404316
/en/teknologi-og-innovasjon/statistikker/foun/aar-endelige
404316
statistikk
2020-02-18T08:00:00.000Z
Technology and innovation;Establishments, enterprises and accounts
en
foun, Research and development in the business enterprise sector, R&D personnel, R&D man-years, R&D expenditures, funding of R&D, R&D servicesEstablishments and enterprises , Research and innovation in business enterprise sector , Establishments, enterprises and accounts, Technology and innovation
true

Research and development in the business enterprise sector

Updated

Next update

Not yet determined

Key figures

20 979

performed R&D man-years in 2018

Research and development in business enterprise sector.
20182017 - 2018
All enterprises (10+ employed)
LevelPercentagesChange in per cent
Intramural R&D expenditure (NOK million)32 748.21002.4
Industry
Manufacturing10 843.7333.1
Services total17 831.2540.2
Other industries4 073.31210.8
Size of enterprise
10-49 persons employed9 675.130
50-99 persons employed4 049.712
100-199 persons employed4 128.213
200-499 persons employed4 335.613
500 persons employed and more10 559.532
 
R&D man-years (number of)20 979-1.1
 
Extramural R&D expenditure (NOK million)7 619.61.9

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
Intramural and extramural R&D expenditure and R&D man-years in business enterprise sector, by industry and size class. Three years.

Intramural and extramural R&D expenditure and R&D man-years in business enterprise sector, by industry and size class. Three years.
Intramural R&D (NOK million)Extramural R&D (NOK million)R&D man-years (number of)
201620172018201620172018201620172018
Nace (SN2007) and size class
A-N All industries29 489.231 989.832 748.27 014.17 481.07 619.619 61621 20520 979
10-19 persons employed3 264.54 022.14 041.0523.6661.2481.02 3402 8982 765
20-49 persons employed4 778.85 682.45 634.1951.1938.6906.83 5404 1004 099
50-99 persons employed3 381.03 771.54 049.7436.0582.5680.72 5192 8522 969
100-199 persons employed3 456.84 151.94 128.2510.0686.0797.42 5322 8432 766
200-499 persons employed3 959.34 156.44 335.61 242.81 416.81 379.32 5182 7552 781
500 persons employed and more10 648.710 205.610 559.53 350.73 195.93 374.46 1675 7575 599
C Manufacturing9 963.410 521.910 843.71 965.72 275.51 920.27 0537 4677 326
10-19 persons employed801.2816.1770.7192.2233.776.2556581554
20-49 persons employed1 167.61 289.21 147.4158.6171.8122.0888993915
50-99 persons employed843.5956.8988.999.7119.7118.1641780761
100-199 persons employed1 808.81 846.02 008.3255.8383.6339.51 4081 3891 465
200-499 persons employed1 386.71 540.71 628.4432.8491.9517.21 0241 1711 228
500 persons employed and more3 955.74 073.04 300.0826.6874.9747.22 5342 5532 404
G-N Services total16 033.017 790.217 831.22 497.72 763.92 998.210 97612 02911 899
10-19 persons employed2 363.62 889.22 824.8308.0391.4387.71 7462 1872 106
20-49 persons employed3 193.24 096.44 055.2700.6704.3707.92 4482 9142 951
50-99 persons employed2 022.22 175.52 425.7243.4340.4406.31 5571 7061 854
100-199 persons employed1 391.92 007.61 733.6182.3240.9335.61 0131 2951 104
200-499 persons employed2 348.02 346.12 487.8465.6375.6473.91 3991 4641 469
500 persons employed and more4 714.24 275.44 304.2597.8711.2686.92 8132 4632 416
A, B, D-F Other industries3 492.73 677.84 073.32 550.72 441.52 701.21 5871 7091 755
10-19 persons employed99.7316.8445.523.436.217.138130105
20-49 persons employed418.0296.8431.691.962.576.9203193234
50-99 persons employed515.3639.2635.192.9122.3156.3320366354
100-199 persons employed256.2298.2386.271.961.5122.3111160198
200-499 persons employed224.6269.6219.5344.3549.3388.29412084
500 persons employed and more1 978.91 857.21 955.41 926.21 609.81 940.3821741779

Table 2 
Intramural and extramural R&D expenditure, R&D personell and man-years by Industry (10+ employees). NOK million and number of. Two years.

Intramural and extramural R&D expenditure, R&D personell and man-years by Industry (10+ employees). NOK million and number of. Two years.
Intramural R&D (NOK million)Extramural R&D (NOK million)R&D personnel (number of)R&D man-years (number of)
20172018201720182017201820172018
Nace (SN2007)
A-N All industries31 989.832 748.27 481.07 619.636 08736 79621 20520 979
A03 Fishing and aquaculture1 065.61 195.5169.6150.49311 067410414
B05-B09 Mining and cuarrying1 731.21 917.61 980.12 260.51 1851 319760774
B06, B09.1 Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas and support act. petroleum extraction1 673.41 847.51 974.12 256.41 1251 218739749
C Manufacturing10 577.110 828.62 276.81 808.012 62812 5047 4247 262
C10-C11 Food products and beverages1 261.01 192.7283.8260.21 8411 952824812
C13 Textiles72.361.38.111.81081014243
C14-C15 Wearing apparel, leather and leather products51.356.30.01.51011016370
C16 Wood and wood products183.7147.318.420.8459331136119
C17 Paper and paper products120.8109.04.812.018217710091
C18 Printing and reproduction75.4104.90.88.515323371117
C19-C20 Refined petroleum products, chemicals and chemical products1 056.51 419.9369.9315.3965967798813
C21 Pharmaceuticals404.9428.7561.3384.3334346276282
C22 Rubber and plastic products195.2189.827.125.4323264158126
C23 Other non-metal mineral products124.5140.631.326.32302828381
C24 Basic metals487.2494.8126.2100.5554567349347
C25 Fabricated metal prod.1 267.71 149.267.462.91 0191 016660564
C26 Electronic and optical products1 911.12 106.4264.874.91 7891 8871 4921 628
C26.3 Manuf. of communication equipment328.2385.512.39.0255318238307
C26.5 Manuf of testing instr./appliances928.4962.2224.151.7851884729748
C27 Electrical equipment545.4489.876.060.1580540393345
C28 Machinery and equipment1 340.11 401.1135.8175.11 7131 724980929
C29 Motor vehicles etc.235.1220.633.514.6253233186179
C30 Other transport equipment565.0407.1137.1122.81 235950345250
C30.1 Building of ships and boats547.0375.0133.2115.01 152873324229
C31 Furniture181.4195.914.711.5320333163172
C32 Other manufacturing201.2253.686.7110.3169247124164
C33 Repair, installation of machinery297.4259.729.18.9302253179130
D35 Electricity and gas supply263.0307.0193.9203.7601651136158
E36-E39 Water supply, sewerage and waste112.7142.418.121.03032787088
F41-F43 Construction337.7379.952.6160.68881 004286279
G-N Services total17 902.517 977.22 789.93 015.619 55019 97312 11812 005
G46 Wholesale trade931.9873.3318.0240.51 5661 600630709
H49-H53 Transportation and storage414.6411.6121.1101.7583622207212
J58 Publishing activities2 918.32 632.4249.5342.93 1142 8652 2962 043
J58.2 Software publishing2 471.32 344.0186.0162.72 5792 4221 9661 833
J59-J60 Motion picture, TV, music prod., programming and broadcasting act.48.148.62.99.1101933238
J61 Telecommunications1 109.6988.3111.598.6849675573487
J62 Computer programming, consultancy5 733.06 318.1289.2425.56 1266 7694 2554 479
J63 Information service activities337.0260.437.757.7498399297213
K64-K66 Financial and insurance activities1 586.71 608.0774.8808.51 2771 312793821
M70 Head offices, management consult.435.0572.656.465.2596912286403
M71 Architecture, engineering act.3 003.62 809.5375.1323.83 4913 3311 8881 678
M72 Scientific research and development957.31 044.4391.1477.9833870549612
M74.9 Other professional, scientific and technical activities314.1319.316.011.3371378241243
N82.9 Other business supp. serv. act.113.290.846.752.71461467067

Table 3 
Intramural R&D expenditure in business enterprise sector, by industry and size class. NOK million.

Intramural R&D expenditure in business enterprise sector, by industry and size class. NOK million.
2018
Total R&D expendituresTotal R&D current costOf this:R&D investment cost
Compensation of employeesCosts for hired personnelOther current costs
NACE (SN2007) and size classes
A-N All industries32 748.230 546.420 375.93 567.36 603.22 201.8
10-19 persons employed4 041.03 709.32 412.6440.3856.4331.7
20-49 persons employed5 634.15 262.33 642.4664.0955.9371.8
50-99 persons employed4 049.73 822.82 709.4385.6727.7227.0
100-199 persons employed4 128.23 847.92 728.2308.8810.8280.3
200-499 persons employed4 335.64 174.42 921.3599.3653.9161.2
500 persons employed and more10 559.59 729.75 962.01 169.32 598.5829.8
C Manufacturing10 843.79 831.26 852.6510.12 468.51 012.5
10-19 persons employed770.7700.3444.955.7199.870.4
20-49 persons employed1 147.41 059.0753.472.8232.888.4
50-99 persons employed988.9931.7678.858.0194.857.2
100-199 persons employed2 008.31 880.01 359.183.6437.4128.3
200-499 persons employed1 628.41 550.21 161.9112.0276.378.1
500 persons employed and more4 300.03 710.02 454.6128.01 127.4590.0
G-N Services total17 831.217 238.611 696.92 814.82 726.9592.6
10-19 persons employed2 824.82 738.11 875.9358.9503.386.7
20-49 persons employed4 055.23 882.82 687.8536.2658.9172.3
50-99 persons employed2 425.72 345.51 699.5298.2347.880.2
100-199 persons employed1 733.61 611.71 165.2215.5230.9121.9
200-499 persons employed2 487.82 447.71 655.3445.3347.140.1
500 persons employed and more4 304.24 212.82 613.2960.7638.991.4
A-B_D-F Other industries4 073.33 476.61 826.4242.41 407.8596.7
10-19 persons employed445.5270.991.825.7153.3174.6
20-49 persons employed431.6320.5201.355.064.2111.1
50-99 persons employed635.1545.6331.129.4185.089.5
100-199 persons employed386.2356.1203.99.7142.630.1
200-499 persons employed219.5176.5104.142.030.442.9
500 persons employed and more1 955.41 806.9894.280.6832.1148.4

Table 4 
Intramural R&D expenditures in Business Enterprise sector, by industry (10+ employees). NOK million

Intramural R&D expenditures in Business Enterprise sector, by industry (10+ employees). NOK million
2018
Total R&D expendituresTotal R&D current costOf this:R&D investment cost
Compensation of employeesCosts for hired personnelOther current costs
Nace (SN2007)
A-N All industries32 748.230 546.420 375.93 567.36 603.22 201.8
A03 Fishing and aquaculture1 195.5886.2380.233.6472.3309.3
B05-B09 Mining and cuarrying1 917.61 745.2928.975.6740.7172.4
B06, B09.1 Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas and support act. petroleum extraction1 847.51 698.8908.970.4719.5148.7
C Manufacturing10 828.69 794.16 800.2506.42 487.41 034.5
C10-C11 Food products and beverages1 192.71 068.6662.239.5366.9124.1
C13 Textiles61.361.032.97.320.80.4
C14-C15 Wearing apparel, leather and leather products56.355.745.91.68.20.6
C16 Wood and wood products147.3112.880.86.525.534.5
C17 Paper and paper products109.0101.978.13.120.77.1
C18 Printing and reproduction104.999.085.80.912.25.9
C19-C20 Refined petroleum products, chemicals and chemical products1 419.91 013.4762.521.6229.3406.5
C21 Pharmaceuticals428.7411.7286.214.2111.417.0
C22 Rubber and plastic products189.8161.9109.312.939.727.9
C23 Other non-metal mineral products140.6123.077.57.937.717.6
C24 Basic metals494.8433.3353.817.262.361.6
C25 Fabricated metal prod.1 149.21 116.5557.428.3530.832.7
C26 Electronic and optical products2 106.42 031.01 608.688.3334.275.3
C26.3 Manuf. of communication equipment385.5382.7304.07.671.12.8
C26.5 Manuf of testing instr./appliances962.2922.9756.354.5112.139.3
C27 Electrical equipment489.8478.9329.216.2133.510.9
C28 Machinery and equipment1 401.11 280.2894.598.1287.6120.8
C29 Motor vehicles etc.220.6213.4151.511.550.47.2
C30 Other transport equipment407.1349.2221.047.780.557.9
C30.1 Building of ships and boats375.0325.5206.242.876.549.5
C31 Furniture195.9191.7133.916.741.04.2
C32 Other manufacturing253.6249.7158.757.733.33.9
C33 Repair, installation of machinery259.7241.2170.59.261.518.5
D35 Electricity and gas supply307.0279.5161.282.136.327.5
E36-E39 Water supply, sewerage and waste142.4100.772.95.921.841.7
F41-F43 Construction379.9354.0246.040.967.225.9
G-N Services total17 977.217 386.711 786.52 822.82 777.4590.5
G46 Wholesale trade873.3822.8605.384.0133.550.5
H49-H53 Transportation and storage411.6370.5226.975.268.541.0
J58 Publishing activities2 632.42 561.81 931.4302.0328.370.6
J58.2 Software publishing2 344.02 288.61 741.8248.7298.155.4
J59-J60 Motion picture, TV, music prod., programming and broadcasting act.48.647.630.516.90.21.0
J61 Telecommunications988.3899.6577.9139.6182.188.7
J62 Computer programming, consultancy6 318.16 250.94 365.11 113.9772.067.2
J63 Information service activities260.4255.7193.644.517.64.7
K64-K66 Financial and insurance activities1 608.01 593.6727.2715.3151.214.4
M70 Head offices, management consult.572.6553.5437.228.388.019.1
M71 Architecture, engineering act.2 809.52 614.51 790.0241.4583.1195.0
M72 Scientific research and development1 044.41 015.6615.647.0353.128.7
M74.9 Other professional, scientific and technical activities319.3313.6218.29.186.25.7
N82.9 Other business supp. serv. act.90.886.967.75.613.63.9

Table 5 
R&D personnel and R&D man-years in Business Enterprise sector, by industry (10+ employees). Number

R&D personnel and R&D man-years in Business Enterprise sector, by industry (10+ employees). Number
2018
R&D personnelOf this:R&D man-yearsOf this:
Female R&D personnelR&D personnel with higher degree education (incl. doctorate)R&D personnel with PhDR&D man-years performed by personnel with higher degree education (incl. doctorate)R&D man-years performed by personnel with PhD
NACE (SN2007)
A-N All industries36 7968 13423 1352 20920 97914 5981 692
A03 Fishing and aquaculture1 0672473819641421680
B05-B09 Mining and cuarrying1 3192761 078234774658204
B06, B09.1 Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas and support act. petroleum extraction1 2182601 035228749644201
C Manufacturing12 5042 6416 2637997 2624 276658
C10-C11 Food products and beverages1 95266068910581238074
C13 Textiles1011940143221
C14-C15 Wearing apparel, leather and leather products1016145170360
C16 Wood and wood products33125771119311
C17 Paper and paper products177669615915610
C18 Printing and reproduction2335870011734..
C19-C20 Refined petroleum products, chemicals and chemical products967399620204813530183
C21 Pharmaceuticals3461892919228224381
C22 Rubber and plastic products26441903126532
C23 Other non-metal mineral products282628113813510
C24 Basic metals5671172727934718166
C25 Fabricated metal prod.1 0161144333356427721
C26 Electronic and optical products1 8872261 3911371 6281 213129
C26.3 Manuf. of communication equipment318342691430726414
C26.5 Manuf of testing instr./appliances8841265885174849048
C27 Electrical equipment540532412534516520
C28 Machinery and equipment1 7241828125092951737
C29 Motor vehicles etc.2331311921791072
C30 Other transport equipment950164556162501236
C30.1 Building of ships and boats873153525142291124
C31 Furniture3339212761721093
C32 Other manufacturing2476511651641055
C33 Repair, installation of machinery253379510130599
D35 Electricity and gas supply6511624412815812211
E36-E39 Water supply, sewerage and waste278811661388598
F41-F43 Construction1 004198428212791529
G-N Services total19 9734 52814 3771 01912 0059 115724
G46 Wholesale trade1 6004418454770945435
H49-H53 Transportation and storage62210628672121164
J58 Publishing activities2 8656041 991742 0431 45468
J58.2 Software publishing2 4224181 692711 8331 30466
J59-J60 Motion picture, TV, music prod., programming and broadcasting act.93135203823..
J61 Telecommunications6751435683548740726
J62 Computer programming, consultancy6 7691 2335 1001874 4793 505126
J63 Information service activities3996420742131083
K64-K66 Financial and insurance activities1 3124689282282159814
M70 Head offices, management consult.9123366807840331639
M71 Architecture, engineering act.3 3316892 6123051 6781 364219
M72 Scientific research and development870316746206612527148
M74.9 Other professional, scientific and technical activities378702694524318933
N82.9 Other business supp. serv. act.1464594967548

Table 6 
R & D expenditure and R&D personnel in OECD countries, as share of GDP and labour force. Percentage

R & D expenditure and R&D personnel in OECD countries, as share of GDP and labour force. Percentage
 Gross Domestic Expenditure on R & D. Million PPP dollar. 2017GERD as percentage of GDPR & D expenditure in the business enterprise sector (BERD) as percentage of GDPTotal R & D personnel per thousand labour force
 201020172010201720102017
Austria14 966.42.73.21.92.214.2017.3
Belgium15 189.02.12.71.41.912.2716.4
Canada27 162.81.81.61.00.812.59..
Chile1 590.80.30.40.10.11.48..
Czech Republic7 213.21.31.80.81.19.9212.97
Denmark9 545.12.93.02.02.019.1820.87
Estonia567.81.61.30.80.67.718.62
Finland7 038.53.72.82.61.820.7817.97
France64 672.12.22.21.41.413.8314.63
Germany132 004.42.73.01.82.113.1615.89
Greece3 476.60.61.130.240.55..9.96
Hungary3 801.41.11.350.680.997.498.77
Iceland399.8..2.101.311.35..15.90
Ireland..1.59..1.090.948.97..
Israel15 391.53.944.543.273.91....
Italy33 542.91.221.350.660.839.1811.23
Japan170 900.73.143.212.402.5313.2413.31
Korea90 979.63.474.552.593.6213.5517.09
Latvia281.00.610.510.230.145.275.49
Luxembourg806.31.501.261.000.6813.2512.08
Mexico..0.53..0.19..1.44..
Netherlands18 563.61.721.990.831.1711.4415.20
New Zealand2 647.5..1.37..0.75....
Norway6 869.31.652.090.841.1013.8816.68
Poland11 757.80.721.030.190.674.787.03
Portugal4 454.11.531.330.700.678.6710.54
Slovak Republic1 554.20.620.880.260.486.726.10
Slovenia1 391.92.061.861.401.3912.4314.33
Spain21 932.01.351.210.690.669.509.49
Sweden17 561.73.223.402.212.4215.6516.53
Switzerland18 900.0..3.37..2.34..15.44
Turkey21 729.50.800.960.340.553.194.85
United Kingdom49 345.31.671.661.021.1211.1112.71
United States543 249.02.742.791.862.04....
European Union (28)430 121.01.841.971.121.30..12.38
European Union (15)397 754.11.992.131.241.4010.5613.66
OECD - Total1 360 044.32.292.371.521.6711.82..
Non-OECD Economies       
China495 980.91.712.151.261.663.265.00
Russia41 868.01.051.110.630.6711.1310.22

About the statistics

The survey measures expenditures for research and development (R&D) in business enterprises, performed by own personnel or purchased services from others, and how the R&D activity is funded. In addition other aspects like type of R&D, thematic fields and co-operation are covered. 

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

R&D comprises creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. The main criteria of R&D activities are the presence of an appreciable element of novelty and uncertainty on the outcome. Normal construction and planning activities, that follow established routines, is not R&D. Either is the introduction of known, established technology for the enterprise.

Definition of the main variables

R&D personnel
encompass all personnel directly involved in research and development, including administrative personnel, persons in supporting functions, both inside and outside the R&D department.

A R&D man-year
is the R&D work one person has performed during the year.

Intramural R&D expenditures
are all expenditures for R&D; performed within the statistical unit. Intramural R&D expenditures encompass labour costs, cost of hired personnel, other current costs and capital expenditures on R&D.

Extramural R&D expenditures
encompass R&D services purchased from others; as research institutes, other enterprises, also including units in the same enterprise group.

Standard classifications

The statistical units are classified according to:

  • Standard Industrial Classification (SIC2007). The basis for SIC 2007 is the EU standard NACE Rev. 2 and the UN standard ISIC Rev. 3.
  • Size class by number of employees: 05-09 employees, 10-19, 20-49, 50-99, 100-199, 200-499 and 500+ employees

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Research and development in the business enterprise sector
Topic: Technology and innovation

Responsible division

Division for Business Dynamics Statistics

Regional level

National level, key variables by county and economic region. Main variables by county are available in Statbank; by economic region on request,

Frequency and timeliness

Annual. Preliminary results are published in October year t+1, final results in February year t+2.

International reporting

The statistics are reported to OECD and Eurostat.

Microdata

Micro data and information about sample units and population are stored permanently. For access to microdata for research purposes, see http://www.ssb.no/en/omssb/tjenester-og-verktoy/data-til-forskning.

Background

Background and purpose

The purpose with the R&D surveys is to monitor the national R&D activity. The R&D survey for the Business enterprise sector is performed each year by Statistics Norway on contract for the Norwegian Research Council who also contribute to the funding of the survey. Surveys on the R&D activity in the Government sector and the Higher Education sector are undertaken by Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education (NIFU). The survey, and the results, follows the recommendations given in the OECD Frascati manual.

The survey undertaken by Statistics Norway measures the expenditures of R&D in the business enterprise sector, both R&D performed by own personnel (intramural R&D) and R&D services purchased from others like research institutes, other enterprises etc. (extramural R&D) and how the R&D activity is financed (own sources, public sources etc.). The R&D activity is distributed by type of R&D, research field a.o. The content of the survey varies slightly from year to year.

Users and applications

Important users are public administration, like ministries and  the Research Council, researchers, business organizations. The survey is important for evaluation of the R&D and innovation policy and the industrial policy in general. The statistics are also used by international organizations like EU/Eurostat and OECD.

Publishing

The national R&D Statistics are published at the same time by Statistics Norway and NIFU. Preliminary results are published in October year t+1. The variables being published are number of R&D personnel, number of R&D man-years and R&D expenditures. Final results are published in January/February year t+2. This release provides more detailed results by industry and region and several breakdowns of the main variables. Normally there are only small differences in the main variables from preliminary to final release. Both preliminary and final results are based on reported figures from the enterprises.  

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 08 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar.

Exception from the principle of equal treatment: 

The Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education (NIFU) has access to some of the main preliminary figures from SSBs R&D statistics for the business enterprise sector before these are published on SSB’s website. NIFU adds up the results from their sectors with data from SSB to publish the total national R&D.

Coherence with other statistics

For total national R&D figures the R&D survey for the business enterprise sector has to be added to NIFU’s surveys for the Government sector and the Higher Education sector.  NIFU is responsible for publishing of national figures, but some main results are also available in SSB’s Statbank.

The R&D survey for the business enterprise sector was formerly carried out together with the innovation survey and data collected together in the same questionnaire. From 2013 onwards the R&D survey and the innovation survey are carried out separately. As previously the results from these surveys are published separately. R&D is one of the innovation activities, but the innovation survey covers a wider range of activities than R&D only.

Legal authority

Sections 2-2 and 2-3 of Act no. 54 of 16 June 1989 relating to official statistics and Statistics Norway.

EEA reference

European Parliament and Council Decision No. 1608/2003/EC of 22 July 2003 concerning the production and development of Community statistics on science and technology and implementing Commission Regulation No. 995/2012 of 26 October 2012 as regards statistics on science and technology.

Production

Population

The Business Enterprise sector. NACE-sectors 03, 05-33, 35-39, 41-43, 46, 49-53, 58-66, 70-72, 74.9, 82.9 (SN2007).

Data sources and sampling

Surveys using the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises as a frame.

The survey is a census of all units with at least 50 employees. In addition are all units with10-49 employees and with considerable reported R&D activity in the previous survey included. Among the other units with 10 - 49 employees a random sample is drawn within each strata (NACE 2-digit and size class). The fraction rate is normally 30 percent, but in some strata 15 and 10 percent are used.

The sample was about 5-6000 units. 

The sample was extended in the 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2015, 2017 and 2019 survey to also include enterprises with 5-9 employees. The total sample of these years is therefore larger than in the years in between. For comparability the statistics were presented both with and without this extension of the survey. The enterprises with 5-9 employees are not included in comparisons over time and international comparisons.

From 2008 onwards, enterprises with less than 20 employees in the industries Construction and Transportation and storage are not included. These groups have a large number of enterprises and a very low share of the total R&D activity in the business enterprise sector.

The statistical unit is enterprise, and with breakdown of a number of variables to establishments (local kind-of-activity unit). Until 1999 the statistical unit was the branch unit ( kind-of-activity unit) .

An enterprise is defined as the smallest combination of legal units that is an organizational unit producing goods or services. An enterprise may be a sole legal unit. An enterprise carries out one or more activities at one or more locations and may consist of one or more branch units or establishments. A establishment is geographically located in one particular place and its main activity delimited to one NACE-class. A branch unit encompasses all establishment units within the same NACE-class, but is not necessarily located to only one region. The use of branch unit/establishments gives the most detailed breakdown of the statistics by NACE. When enterprise is used as statistical unit the R&D activity is classified by NACE according to the enterprise’s main activity.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

The data on R&D are collected by electronic questionnaire, more information at http://www.ssb.no/innrapportering/naeringsliv/fou.  The forms are sent out 4-5 months after the end of the reference year.

Response burden
The time used to fill in the form is estimated to 30 minutes on average. This yields a total response burden of 2150 hours for the enterprises. However, the content of the questionnaire may vary from one year to another.

Editing

All forms undergo on-receipt controls (is the questionnaire filled in, is there any obvious inconsistencies etc). There are integrated a number of controls in the electronic questionaire. After the data are made available electronically, more detailed controls take part, including check with the data from the previous survey, information from the financial account etc.

Estimations

For units with less than 50 employees the survey is based on a sample of units. Total figures for this part of the survey population are estimated based on the sample units. The estimations are done within each stratum, NACE 2-digit level and size-class.

R&D expenditure are reported and published in current prices. For total R&D expenditure figures at constant prices are also calculated. A new deflator is adopted for calculating R&D expenditure at constant prices for 2013 and the period back to 1970. The base year is 2015. The new deflator is based on the price index of production in NACE 72 Research and development in the national accounts. This is a weighted cost index - an average index for the different types of expenditure. The same deflator is used for all institutional sectors in the R&D statistics. Formerly various price indices were used for the various types of expenditure (wages, operating expenditures and investments) and performing sectors. There are two main reasons for this change of index: The new index will also be used in the national accounts where R&D after the main revision of SNA is capitalized, and it will simplify fixed price calculations significantly.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant

Confidentiality

Results are published at an aggregated level. Individual enterprises can not be identified.

Comparability over time and space

The first surveys of R&D started back in 1963, from 1970 onwards in a systematic way. The statistics have been worked out on bi-annual basis since 1977, but is undertaken annually from 2001 onwards. The first surveys covered only manufacturing industry, but the service industries have gradually been included. Statistics Norway is responsible for the survey for the Business enterprise sector from 1991 onwards. In 1995 the survey was considerably extended.

From 1991 the statistical unit was the kind-of-activity unit. For 2001 this was changed to enterprise as the main statistical unit, but with a breakdown of the main variables to local kind-of-activity unit.

From 2008 a new version of the industry classification (SN2007) was implemented making it more difficult to compare with former vintages. Results from 2007 are published both by the old and the new classification, while former vintages only are published by the old classification (SN2002).

Every second year, enterprises With 5-9 employees are included in the survey.For comparability the statistics were presented both with and without this extension of the survey. The enterprises with 5-9 employees are not included in comparisons over time and international comparisons.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

The concept of R&D may be difficult to distinguish from related activities.

The response rate for the survey is high, around 99 per cent, and the results should for that reason not be biased by non-respondents. In case of non-response from large R&D performers there are good routines to estimate missing data. Preliminary results have a larger degree of uncertainty than final results.  

Due to controls in the electronic questionnaire, the item non-response is almost non-existent. Item non-response  is in case adjusted during the revision process.

The population of enterprises is based upon the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises. The sample is stratified by NACE 2-digit and number of employees. Incomplete updating of these variables and entries and exits of enterprises may cause errors in the survey.

Revision

Not relevant