Technology and innovation;Establishments, enterprises and accounts
foun, Research and development in the business enterprise sector, R&D personnel, R&D man-years, R&D expenditures, funding of R&D, R&D servicesResearch and innovation in business enterprise sector , Establishments and enterprises , Establishments, enterprises and accounts, Technology and innovation

Research and development in the business enterprise sector


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Key figures

2.8 %

more R&D man-years

Research and development in business enterprise sector
20162015 - 2016
All enterprises (10+ employed)
LevelPercentagesChange in per cent
Intramural R&D expenditure (NOK million)29 489.21006.1
Manufacturing9 963.434-1.3
Services total16 033.05410.3
Other industries3 492.71210.5
Size of enterprise
10-49 persons employed8 043.327
50-99 persons employed3 381.011
100-199 persons employed3 456.812
200-499 persons employed3 959.313
500 persons employed and more10 648.736
R&D man-years (number of)19 6162.8
Extramural R&D expenditure (NOK million)7 014.13.4

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
Intramural and extramural R&D expenditure and R&D man-years in business enterprise sector, by industry and size class. (10+ employees). Three years.

Intramural and extramural R&D expenditure and R&D man-years in business enterprise sector, by industry and size class. (10+ employees). Three years.
Intramural R&D (NOK million)Extramural R&D (NOK million)R&D man-years (number of)
Nace (SN2007) and size class
A-N All industries24 801.927 782.429 489.26 327.96 780.87 014.117 93219 08719 616
10-19 persons employed2 620.82 845.03 264.5491.5543.3523.62 2792 5042 340
20-49 persons employed3 365.54 500.94 778.8537.6768.5951.12 9713 4863 540
50-99 persons employed2 541.43 129.33 381.0495.0495.7436.02 1332 4222 519
100-199 persons employed2 942.92 986.53 456.8501.9499.5510.02 2932 2652 532
200-499 persons employed2 849.73 091.63 959.31 182.81 284.61 242.82 0192 0402 518
500 persons employed and more10 481.711 229.010 648.73 119.13 189.13 350.76 2376 3696 167
C Manufacturing9 101.310 091.99 963.41 741.22 045.91 965.76 6517 0767 053
10-19 persons employed522.3632.8801.2128.3233.3192.2376489556
20-49 persons employed998.11 248.41 167.6166.7206.1158.6793951888
50-99 persons employed779.2771.2843.5109.885.799.7675643641
100-199 persons employed1 585.51 655.41 808.8227.5272.8255.81 3071 3101 408
200-499 persons employed1 285.41 307.01 386.7512.6473.1432.89619711 024
500 persons employed and more3 930.94 477.13 955.7596.4775.0826.62 5392 7122 534
G-N Services total12 796.114 529.916 033.02 183.22 331.82 497.79 76710 49510 976
10-19 persons employed1 990.32 076.02 363.6321.9279.5308.01 8471 9331 746
20-49 persons employed2 091.02 891.73 193.2329.0488.7700.61 9882 3632 448
50-99 persons employed1 434.91 906.22 022.2232.4294.0243.41 2561 4981 557
100-199 persons employed1 123.81 155.61 391.9199.1163.7182.38588641 013
200-499 persons employed1 343.81 590.82 348.0216.6426.1465.69379831 399
500 persons employed and more4 812.44 909.54 714.2884.3679.7597.82 8812 8552 813
A, B, D-F Other industries2 904.53 160.63 492.72 403.52 403.12 550.71 5141 5161 587
10-19 persons employed108.2136.299.741.430.523.4568338
20-49 persons employed276.3360.8418.041.973.791.9189173203
50-99 persons employed327.4452.0515.3152.9116.192.9202282320
100-199 persons employed233.7175.5256.275.363.071.912891111
200-499 persons employed220.5193.7224.6453.6385.4344.31218694
500 persons employed and more1 738.41 842.31 978.91 638.41 734.41 926.2818802821

Table 2 
Intramural and extramural R&D expenditure, R&D personell and man-years by Industry (10+ employees). NOK million and number of. Two years.

Intramural and extramural R&D expenditure, R&D personell and man-years by Industry (10+ employees). NOK million and number of. Two years.
Intramural R&D (NOK million)Extramural R&D (NOK million)R&D personnel (number of)R&D man-years (number of)
Nace (SN2007)
A-N All industries27 782.429 489.26 780.87 014.131 06833 49519 08719 616
A03 Fishing and aquaculture734.9769.599.2116.5851830311322
B05-B09 Mining and cuarrying1 757.91 881.52 035.02 110.01 1581 190789793
B06, B09.1 Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas and support act. petroleum extraction1 723.71 788.42 029.02 104.11 1011 131768767
C Manufacturing10 107.610 077.32 039.81 975.111 76812 2107 0097 034
C10-C11 Food products and beverages1 057.41 266.9190.1235.61 5971 758633693
C13 Textiles63.
C14-C15 Wearing apparel, leather and leather products15.524.80.50.040572024
C16 Wood and wood products86.3106.214.416.326235582116
C17 Paper and paper products123.8126.66.44.7160164114107
C18 Printing and reproduction44.375.82.07.7961994267
C19-C20 Refined petroleum products, chemicals and chemical products947.8957.7472.5371.3919926798788
C21 Pharmaceuticals330.2356.1343.8462.4237277218229
C22 Rubber and plastic products152.8159.614.020.9249289119114
C23 Other non-metal mineral products99.5115.330.529.81932418196
C24 Basic metals514.5461.0101.0100.9567559356348
C25 Fabricated metal prod.1 358.11 361.168.563.11 1911 159717698
C26 Electronic and optical products1 953.51 894.4254.7222.01 8361 7661 5991 482
C26.3 Manuf. of communication equipment388.1364.016.817.2337304328291
C26.5 Manuf of testing instr./appliances1 041.4947.5214.3182.5964856825708
C27 Electrical equipment531.5538.193.185.8554591408382
C28 Machinery and equipment1 356.21 326.9187.2114.31 4941 665858909
C29 Motor vehicles etc.169.4189.842.837.1242233157166
C30 Other transport equipment713.6435.585.179.81 3681 106349299
C30.1 Building of ships and boats691.4415.882.772.91 2941 024329277
C31 Furniture143.6161.321.39.7193272127151
C32 Other manufacturing163.6163.375.092.213114189106
C33 Repair, installation of machinery283.1292.532.915.2326336198219
D35 Electricity and gas supply163.1195.0183.8217.629345596119
E36-E39 Water supply, sewerage and waste138.9189.826.915.42462876595
F41-F43 Construction241.7258.263.462.7549734238211
G-N Services total14 638.316 117.92 332.62 516.816 20217 78910 57811 043
G46 Wholesale trade786.61 030.1203.1171.51 1701 643631657
H49-H53 Transportation and storage384.4362.198.4151.4466431198190
J58 Publishing activities2 462.82 455.3251.2183.43 0782 9412 2002 080
J58.2 Software publishing2 242.12 140.8211.0155.82 7472 5732 0271 863
J59-J60 Motion picture, TV, music prod., programming and broadcasting act.
J61 Telecommunications985.31 275.497.0133.3745939556688
J62 Computer programming, consultancy4 204.54 984.2186.3259.74 5695 4753 1263 678
J63 Information service activities294.7315.334.634.4426526271286
K64-K66 Financial and insurance activities1 405.51 118.3682.8701.81 132963844616
M70 Head offices, management consult.261.0375.217.237.6420512173257
M71 Architecture, engineering act.2 793.02 903.3401.4407.93 0293 0141 8551 760
M72 Scientific research and development620.0814.9311.0361.1544739381500
M74.9 Other professional, scientific and technical activities326.5329.211.327.1386361254237
N82.9 Other business supp. serv. act.88.090.837.943.41531126046

Table 3 
Intramural R&D expenditures in Business Enterprise sector, by industry (10+ employees). NOK million

Intramural R&D expenditures in Business Enterprise sector, by industry (10+ employees). NOK million
Total R&D expendituresTotal R&D current costOf this:R&D investment cost
Compensation to EmployeesCosts for hired personnelOther current costs
Nace (SN2007)
A-N All industries29 489.227 688.718 230.63 059.66 398.41 800.5
A03 Fishing and aquaculture769.5666.2280.623.2362.4103.3
B05-B09 Mining and cuarrying1 881.51 676.0928.571.3676.1205.5
B06, B09.1 Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas and support act. petroleum extraction1 788.41 614.1909.564.8639.9174.3
C Manufacturing10 077.39 320.56 289.1432.72 598.7756.8
C10-C11 Food products and beverages1 266.91 062.1538.630.8492.8204.8
C13 Textiles64.352.533.54.214.811.7
C14-C15 Wearing apparel, leather and leather products24.824.
C16 Wood and wood products106.299.979.95.514.56.3
C17 Paper and paper products126.6117.587.16.723.79.1
C18 Printing and reproduction75.869.750.77.611.56.1
C19-C20 Refined petroleum products, chemicals and chemical products957.7913.1699.532.3181.344.6
C21 Pharmaceuticals356.1337.6220.94.0112.718.5
C22 Rubber and plastic products159.6141.794.94.842.017.9
C23 Other non-metal mineral products115.3111.
C24 Basic metals461.0392.9332.58.851.668.1
C25 Fabricated metal prod.1 361.11 341.0636.918.9685.120.1
C26 Electronic and optical products1 894.41 841.41 432.0114.8294.652.9
C26.3 Manuf. of communication equipment364.0362.5285.110.666.81.5
C26.5 Manuf of testing instr./appliances947.5921.9707.556.6157.725.6
C27 Electrical equipment538.1510.3357.920.7131.727.8
C28 Machinery and equipment1 326.91 171.3852.780.7238.0155.6
C29 Motor vehicles etc.189.8177.1132.911.133.012.8
C30 Other transport equipment435.5368.9252.419.097.566.6
C30.1 Building of ships and boats415.8350.9238.915.796.464.9
C31 Furniture161.3147.5104.112.231.313.7
C32 Other manufacturing163.3158.990.330.837.84.4
C33 Repair, installation of machinery292.5281.8201.516.364.010.7
D35 Electricity and gas supply195.0181.4110.735.735.013.6
E36-E39 Water supply, sewerage and waste189.8136.370.622.243.553.5
F41-F43 Construction258.2229.3166.030.732.529.0
G-N Services total16 117.915 479.110 385.12 443.92 650.2638.7
G46 Wholesale trade1 030.1973.8593.8192.9187.156.3
H49-H53 Transportation and storage362.1322.6185.085.252.539.5
J58 Publishing activities2 455.32 418.91 787.9314.8316.236.5
J58.2 Software publishing2 140.82 105.31 588.5248.2268.635.5
J59-J60 Motion picture, TV, music prod., programming and broadcasting act.63.763.243.717.71.80.5
J61 Telecommunications1 275.41 199.0776.9199.0223.176.3
J62 Computer programming, consultancy4 984.24 933.43 448.1797.1688.250.8
J63 Information service activities315.3310.9231.350.329.24.5
K64-K66 Financial and insurance activities1 118.31 082.5516.7429.7136.135.9
M70 Head offices, management consult.375.2372.4272.936.163.32.9
M71 Architecture, engineering act.2 903.32 606.51 805.1206.7594.6296.8
M72 Scientific research and development814.9795.2473.364.5257.419.6
M74.9 Other professional, scientific and technical activities329.2313.9203.821.888.315.3
N82.9 Other business supp. serv. act.90.886.846.528.012.44.0

Table 4 
R&D personnel and R&D man-years in Business Enterprise sector, by industry (10+ employees). Number

R&D personnel and R&D man-years in Business Enterprise sector, by industry (10+ employees). Number
R&D personnelOf this:R&D man-yearsOf this:
Female R&D personnelR&D personnel with higher degree education (incl. doctorate)R&D personnel with PhDR&D man-years performed by personnel with higher degree education (incl. doctorate)R&D man-years performed by personnel with PhD
NACE (SN2007)
A-N All industries33 4956 95620 7292 13519 61613 3961 658
A03 Fishing and aquaculture8302182908132217965
B05-B09 Mining and cuarrying1 190264966261793669231
B06, B09.1 Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas and support act. petroleum extraction1 131259940259767657229
C Manufacturing12 2102 4206 1197567 0344 094624
C10-C11 Food products and beverages1 7585965898069332255
C13 Textiles1172236140161
C14-C15 Wearing apparel, leather and leather products5743110248..
C16 Wood and wood products35533431116150
C17 Paper and paper products1646690181076114
C18 Printing and reproduction199445006723..
C19-C20 Refined petroleum products, chemicals and chemical products926375581220788490193
C21 Pharmaceuticals2771592247122918963
C22 Rubber and plastic products289321003114562
C23 Other non-metal mineral products241277916964311
C24 Basic metals5591162547634817365
C25 Fabricated metal prod.1 1591435222069835515
C26 Electronic and optical products1 7661721 2931351 4821 111120
C26.3 Manuf. of communication equipment304192391529123415
C26.5 Manuf of testing instr./appliances856995745370847344
C27 Electrical equipment591772502338219221
C28 Machinery and equipment1 6651628584390952633
C29 Motor vehicles etc.23317943166763
C30 Other transport equipment1 1061966952429917210
C30.1 Building of ships and boats1 024184660222771589
C31 Furniture272701121151841
C32 Other manufacturing14135894106744
C33 Repair, installation of machinery336351481621910614
D35 Electricity and gas supply455116340351199013
E36-E39 Water supply, sewerage and waste287641481095475
F41-F43 Construction7349428420211907
G-N Services total17 7893 78112 58197311 0438 227713
G46 Wholesale trade1 6434167373665737923
H49-H53 Transportation and storage4317524091901212
J58 Publishing activities2 9415221 951872 0801 41076
J58.2 Software publishing2 5733851 673861 8631 23975
J59-J60 Motion picture, TV, music prod., programming and broadcasting act.1343465149321
J61 Telecommunications9392377996268860247
J62 Computer programming, consultancy5 4759974 0671383 6782 842100
J63 Information service activities5269831632861573
K64-K66 Financial and insurance activities9632976972461645412
M70 Head offices, management consult.5121644384425721832
M71 Architecture, engineering act.3 0145792 3053121 7601 364232
M72 Scientific research and development739263613204500419153
M74.9 Other professional, scientific and technical activities361562944923719630
N82.9 Other business supp. serv. act.1124160446343

Table 5 
R & D expenditure and R & D personnel in OECD countries, as share of GDP and labour force. Percentage

R & D expenditure and R & D personnel in OECD countries, as share of GDP and labour force. Percentage
 Gross Domestic Expenditure on R & D. Million PPP dollar. 2015GERD as percentage of GDPR & D expenditure in the business enterprise sector (BERD) as percentage of GDPTotal R & D personnel per thousand labour force
12014 for R & D expenditure.
Austria13 321.22.743.121.872.2114.2015.75
Belgium12 624.62.052.461.381.7712.2715.66
Canada27 071.11.831.710.950.9012.59..
Chile1 603.70.330.380.100.131.481.78
Czech Republic6 927.41.341.950.761.069.9212.51
Denmark8 236.22.922.961.961.8919.1820.11
Finland6 712.43.732.902.591.9320.7818.59
France60 818.
Germany114 778.12.712.931.822.0113.1615.21
Greece2 765.90.600.970.240.32..10.51
Hungary3 584.81.151.380.691.017.498.16
Ireland13 638.71.601.541.101.098.9713.59
Israel13 023.63.944.253.273.63....
Korea74 051.53.474.232.593.2813.5516.42
Mexico11 563.40.540.530.190.161.46..
Netherlands16 909.71.721.990.831.1111.4414.28
New Zealand2 227.9..1.28..0.64..10.52
Norway6 218.41.651.930.851.0413.8815.30
Poland10 239.80.721.000.190.474.786.28
Portugal3 921.51.531.280.700.608.679.33
Slovak Republic1 911.60.621.180.260.336.726.42
Slovenia1 458.
Spain19 734.51.351.220.690.649.508.76
Sweden15 371.
Switzerland17 688.3..3.42..2.43..15.72
Turkey16 604.50.800.880.340.443.194.12
United Kingdom46 259.81.681.701.021.1211.1112.65
United States502 893.02.742.791.861.99....
European Union (28)386 466.81.841.961.121.2510.5611.76
European Union (15)356 165.91.992.101.241.3511.8213.02
OECD - Total1 247 981.02.292.381.521.64....
Non-OECD Economies       
China408 829.01.712.071.261.593.264.69

About the statistics

The survey measures expenditures for research and development (R&D) in business enterprises, performed by own personnel or purchased services from others, and how the R&D activity is funded. In addition other aspects like type of R&D, thematic fields and co-operation are covered. 


Definitions of the main concepts and variables

R&D comprises creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. The main criteria of R&D activities are the presence of an appreciable element of novelty and uncertainty on the outcome. Normal construction and planning activities, that follow established routines, is not R&D. Either is the introduction of known, established technology for the enterprise.

Definition of the main variables

R&D personnel
encompass all personnel directly involved in research and development, including administrative personnel, persons in supporting functions, both inside and outside the R&D department.

A R&D man-year
is the R&D work one person has performed during the year.

Intramural R&D expenditures
are all expenditures for R&D; performed within the statistical unit. Intramural R&D expenditures encompass labour costs, cost of hired personnel, other current costs and capital expenditures on R&D.

Extramural R&D expenditures
encompass R&D services purchased from others; as research institutes, other enterprises, also including units in the same enterprise group.

Standard classifications

The statistical units are classified according to:

  • Standard Industrial Classification (SIC2007). The basis for SIC 2007 is the EU standard NACE Rev. 2 and the UN standard ISIC Rev. 3.
  • Size class by number of employees: 05-09 employees, 10-19, 20-49, 50-99, 100-199, 200-499 and 500+ employees

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Research and development in the business enterprise sector
Topic: Technology and innovation

Next release

Responsible division

Division for Business Dynamics Statistics

Regional level

National level, key variables by county and economic region. Main variables by county are available in Statbank; by economic region on request,

Frequency and timeliness

Annual. Preliminary results are published in October year t+1, final results in February year t+2.

International reporting

The statistics are reported to OECD and Eurostat.


Micro data and information about sample units and population are stored permanently. For access to microdata for research purposes, see http://www.ssb.no/en/omssb/tjenester-og-verktoy/data-til-forskning.


Background and purpose

The purpose with the R&D surveys is to monitor the national R&D activity. The R&D survey for the Business enterprise sector is performed each year by Statistics Norway on contract for the Norwegian Research Council who also contribute to the funding of the survey. Surveys on the R&D activity in the Government sector and the Higher Education sector are undertaken by Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education (NIFU). The survey, and the results, follows the recommendations given in the OECD Frascati manual.

The survey undertaken by Statistics Norway measures the expenditures of R&D in the business enterprise sector, both R&D performed by own personnel (intramural R&D) and R&D services purchased from others like research institutes, other enterprises etc. (extramural R&D) and how the R&D activity is financed (own sources, public sources etc.). The R&D activity is distributed by type of R&D, research field a.o. The content of the survey varies slightly from year to year.

Users and applications

Important users are public administration, like ministries and  the Research Council, researchers, business organizations. The survey is important for evaluation of the R&D and innovation policy and the industrial policy in general. The statistics are also used by international organizations like EU/Eurostat and OECD.


The national R&D Statistics are published at the same time by Statistics Norway and NIFU. Preliminary results are published in October year t+1. The variables being published are number of R&D personnel, number of R&D man-years and R&D expenditures. Final results are published in January/February year t+2. This release provides more detailed results by industry and region and several breakdowns of the main variables. Normally there are only small differences in the main variables from preliminary to final release. Both preliminary and final results are based on reported figures from the enterprises.  

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 08 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar.

Exception from the principle of equal treatment: 

The Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education (NIFU) has access to some of the main preliminary figures from SSBs R&D statistics for the business enterprise sector before these are published on SSB’s website. NIFU adds up the results from their sectors with data from SSB to publish the total national R&D.

Coherence with other statistics

For total national R&D figures the R&D survey for the business enterprise sector has to be added to NIFU’s surveys for the Government sector and the Higher Education sector.  NIFU is responsible for publishing of national figures, but some main results are also available in SSB’s Statbank.

The R&D survey for the business enterprise sector was formerly carried out together with the innovation survey and data collected together in the same questionnaire. From 2013 onwards the R&D survey and the innovation survey are carried out separately. As previously the results from these surveys are published separately. R&D is one of the innovation activities, but the innovation survey covers a wider range of activities than R&D only.

Legal authority

Sections 2-2 and 2-3 of Act no. 54 of 16 June 1989 relating to official statistics and Statistics Norway.

EEA reference

European Parliament and Council Decision No. 1608/2003/EC of 22 July 2003 concerning the production and development of Community statistics on science and technology and implementing Commission Regulation No. 995/2012 of 26 October 2012 as regards statistics on science and technology.



The Business Enterprise sector. NACE-sectors 03, 05-33, 35-39, 41-43, 46, 49-53, 58-66, 70-72, 74.9, 82.9 (SN2007).

Data sources and sampling

Surveys using the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises as a frame.

The survey is a census of all units with at least 50 employees. In addition are all units with10-49 employees and with considerable reported R&D activity in the previous survey included. Among the other units with 10 - 49 employees a random sample is drawn within each strata (NACE 2-digit and size class). The fraction rate is normally 35 percent, but in some strata 15 and 10 percent are used. The total sample of units is about 4-5000.

The sample was extended in the 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2015 survey to also include enterprises with 5-9 employees. The total sample of these years is therefore larger than earlier years, about 5600 units in 2015. For comparability the statistics were presented both with and without this extension of the survey. The enterprises with 5-9 employees are not included in comparisons over time and international comparisons. The survey for 2016 does not include enterprises with 5-9 employees.

From 2008 onwards, enterprises with less than 20 employees in the industries Construction and Transportation and storage are not included. These groups have a large number of enterprises and a very low share of the total R&D activity in the business enterprise sector.

The statistical unit is enterprise, and with breakdown of a number of variables to establishments (local kind-of-activity unit). Until 1999 the statistical unit was the branch unit ( kind-of-activity unit) .

An enterprise is defined as the smallest combination of legal units that is an organizational unit producing goods or services. An enterprise may be a sole legal unit. An enterprise carries out one or more activities at one or more locations and may consist of one or more branch units or establishments. A establishment is geographically located in one particular place and its main activity delimited to one NACE-class. A branch unit encompasses all establishment units within the same NACE-class, but is not necessarily located to only one region. The use of branch unit/establishments gives the most detailed breakdown of the statistics by NACE. When enterprise is used as statistical unit the R&D activity is classified by NACE according to the enterprise’s main activity.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

The data on R&D are collected by electronic questionnaire, more information at http://www.ssb.no/innrapportering/naeringsliv/fou.  The forms are sent out 4-5 months after the end of the reference year.

Response burden
The time used to fill in the form is estimated to 30 minutes on average. This yields a total response burden of 2150 hours for the enterprises. However, the content of the questionnaire may vary from one year to another.


All forms undergo on-receipt controls (is the questionnaire filled in, is there any obvious inconsistencies etc). There are integrated a number of controls in the electronic questionaire. After the data are made available electronically, more detailed controls take part, including check with the data from the previous survey, information from the financial account etc.


For units with less than 50 employees the survey is based on a sample of units. Total figures for this part of the survey population are estimated based on the sample units. The estimations are done within each stratum, NACE 2-digit level and size-class.

R&D expenditure are reported and published in current prices. For total R&D expenditure figures at constant prices are also calculated. A new deflator is adopted for calculating R&D expenditure at constant prices for 2013 and the period back to 1970. The base year is 2005. The new deflator is based on the price index of production in NACE 72 Research and development in the national accounts. This is a weighted cost index - an average index for the different types of expenditure. The same deflator is used for all institutional sectors in the R&D statistics. Formerly various price indices were used for the various types of expenditure (wages, operating expenditures and investments) and performing sectors. There are two main reasons for this change of index: The new index will also be used in the national accounts where R&D after the main revision of SNA is capitalized, and it will simplify fixed price calculations significantly.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant


Results are published at an aggregated level. Individual enterprises can not be identified.

Comparability over time and space

The first surveys of R&D started back in 1963, from 1970 onwards in a systematic way. The statistics have been worked out on bi-annual basis since 1977, but is undertaken annually from 2001 onwards. The first surveys covered only manufacturing industry, but the service industries have gradually been included. Statistics Norway is responsible for the survey for the Business enterprise sector from 1991 onwards. In 1995 the survey was considerably extended.

From 1991 the statistical unit was the kind-of-activity unit. For 2001 this was changed to enterprise as the main statistical unit, but with a breakdown of the main variables to local kind-of-activity unit.

From 2008 a new version of the industry classification (SN2007) was implemented making it more difficult to compare with former vintages. Results from 2007 are published both by the old and the new classification, while former vintages only are published by the old classification (SN2002).

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

The concept of R&D may be difficult to distinguish from related activities.

The response rate for the survey is quite high, around 95 per cent, and the results should for that reason not be biased by non-respondents. In case of non-response from large R&D performers there are good routines to estimate missing data. Preliminary results have a larger degree of uncertainty than final results.  

Due to controls in the electronic questionnaire, the item non-response is almost non-existent. Item non-response  is in case adjusted during the revision process.

The population of enterprises is based upon the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises. The sample is stratified by NACE 2-digit and number of employees. Incomplete updating of these variables and entries and exits of enterprises may cause errors in the survey.


Not relevant