297725
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297725
statistikk
2018-02-13T08:00:00.000Z
Agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing;Income and consumption
en
binfo, Farmers’ income and debt, agricultural income, income from self-employment, farmersIncome and wealth, Agriculture , Income and consumption, Agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing
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Farmers’ income and debt

Updated

Next update

Key figures

190 100

NOK average entrepreneurial income from agriculture for farmers

Farmers’ income and debt
2016Change in per cent
2015 - 20162011 - 2016
Personal holders (number)38 868-1.8-9.2
 
Average income for holders (NOK)643 7000.225.9
Wages and salaries269 3002.123.4
Entrepreneurial income from agriculture190 100-0.823.4
Other entrepreneurial income75 7003.318.7
Pensions55 0005.051.5
Capital income etc.53 600-12.637.8
 
Average debt for holders (NOK)2 140 0007.6..

See more tables on this subject

Table 1 
Entrepreneurial income from agriculture for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder

Entrepreneurial income from agriculture for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder
Entrepreneurial income from agricultureHolders by entrepreneurial income from agriculture
TotalPer holderHolders, totalWithout positive income1 - 49 999 NOK50 000 - 99 999 NOK100 000 - 249 999 NOK250 000 - 399 999 NOK400 000 and more
NOK millionNOKNumberPer cent
20147 045173 70040 557291415171215
20157 586191 60039 600301214161116
20167 389190 10038 868301313161217
 
2016
County
Østfold425202 0002 10629111717917
Akershus and Oslo403200 0002 012281217181015
Hedmark692224 0003 090281113161319
Oppland786184 5004 262291115161216
Buskerud322154 7002 083321316171012
Vestfold285212 4001 34231121615917
Telemark143106 3001 3484019141467
Aust-Agder92139 400657381512161011
Vest-Agder152148 5001 02343141013911
Rogaland950239 8003 963241214151322
Hordaland316106 8002 9584217131298
Sogn og Fjordane436155 9002 795301413191311
Møre og Romsdal445179 8002 475341211151117
Sør-Trøndelag541200 9002 693321011141418
Nord-Trøndelag699241 4002 895241114151323
Nordland467233 1002 003251110181224
Troms - Romsa182208 000875261211181419
Finnmark - Finnmárku54186 200288391489821
 
Type of farming
Cereals and oil seeds719107 3006 7003416211775
Other field crops534134 4003 97145171211710
Horticulture and permanent crops336284 4001 182261311161123
Cattle - dairying2 233368 0006 067635192740
Cattle - rearing and fattening561146 5003 829311117201110
Cattle - mixed397440 700900525122551
Sheep79382 5009 6164018161664
Various grazing livestock287113 9002 51748131012810
Granivores931463 6002 0071247151647
Mixed cropping69312 00022222147161031
Mixed livestock241411 8005851945101844
Mixed crops - livestock289227 3001 27231131314920
 
Agricultural area in use
0 - 4 decares281286 20098230129141124
5 - 49 decares19349 7003 89359209733
50 - 99 decares40859 2006 8845121131033
100 - 199 decares1 299121 50010 6883215191797
200 - 299 decares1 466218 4006 71318816221718
300 - 499 decares1 916319 4005 99712410202133
500 decares or more1 826492 2003 711826141952
 
Holders by sex
Males6 676203 00032 891291213161218
Females713119 2005 9773815151598

Table 2 
Average income for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder. NOK

Average income for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder. NOK
Total gross incomeWages and salariesEntrepreneurial income from agricultureOther entrepreneurial incomePensionsCapital income etc
2014602 000255 400173 70071 60048 10053 200
2015642 300263 700191 60073 30052 40061 300
2016643 700269 300190 10075 70055 00053 600
 
2016
County
Østfold753 900311 000202 000110 10059 00071 800
Akershus and Oslo832 500337 600200 000132 10069 40093 400
Hedmark670 500244 700224 00090 80057 00054 000
Oppland590 800243 300184 50072 00046 40044 600
Buskerud730 900296 200154 700128 10055 30096 700
Vestfold791 700322 700212 40099 20064 00093 400
Telemark624 000324 900106 30079 40069 30044 100
Aust-Agder578 000256 100139 40082 60065 50034 300
Vest-Agder617 700288 700148 50074 40058 00048 100
Rogaland696 300262 700239 80066 80050 50076 600
Hordaland585 300329 300106 80049 60063 10036 600
Sogn og Fjordane555 500254 400155 90047 90059 50037 800
Møre og Romsdal587 200251 000179 80065 60054 70036 200
Sør-Trøndelag617 100257 800200 90058 80045 40054 300
Nord-Trøndelag635 700254 100241 40064 70038 30037 200
Nordland549 600190 700233 10046 20059 00020 600
Troms - Romsa541 000192 400208 00060 70056 10023 800
Finnmark - Finnmárku535 600205 100186 20069 30050 00025 000
 
Type of farming
Cereals and oil seeds747 700385 800107 300104 10076 20074 200
Other field crops671 100319 300134 40084 10074 50058 900
Horticulture and permanent crops770 200258 000284 40079 80064 90083 100
Cattle - dairying579 90097 000368 00051 80023 80039 300
Cattle - rearing and fattening614 000276 700146 50088 40045 50057 000
Cattle - mixed639 90079 900440 70064 10020 70034 500
Sheep554 300307 60082 50060 70066 10037 300
Various grazing livestock596 300299 600113 90081 10053 90047 800
Granivores817 700200 800463 60065 10023 10065 100
Mixed cropping721 400247 900312 00069 30052 60039 500
Mixed livestock758 600157 800411 800101 70019 30067 800
Mixed crops - livestock715 800255 400227 30087 60060 40085 100
 
Agricultural area in use
0 - 4 decares726 100263 000286 20055 10057 60064 200
5 - 49 decares592 400348 40049 70061 90084 60047 800
50 - 99 decares585 500338 90059 20059 80080 50047 000
100 - 199 decares596 800297 500121 50067 80060 90049 100
200 - 299 decares637 000237 800218 40074 70041 60064 500
300 - 499 decares668 800191 100319 40082 40029 30046 500
500 decares or more889 800160 400492 200138 50024 70074 000
 
Holders by sex
Males669 100267 900203 00081 60058 30058 400
Females503 400276 700119 20043 20036 90027 400

Table 3 
Holders by entrepreneurial income from agriculture as per cent of gross income, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder

Holders by entrepreneurial income from agriculture as per cent of gross income, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder
Holders, totalShare of holders by entrepreneurial income from agriculture as per cent of gross income
0 per cent1-9 per cent10-49 per cent50-89 per cent90 per cent or more
201440 5572915281711
201539 6003014281612
201638 8683015281513
 
2016
County
Østfold2 106291832138
Akershus and Oslo2 012281935135
Hedmark3 0902713291912
Oppland4 2622813281714
Buskerud2 083321831145
Vestfold1 342301731147
Telemark1 34840212586
Aust-Agder657381527138
Vest-Agder1 023431422119
Rogaland3 9632314291618
Hordaland2 958421922108
Sogn og Fjordane2 7952914291612
Møre og Romsdal2 4753414231515
Sør-Trøndelag2 6933211251616
Nord-Trøndelag2 8952413261819
Nordland2 0032510261723
Troms - Romsa8752611261720
Finnmark - Finnmárku2883910191319
 
Type of farming
Cereals and oil seeds6 70034243562
Other field crops3 97143192496
Horticulture and permanent crops1 1822615272012
Cattle - dairying6 06763203338
Cattle - rearing and fattening3 829311335138
Cattle - mixed90042163542
Sheep9 61640183075
Various grazing livestock2 517481421108
Granivores2 007126283026
Mixed cropping2222212272019
Mixed livestock585194212433
Mixed crops - livestock1 2723114271811
 
Agricultural area in use
0 - 4 decares9822913281613
5 - 49 decares3 89359201632
50 - 99 decares6 88451212153
100 - 199 decares10 688321831118
200 - 299 decares6 7131811341917
300 - 499 decares5 997127302625
500 decares or more3 71185273328
 
Holders by sex
Males32 8912915271614
Females5 977381430118

Table 4 
Interest paid and debt for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder

Interest paid and debt for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder
Interest paid, total. NOK millionInterest paid per holder. NOKDebt, total. NOK millionDebt per holder. NOK
20142 97073 20076 5081 886 000
20152 69768 10078 7261 988 000
20162 45863 20083 1682 140 000
 
2016
County
Østfold17683 4006 1402 916 000
Akershus and Oslo13868 6005 0372 504 000
Hedmark24980 5008 4402 731 000
Oppland23354 7007 8351 838 000
Buskerud10249 1003 7851 817 000
Vestfold11082 1003 7952 828 000
Telemark6447 3002 1951 628 000
Aust-Agder3857 6001 3061 988 000
Vest-Agder6159 5002 1272 079 000
Rogaland32882 70011 8622 993 000
Hordaland11438 6004 0241 360 000
Sogn og Fjordane10035 7003 5821 281 000
Møre og Romsdal13855 8004 4011 778 000
Sør-Trøndelag15959 2005 1151 899 000
Nord-Trøndelag24384 0007 7852 689 000
Nordland14472 1003 9121 953 000
Troms - Romsa4551 7001 3551 549 000
Finnmark - Finnmárku1656 7004741 646 000
 
Type of farming
Cereals and oil seeds33349 70011 9041 777 000
Other field crops19248 3006 6991 687 000
Horticulture and permanent crops7866 2002 8982 452 000
Cattle - dairying47378 00015 8092 606 000
Cattle - rearing and fattening24764 5008 1222 121 000
Cattle - mixed8695 8002 9243 249 000
Sheep38139 70012 1681 265 000
Various grazing livestock15159 8004 8531 928 000
Granivores307153 10010 3155 139 000
Mixed cropping2087 6006602 974 000
Mixed livestock96163 5003 3225 678 000
Mixed crops - livestock9574 7003 4962 748 000
 
Agricultural area in use
0 - 4 decares9495 3003 1363 193 000
5 - 49 decares15038 5005 0371 294 000
50 - 99 decares26238 0008 7071 265 000
100 - 199 decares47844 70015 7271 471 000
200 - 299 decares40660 50013 6112 028 000
300 - 499 decares51085 00017 4562 911 000
500 decares or more559150 70019 4945 253 000
 
Holders by sex
Males2 17766 20073 4392 233 000
Females28147 1009 7291 628 000

Table 5 
Holders by size of debt, county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder

Holders by size of debt, county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder
Holders, totalHolders by size of debt
NOK 0-0.09 millionNOK 0.1-0.9 millionNOK 1-1.9 millionNOK 2-3.9 millionNOK 4 million or more
201440 5577 68911 9607 9757 7515 182
201539 6007 60311 1567 4727 7975 572
201638 8687 37310 4277 1267 7906 152
 
2016
County
Østfold2 106290503329464520
Akershus and Oslo2 012329526350420387
Hedmark3 090424803522648693
Oppland4 2627661 286850859501
Buskerud2 083461557387432246
Vestfold1 342237281209298317
Telemark1 348310380275247136
Aust-Agder657132152123150100
Vest-Agder1 023229239170214171
Rogaland3 9636788046098591 013
Hordaland2 958800866552535205
Sogn og Fjordane2 795774912514409186
Møre og Romsdal2 475525702464492292
Sør-Trøndelag2 693462762591526352
Nord-Trøndelag2 895359705511666654
Nordland2 003386562418366271
Troms - Romsa87515730818714182
Finnmark - Finnmárku2885479656426
 
Type of farming
Cereals and oil seeds6 7001 4831 8481 2391 350780
Other field crops3 9719591 095726775416
Horticulture and permanent crops1 182255284202232209
Cattle - dairying6 0676141 7721 0541 2641 363
Cattle - rearing and fattening3 8296291 010745864581
Cattle - mixed90061214155224246
Sheep9 6162 6112 8381 9641 670533
Various grazing livestock2 517423640539608307
Granivores2 007452652114151 071
Mixed cropping2223064314156
Mixed livestock585317568109302
Mixed crops - livestock1 272232322192238288
 
Agricultural area in use
0 - 4 decares982166219129162306
5 - 49 decares3 8931 2851 040677639252
50 - 99 decares6 8842 0962 0111 2751 086416
100 - 199 decares10 6882 4593 2802 1571 917875
200 - 299 decares6 7138951 9961 3611 573888
300 - 499 decares5 9973841 4071 0951 5751 536
500 decares or more3 711884744328381 879
 
Holders by sex
Males32 8915 7878 7796 0536 7495 523
Females5 9771 5861 6481 0731 041629

About the statistics

The statistics present figures for incomes and debt for persons who are operating agricultural holdings, independent of the holding as source of income. The amounts are derived from tax statistics for personal tax payers.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Agricultural holding

A single unit both technically and economically, which has single management and which produces agricultural products. The holding is independent of municipality boundaries. The agricultural holding's headquarter must be located to an agricultural property.



Holder

The person considered responsible for operating the holding.


Gross income

Total wages and salaries, pensions, entrepreneurial income and property income.


Wages and salaries

Comprise payments in cash and in kind, taxable sick pay and unemployment benefit.


Pensions

Cover all benefit paid by social security and private pension and life insurance benefit.


Entrepreneurial income

A result of the activities of a self-employed person, and is estimated from profit and loss account and balance sheet. The entrepreneurial income is transferred to the tax return and is included in the calculation of ordinary income.


Entrepreneurial income from agriculture

This is positive entrepreneurial income from agriculture according to the tax return. In addition, entrepreneurial social security benefits in agriculture, forestry and fishery are included. Deductions such as membership payments to industry organisations, the year's entrepreneurial deficit, interest on debt and a separate agricultural deduction are not deducted. Income from any supplementary industry executed on the holding, e.g. forestry, are included in other entrepreneurial income if the industry concerned are considered as independent according to taxation.


Capital income

Consist of interest income, dividends, realised capital gains, rent and other income from property.

Standard classifications

The following classifications are used in the tables: county where the holding is located, size of holding expressed in decares of utilised agricultural area, type of farming of the holding and sex of holder.

County
Oslo County is merged with Akershus County.





Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Farmers’ income and debt
Topic: Agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing

Next release

Responsible division

Division for Primary Industry Statistics

Regional level

County

Frequency and timeliness

Annual, about 55 weeks after the reference year

International reporting

Not relevant

Microdata

A data file with anonymous individual data is stored at Statistics Norway.

Background

Background and purpose

The purpose is to present statistics on incomes and debt for persons who are operating agricultural holdings, independent of the holding as source of income. An essential feature of the Norwegian agriculture is that many persons that are running agricultural holdings work part-time in agriculture or the work is concentrated to the growing season. Many holders have wage/salary or entrepreneurial income from other industries as main source of income.

Statistics Norway has produced statistics on the farmers' income, property and taxes based on the tax assessment for personal taxpayers since 1968. More detailed tax return data have been presented from 1999 and onwards.

Users and applications

There is much focus on level, distribution and development of incomes of holders in agriculture. The main users of the statistics are the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, the Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, the Agricultural Budget Commission, the Norwegian Farmers Union, the Norwegian Smallholders Union etc.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 08 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar.

Coherence with other statistics

Yearly, Statistics Norway also presents Income statistics for all self-employed persons . At first level the self-employed persons are classified into two groups: self-employed with main income from industry and self-employed with main income from wages/salaries and pensions. Furthermore, those with main income from industry are classified into primary industries and other industries. Primary industries consist of agriculture, forestry and fishery.

The The Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research yearly presents Account Results in Agriculture and Forestry. This survey shows results for holdings where most of the family's total income are derived from the holding. More information: http://www.nibio.no/.

Legal authority

Statistics Act §§2-1, 3-2

EEA reference

Not relevant

Production

Population

Agricultural holdings are operated by two main types of holders: natural person and legal person. The total number of holdings has been decreasing over many years, while during the last years the number of holdings operated by a legal person has increased. The percentage of holdings operated by a legal person has increased from 1 per cent in 1999 to 6 per cent in 2008. Later, the percentage has been almost unchanged. The statistics on the farmers' income and property cover only agricultural holdings operated by a natural person.

The holdings vary much in size, from hobby-like production to holdings with a turnover of more than NOK 1 million. Some of the holdings have small-scale production under the threshold to be considered an industry by the tax authorities.

The individual person who is considered as responsible for operating the holding is referred to as holder (farmer). Some holdings change holder during the year. Mainly, the holder being holder as per 31 July the year concerned is included. For the holders information has been obtained on any spouse, registered partner or cohabitant. Up to and including 2004, cohabitant included only he/she who had children in common with the holder. As from 2005, also cohabitant who lived together with holder according to the Population and Housing Census 2001 and still has common address is included.

Married couples and registered partners who jointly operate a holding may share the taxable entrepreneurial income. Cohabitants who want to share the entrepreneurial income from a jointly operated holding have to organise the management as a legal entity other than sole proprietorship, or one of them has to be an employee.

The population of persons may differ from one table to another. Mainly, a table either comprises holders only or an aggregate of holders and spouses/registered partners/cohabitants.

Data sources and sampling

The statistics are based on the population of agricultural holdings operated by a natural person and tax return data. Division for Income and Wage Statistics links data from the Tax statistics for personal tax payers to the population of farmers.  The tax statistics for personal taxpayers is a total census based on data from the ordinary tax assessments.

For more information:  http://www.ssb.no/en/inntekt-og-forbruk/statistikker/selvangivelse

Collection of data, editing and estimations

The statistics are based on collocation of data files that have been separately edited when established. Furthermore, the statistics have been examined for extreme values, i.g. values for individual holders or spouses/partners/cohabitants which significantly influence the whole population of agricultural holdings operated by a natural person. Individuals who fulfil one or more of the following conditions are omitted from the statistics: had a gross income of more than NOK 100 million, had a debt of more than NOK 100 million or had property of more than NOK 300 million. Annually, this concerns about 10 individuals.

Some holders and spouses/partners/cohabitants operate holdings separately. To avoid double counting, information from the tax return data are linked to the holding with the largest production. Annually, this concerns about 100 couples.

Average figures for a variable, e.g. wages and salaries for the holder, is estimated by summing up the value of the variable wages and salaries for all holders and divide the sum with the number of total holders. This means that holders without wages and salaries are included in the average figures.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant

Confidentiality

Figures are not presented if there is a risk of identifying any unit.

Comparability over time and space

Changes in the tax regulations influence the data and consequently the statistics over time. The tax regulations were significantly changed as from 1992. The statistics are essentially comparable for the period 1992 - 2002. In 2003, the tax return forms filled in by self-employed persons were considerably changed. Particularly, a separate deduction in entrepreneurial income from agriculture was deducted before the entrepreneurial income was transferred to the tax return form. Due to this neither the entrepreneurial income nor the gross income are comparable with the other years. As from 2004, the agricultural deduction again is stated as a deduction on the tax return.

Changes in tax regulations as from 1 January 2006 increased taxes for certain types of income. Due to this, taxpayers realised income in 2005 to avoid increased taxes in 2006 or later years.

Changes in the regulation concerning governmental production subsidies as per 31 July 2002 have caused increased number of holdings operated by other legal entities than sole proprietorship. This concerns particularly the legal entities general partnership and general partnership with shared liability. Furthermore, the changes of the regulation has influenced the number of holders participating in joint operation (organised as general partnerships) and at the same time running their own enterprise (sole proprietorship). Before 2002, holders participating in joint operation in milk production had to apply separately for area production subsidies. Now, the participants may choose whether they will cultivate fodder in own separate enterprise or operate the area jointly.

From 2002, holders applying governmental production subsidies as a general condition had to be registered in the Value Added Tax Registration List. Later, the minimum turnover for being in this list has increased. In order to still include small holdings, a new condition was introduced; the holding has to have an overall turnover, included withdrawal of commodities, over a certain threshold during the last 12 months. At the time being, this threshold is NOK 20 000. From 2014 there is no threshold.

A revised calculation of type of farming of the holdings was implemented in the Farmers' Income and Property 2007. The revision has caused a fall in the farm types "Various grazing livestock" and "Mixed crops - livestock", while the farm type "Other field crops" has increased. Other farm types are hardly affected.

New changes in the type of farming classification have been introduced as from 2010. Before 2010 standard gross margin (SGM) was used as common unit of measurement for various crop and livestock husbandry within a holding. From 2010 and onwards SGM is replaced by standard output (SO). Some other changes concerning the methodology are also introduced. The two versions are not fully comparable.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

The most important source of error is that taxpayers may fill in incorrect information on income, deductions, property or debt in the personal tax return or place amounts under wrong items. In most cases this will be detected and corrected by the local tax offices. Nevertheless, errors that do not influence the assessment of taxes may be ignored. Furthermore, errors may also originate during the scanning of the tax return forms, despite of the fact that controls are executed.

A non-significant number of holdings are missing information on income etc. No information is imputed for these holdings.

Statistics Norway receives data from the Directorate of Taxes before all complaints from taxpayers are finished.

Revision

Not relevant