of this, exports to countries in the EU from a non EU-member state are recorded as imported to EU in the first country where the goods cross the borders of the European Union. When forwarding the goods to the country of destination, the good is recorded as an item dispatched from the EU-country that first received the goods. Information about the country of origin of the commodity is not included in the records. Several of the EU-countries publishes in addition to the data presented in the Eurostat database, Comext ,  separately external trade statistics produced after national methodology. For information about this, consult Eurostat's annual report: Quality report on International trade statistics .

 

Legal authority

The Statistics Act §§ 2-1, 2-2 and 3-2

EEA reference

EU regulations incorporated into the EEA agreement comprise contractual obligations pursuant toto EC regulations onon data collection and distribution of data to the EU’s statistical office, Eurostat. The current regulations are as follows:

Regulation (EC) No. 471/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 on Community statistics relating to external trade with non-member countries and repealing of Council Regulation (EC) No 1172/95

Commission Regulation (EU) No. 92/2010 of 2 February 2010 implementing Regulation (EC) No. 471/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Community statistics relating to external trade with non-member countries, as regards data exchange between customs authorities and national statistical authorities, compilation of statistics and quality assessment

Commission Regulation (EU) No. 113/2010 of 9 February 2010 implementing Regulation (EC) No. 471/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Community statistics relating to external trade with non-member countries, as regards trade coverage, definition of the data, compilation of statistics on trade by business characteristics and by invoicing currency, and specific goods or movements

Commission Regulation (EU) No. 1106/2012 of 27 November 2012 implementing Regulation (EC) No. 471/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Community statistics relating to external trade with non-member countries, as regards the update of the nomenclature of countries and territories

Production

Population

Statistics area and the economic territory
The scope of foreign trade statistics is based on international guidelines from the United Nations Statistical Commission.

The general recommendation is that the statistics should include all goods which add to or subtract from the stock of material resources of a country by entering (imports) or leaving (exports) its economic territory. In addition to the geographical dimension, a country's economic territory also includes ships, aircraft and oil platforms owned by national corporations. These are goods that are not necessarily located within the geographic area, but are still viewed as part of the material resources of a country. For these goods external trade is measured by the change of economic ownership.

There are two different statistical trade systems - the general trade system and the special trade system. UN recommends using the general trade system where a country's statistical area coincides with its economic territory. This implies that goods are recorded at the time they enter or leave the economic territory. The special trade system is used when the statistical area covers only a part of the economic territory. Statistics Norway follows, with a few exceptions, the general trade system.

The Norwegian economic territory consists of mainland Norway, Svalbard, Jan Mayen, Norwegian dependencies, territorial waters, including the airspace above these, the economic zone, the Norwegian part of the continental shelf, territorial enclaves abroad (embassies, consulates, military bases, research stations) and Norwegian ships, aircraft and oil platforms.

External trade statistics is mainly based on information drawn from customs declarations. However, the responsible area of the customs authorities only covers mainland Norway and its territorial waters. As a supplement, data on important trade in goods to and from the remaining areas of the economic territory are collected directly from respondents and registers.

The following are defined as statistical area:

Mainland Norway and its territorial waters
Customs declarations contain information on physical flows of goods crossing the customs border. Imports and export that are exempted from ordinary declaration are referred to in the Customs Act §§ 4-10 and 4-11. According to the recommendations from the UN, some flows of goods should be excluded from the statistics. This includes trade in Norwegian goods between the customs area and other parts of the Norwegian economic territory. To the extent possible, trade in foreign goods to and from foreign enclaves, ships, aircraft and oil platforms located in Norway are omitted. To distinguish this type of transactions customs procedure codes from the declarations are used. In general, trade transactions are recorded at the time when the goods enter or leave the customs territory. However there are some exceptions, cf. the treatment of goods in customs warehouses.

There are four different types of customs warehouses. Goods waiting on declearance,can be stored in either a general or a central warehouse. For imports the time of recording is set when the goods are taken out of the warehouse and not when they arrived in the economic territory. This means that the statistical processing of these data follows the special trade principle. However, in practice the time difference between storage and withdrawals from warehouses is usually so small that the statistical processing is considered to be approximately equal to the general trade principle. For the remaining two types of customs warehouse; duty free and storage for further processing, the statistical treatment is according to the general trade system.

Customs declarations of exports and imports of electric current do not provide enough information for statistical purposes, and data is therefore obtained directly from the respondent.

Svalbard and Jan Mayen
Import transported through the Norwegian mainland to Svalbard and Jan Mayen should be declared by customs. Data on exports of coal transported directly from Svalbard are collected directly from the respondents.

The Norwegian part of the continental shelf
Imports via the Norwegian mainland to Norwegian owned installations and vessels that operate on the continental shelf should be declared by customs. Exports of crude oil and natural gas delivered directly from the continental shelf are based on data from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate and the different operators.

Norwegian owned ships, aircraft and oil platforms
Exports and imports of ships, aircraft and oil platforms are based on information from Norwegian ship registers as well as from different respondents. Export of Norwegian goods (excluding bunkers) to foreign ships and aircraft in Norwegian ports and airports are covered by customs declarations.

Data on exports of fish caught by Norwegian fishing vessels outside the customs area and landed abroad is obtained from the Directorate of Fisheries.

 

In accordance with the UN recommendations the following trade in goods are not included in the statistics:

  • Goods in transit, ie goods attending the Norwegian economic territory to be directly transported to a recipient outside this area
  •  Goods traded through intermediate trade, ie goods transported between two foreign countries without entering the Norwegian economic territory
  • Goods physically crossing the country border, but defined as a service (including newspaper subscriptions, accompanied baggage, household goods)
  • Content delivered electronically (including e-books, downloadable games, etc.), defined purely as a service
  • Issued banknotes, securities and monetary gold
  • Samples, gifts and promotional material etc. with a low value
  •  Goods for repair or return after repair
  •  Goods in unaltered condition in return to vendor (claims etc.) and waste containers, replacement deliveries and free repairs (warranty)
  •  Items for temporary use, that are returned within 12 months (exhibition, demonstration, scientific research, loan, professional equipment, transport vehicles in international traffic, containers, equipment in use for the press, radio and television equipment, etc.)
  •  Change in ownership of non-financial assets
  •  Goods that are damaged on the journey to and from the Norwegian economic territory
  •  Satellites equipment moved to and launched in other countries without any change of ownership
  •  Goods functioning as means of transport (ship, aircraft, packaging, etc.)
  • Waste and scrap without any commercial value

 Furthermore goods totalling less than NOK 1 000 are omitted, these goods amounts to less than one per cent of the import and about 0.04 per cent of the export. Imports of goods for less than NOK 200 and exports of goods less than NOK 5.000 (except from goods that are subject to taxes and restrictions) are not subject to declaration by the Customs.

Data sources and sampling

The statistics are mainly based on administrative information obtained from TVINN, which is the Norwegian Customs’ electronic information system for the exchange of customs declarations between businesses and Norwegian Customs. Some data is, however, obtained from other sources, and more information on this can be found in the paragraph on data collection.

Sampling is not not relevant as external trade is a total count of the goods defined in the population.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Data collection

The vast majority of the data is, as mentioned, collected through the Customs’ TVINN register and transmitted electronically to Statistics Norway. However, some additional data, as shown below, is obtained separately.

Exports of crude oil and natural gas in gaseous state
Preliminary and final figures for exported volumes of crude oil and natural gas in gaseous state are collected through monthly reports from the operators and the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The prices, however, are obtained via various sources depending on whether they relate to crude oil or natural gas, and whether the data is being collected to compile preliminary or final figures.

From 2013 on, the development in the in gas prices from the producer price index (PPI) used to calculate the preliminary gas prices for foreign trade, while the level will be based on the value determined from the last registered price. PPI obtain figures for natural gas from the journal World Gas Intelligence (WGI).

Preliminary oil prices are still based on data from the operators.

For crude oil, the final prices: quarterly surveys from the licensees, as well as information from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy and the operators.

For natural gas, final prices: a quarterly average price based on information from a selection of licensees and operators.

Due to insufficient information about country of destination there are from 2013 on changes in the dissemination of the figures of exports of natural gas in gaseous state. From 2013, country of destination according to these figures will be based on the landing point of the pipelines with natural gas from the Norwegian continental shelf.

Imports and exports of ships and oil platforms
The data collection for vessels is based on current information from the Norwegian ship registers the Norwegian Ordinary Ship Register (NOR) and the Norwegian International Ship Register (NIS).

When it comes to oil platforms, information is collected from the Norwegian ship registers, the Customs’ TVINN register and importer/exporter.

Imports and exports of electricity
From 2016 information is collected from Customs' TVINN register. In previous years this information was received from the Nordic Power Exchange Nord Pool.

Imports and exports of aircraft
For some aircrafts, monthly reports are received from Statistics Sweden, while the rest are obtained through regular declarations in the TVINN system.

Exports of coal from Svalbard
Reports on the export of coal from Svalbard are received monthly from the exporter. 

Exports of fish caught by Norwegian vessels outside the Norwegian customs border
Since July 2010, the figures have been obtained from the Directorate of Fisheries (FDIR). Prior to that, the information was gathered through TVINN.

 

Data editing

Information from customs declarations is subject to statistical controls in the Customs declaration system (TVINN). The controls to check the estimated price, quantity and country were developed by the Customs in cooperation with Statistics Norway.

Data controls at Statistics Norway take place at different levels - some as soon as the data is loaded into the system (automatic recoding of variables). The manual part of the revision consists of different types of validity and probability tests. The former are controls of absolute errors, such as missing transport code, while the other type of test may check unlikely country codes or unreasonably high quantities for a specific type of good. The system aims to intercept the most serious errors in the data. Data collected from sources other than the Customs also undergo similar checks.

 

Estimations

External trade is based on a total count but some items are excluded, cf. section of population. There is no need for any statistical estimations of current figures, only aggregations, in order to enable us to publish in a timely manner.

 

Seasonal adjustment

 The seasonal adjustment method, which is used for the foreign trade monthly value series and the quarterly volume series, consists of pre-treatment of the values for the individual series using the seasonal adjustment programme X12-ARIMA. It was developed by the US Bureau of the Census, and is one of the most internationally known methods for seasonal adjustment. The purpose of the seasonally-adjusted figures is to show the real economic trends by eliminating interference caused by seasonal variations. There are two important corrections: one method adjusts for the number of weekdays of different kinds in each month. This can be important, since it is probable that exports and imports are distributed unevenly throughout the week. The second important correction is for the Easter holidays, since Easter can fall in different months and different quarters of the year. We assume that both imports and exports are affected the week before Easter, in the Easter week itself and the week after Easter. No special corrections are made for other holidays in the year.

Confidentiality

The Statistics Act § 2-6 covers the disclosure of information. The requirements for confidentiality in external trade of goods are practised so that data is suppressed only when the establishment/enterprise has a valid reason for confidential treatment and actively asks for it. This is called "passive confidentiality" and is in line with UN recommendations. This method is used by most countries. Exporters/importers can demand suppression when there are 3 or fewer companies that import or export an item type, or when a company has a market share of over 90 per cent, or if two firms have a market share of over 95 per cent.

Since Norway has a number of major manufacturers that are dominant in some product areas, some suppression of information exists on the export side. Between 5 and 10 per cent of mainland exports are affected by confidentiality. For imports, it is far less; around 1 per cent. Some commodity areas are more problematic with regard to dissemination, since suppression on highly aggregated levels must be carried out.

Comparability over time and space

The six-digit HS-based commodity classification is subject to revisions due to technological development and also development in the commodity spectres of the international trade. These adjustments are normally made every five years. The most recent HS revision was implemented on 1 January 2012. Furthermore, national adjustments are made every year at the national eight-digit level. These revisions can create breaks in the time series for some commodity numbers. Detailed information about this is available in the yearly Commodity List External Trade. Correspondence tables between the different editions of the HS are available on the UN website .

With regard to the divisions according to the SITC, the current SITC-Rev.4 was introduced in January 2007, when it replaced the previous SITC-Rev.3 (1988-2006). The relation between the figures for the years before and after 2007 can be misleading for some commodity numbers. The degree of influence depends on the value of the commodity numbers that now have a different group affiliation. Correspondence tables between the different editions of the SITC are also available on the UN website .

For the tables that use the CPA nomenclature, the 2008 edition is used for the whole series.

Other elements influencing the comparability over time: The imports and exports of ships and oil platforms in the statistics were extended in 1991 to include transactions that concern vessels under a foreign flag with a Norwegian-registered holding company. Furthermore, the definition of developing countries was changed in 2007, which affects the figures slightly.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

Collection errors can occur from incorrect values, incomplete information or misinterpretation of data on customs declarations. Examples of this are use of wrong commodity number, country code, county of production or incorrect quantity.

Other sources of error include late updates, which sometimes occur for the trade with ships and oil platforms.It is also difficult to intercept the transit trade, i.e. the buying and selling of commodities in foreign territory where a Norwegian company is one of the partners. Neither do we have a good data basis to estimate the processing exports for the preparation of goods abroad or imports for processing in Norway.
The rules for customs clearance, which entail exemption from the duty to declare for exports of goods when the value is below NOK 5 000 and exemption for imports of goods when the value is below NOK 200, lead to lower figures than the real trade. This is not the best solution for preparation of the national accounts, where these lacking figures are estimated separately.
The calculation of seasonally-adjusted data beyond the usual seasonal effects is adjusted for the fact that trade is distributed unevenly across the week and taking into account the effect of Easter, as described in the section of estimations. However, beyond this nothing in particular is done. Therefore it would be natural to assume that the seasonally-adjusted December figures should be interpreted more cautiously because of the Christmas holidays.

The export trade statistics is a full count, so there are therefore no non-response errors or sampling errors .

Revision

External trade in goods publishes preliminary figures monthly. However, further revisions of the figures continue until April/May the next year, when the final figures are published. Corrections in data mean that the monthly figures can be changed until publication of the final figures. The difference between the preliminary release of monthly statistics and the final figures is usually small for mainland exports, typically below one per cent. At the detailed level and for individual months, revisions can have greater significance, in relative terms. Oil and gas figures can undergo major revisions, particularly in relation to oil and gas prices. As stated in the section for frequency and timeliness, we make some adjustments in the final figures. These adjustments will normally be of lesser importance, but sometimes relatively large defects or errors are revealed.