400226
/en/inntekt-og-forbruk/statistikker/ifhus/aar
400226
statistikk
2019-12-16T08:00:00.000Z
Income and consumption;Immigration and immigrants
en
ifhus, Income and wealth statistics for households, income statistics, household income, wealth statistics, wealth, household types (for example single, couples with children, couples without children), income accounts, income from employment, capital income, transfers (for example pension, supplementary benefit, cash for care), debts, poverty, low income, child poverty,Income and wealth, Income and consumption, Immigration and immigrants, Income and consumption
true

Income and wealth statistics for households

Updated

Next update

Not yet determined

Key figures

0.0 %

change in median income after tax for all households from 2017 to 2018, in constant prices

Income after tax for households by type of household, Median1
After tax median incomePercentage change2
20182017 - 20182013 - 2018
1Students not included
2In constant prices
All households524 2000.0-0.2
Singles under 45 years303 8000.90.4
Singles 45-64 years339 0000.10.0
Singles 65 years and older274 0000.11.6
Couples without children, oldest person under 45 years629 9001.40.9
Couples without children, oldest person 45-64 years792 1000.83.1
Couples without children, oldest person 65 years and older590 2000.12.1
Couples with children 0-6 years787 7000.5-0.4
Couples with children 7-17 years918 6000.51.1
Couples with children, oldest child 18 years and older1 029 4000.82.1
Single mother/father with children 0-17 years421 2000.0-2.3
Single mother/father with children 18 years and older566 6000.40.6

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
Registered incomes for households by type of household. Average in NOK.

Registered incomes for households by type of household. Average in NOK.123
2018
All householdsLiving alone, person under 30 yearsLiving alone, person 30-44 yearsLiving alone, person 45-66 yearsLiving alone, person 67 years and olderCouple without resident children, oldest person under 30 yearsCouple without resident children, oldest person 30-44 yearsCouple without resident children, oldest person 45-66 yearsCouple without resident children, oldest person 67 years and olderCouples with children 0-5 yearsCouples with children 6-17 yearsCouples with children 18 years and olderSingle mother/father with children 0-5 yearSingle mother/father with children 6-17 yearSingle mother/father with children 18 year and olderTwo or more-familiy households
1Private households consiting of single persons living alone under the age of 18 are not included.
2Couples included married couples, cohabiting couples and registered partners.
3Students not included.
4For recipients of new transitional benefits for single mothers/fathers from April 2014, the benefits will be taxed as wage. From the income year 2015, the benefits are included in Social security benefits.
5Includes recipients of the former private contractual pension scheme (AFP).
6Sickness benfits from the National Insurance Scheme. Holiday payments from sickness benefits are included.
7Other taxable transfers include benefits such as parental benefit, annuity, introduction benefits for newly arrived refugees and qualification benefits (from 2008).
8Other tax-free transfers benefits such as childcare benefit to single parents, lump sum maternity grants, compensation for work injury, education benefit to single parents and received child support managed by public arrangement. Various benefits received by people attending job creating programs are included from 2009. From 2014, extra compensation for recipients of contractual pension (AFP) is included.
9Negative transfers include paid child support managed by public arrangement, paid annuity and mandatory contribution to private pension plan.
Income from work (NOK)568 800299 700393 100348 40024 700688 100868 700903 000142 200891 3001 184 6001 197 600241 400456 000564 800749 200
Wages and salaries (NOK)536 300291 200375 400327 30020 400670 700835 000845 600122 500846 8001 118 0001 121 700232 600435 600533 400697 300
Net income from self-employment (NOK)32 5008 50017 70021 1004 30017 40033 60057 50019 80044 50066 60076 0008 80020 40031 40051 800
 
Property income (NOK)45 2005 50012 00027 30025 00012 00023 50095 00069 00041 60082 80092 10010 80023 50031 10044 900
Interest received (NOK)5 3001 8001 8003 3005 7004 6004 7007 70012 0004 2004 7008 6001 4002 1004 9005 800
Share dividends received (NOK)25 8001 7005 80015 4009 5003 20011 10060 90031 70023 70055 50057 6004 20014 30016 00024 800
Realised capital gains (NOK)11 1001 6003 6007 1008 3002 8005 70021 10020 70010 40017 50019 3004 4005 7007 30010 000
Realised capital losses (NOK)3 4006001 8002 7002 5001 0003 3005 8005 1003 6004 9005 5001 0001 9002 7004 600
Other capital incomes (NOK)6 4001 0002 6004 2004 0002 4005 30011 2009 8006 90010 00012 2001 8003 2005 6008 800
 
Transfers received (NOK)218 70046 20067 800144 500319 80052 80070 500241 600610 000179 600125 200243 700201 700141 400209 300314 000
Taxable transfers (NOK)202 10034 60058 300137 600317 40034 70061 100237 800606 700138 20091 200232 700122 60085 300194 500282 300
Social security benefits (NOK)4136 50022 20038 90099 400246 30018 30032 400147 800458 50021 20049 300157 20069 80054 400143 200198 000
Old-age pensions (NOK)86 3000011 100243 1000042 100432 8003002 60061 10010080052 400107 400
Disability benefits (NOK)35 20011 10025 30072 9002 7005 90016 10085 80023 1007 60026 00069 3009 70025 40063 40061 600
Work assessment allowance (NOK)13 30011 10013 40013 20020012 30016 30019 3002 20012 30020 10026 40016 70019 40023 80024 200
Service pensions etc. (NOK)29 70020070014 20066 20020080035 500123 6001 3007 00029 5001 0005 00021 70032 200
Contractual pension (NOK)4 800005 0001 9000018 30016 40003006 70001002 3004 300
Contractual pension (AFP) in public sector (NOK)53 100003 5008000012 30010 90001004 000001 4002 700
Contractual pension (AFP) in private sector (NOK)1 700001 5001 100006 1005 50002002 700009001 600
Unemployment benefits (NOK)4 4002 4005 7004 0001003 5007 3005 9007008 1005 7006 8005 7004 0005 3008 000
Sickness benefits (NOK)616 0005 0009 90014 20040010 50017 50029 0003 80027 70026 00030 70016 70019 20019 90024 400
Other taxable transfers (NOK)710 7004 7003 2009002 5002 3003 0001 2003 80079 8002 9001 90029 3002 7002 10015 400
 
Tax-free transfers (NOK)16 70011 6009 5006 9002 50018 2009 4003 9003 30041 40034 00011 10079 10056 10014 80031 700
Familiy allowances (NOK)6 1001001 20040000500100021 40021 1001 00024 70023 8001 5009 500
Dwelling support (kr)1 1001 8001 7001 4007007007002001001 1005003008 5003 5001 0001 300
Scholarships (NOK)2 2003 8005000013 9004 60010003 3004 0004 3004 1003 8003 3008 000
Social assistance (NOK)2 7004 4004 5003 3002002 0002 1008001003 7002 2001 60016 9007 5003 9004 300
Basic and attendance benefits (NOK)1 4005006009009006006009001 2001 6003 3001 8001 5003 1001 7002 400
Cash for care (NOK)70003000000005 700004 200001 300
Other tax-free transfers (NOK)82 5001 0007009006001 0001 0001 7001 9004 6002 9002 10019 20014 4003 4004 900
 
Total income (NOK)832 700351 400472 800520 300369 500752 900962 7001 239 700821 2001 112 5001 392 5001 533 500453 900620 900805 2001 108 100
 
Total assessed taxed and negative transfers (NOK)213 10078 700121 900141 20065 900171 800251 700359 400169 000286 400398 700417 80080 100140 100193 000259 300
Assessed taxes (NOK)208 20076 900117 900137 10065 700167 500245 000351 700167 900278 600389 200408 50077 100135 200187 700252 800
Negative transfers (NOK)94 9001 8004 0004 2002004 3006 7007 7001 0007 8009 5009 2002 9004 9005 3006 400
 
After-tax income (NOK)619 600272 700351 000379 000303 600581 100711 000880 300652 300826 100993 8001 115 700373 900480 800612 200848 800
 
Number of households2 398 247164 310203 714309 370275 13050 12065 063213 656246 170227 970258 783118 99225 78084 60863 00591 576

Table 2 
Property account for households

Property account for households12
20182017 - 2018
Average for households with different property holdings (NOK)Share of households with different property holdings (per cent)NOK millionPercentage change (NOK million)
1Students not included.
2All wealth items are based on market value or assumed sales value before any tax valuation discount.
3From 2017 it is possible to own listed shares and mutual fund holdings through a share savings account.
Estimated real capital3 689 10081.87 240 0662.6
Estimated market value primary dwelling3 666 60069.26 089 1702.3
Estimated market value secondary dwelling2 819 90010.5709 3447.1
Gross financial capital1 316 40099.23 130 8537.2
Bank deposits507 60099.11 206 9004.6
Shares and other securities2 876 90019.91 371 8458.1
Share savings account3409 00013.0127 79649.2
Units of mutual funds184 90028.4125 756-18.0
Foreign taxable wealth excl. real properties415 6003.736 534-15.3
Estimated gross wealth4 357 60099.210 370 9194.0
Debt1 726 50085.63 545 5395.6
Study debt241 30025.4146 7306.0
Estimated net wealth2 857 80099.66 825 3793.1
Positive net wealth3 663 00080.97 109 7263.4
Negative net wealth-635 50018.7-284 34710.9
Property taxes42 80014.715 1411.4

Table 3 
Percentage share of total estimated net wealth, average net wealth and lowest value in decile for households, by deciles

Percentage share of total estimated net wealth, average net wealth and lowest value in decile for households, by deciles1
2018
Share of total net wealth (per cent)Average estimated net wealth (NOK)Lowest value in decile (NOK)
1Students not included
Total100.02 846 000..
Decile 1-3.9-1 099 300..
Decile 2-0.3-86 200-253 400
Decile 30.373 5001 900
Decile 41.7486 800215 200
Decile 53.91 105 400786 000
Decile 66.31 781 7001 432 500
Decile 79.02 550 3002 144 600
Decile 812.43 524 9002 987 200
Decile 917.85 065 1004 141 100
Decile 1052.915 057 7006 297 200
Top 5 per cent39.822 668 7009 029 900
Top 1 per cent22.363 411 60020 617 500
Top 0,1 per cent10.9309 711 20097 192 100

Table 4 
Measures of income dispersion. Household equivalent income (EU-scale) between persons

Measures of income dispersion. Household equivalent income (EU-scale) between persons1
Total populationTotal population excluding persons in student households
Gini coefficientStandard error of the Gini coefficientP90/P102S80/S203Gini coefficientStandard error of the Gini coefficientP90/P102S80/S203
1Negative amounts have been set to zero.
2Percentile ratio of the 9th and the 1st decile cut-offs.
3The ratio of the share of income held by the top 20 per cent of the distribution and the bottom 20 per cent of the distribution.
19950.2360.0032.73.40.2310.0032.63.2
19960.2450.0042.73.50.2400.0042.63.4
19970.2490.0042.73.50.2430.0042.63.4
19980.2380.0032.73.40.2330.0032.63.2
19990.2420.0042.73.40.2360.0042.63.3
20000.2620.0042.73.70.2570.0042.63.6
20010.2290.0022.63.20.2230.0022.53.1
20020.2640.0042.73.80.2580.0042.63.6
20030.2740.0032.83.90.2670.0032.73.7
20040.283..2.74.10.276..2.63.8
20050.327..2.84.80.319..2.74.5
20060.243..2.83.50.235..2.63.3
20070.252..2.83.70.244..2.73.5
20080.248..2.83.60.240..2.73.4
20090.241..2.83.50.231..2.63.3
20100.245..2.83.60.236..2.63.3
20110.247..2.83.60.237..2.73.4
20120.249..2.93.70.239..2.73.4
20130.250..2.93.70.241..2.73.4
20140.256..2.93.80.247..2.83.5
20150.271..3.04.00.263..2.83.8
20160.261..3.03.90.252..2.83.6
20170.261..3.03.90.252..2.83.6
20180.260..3.03.90.251..2.83.6

Table 5 
Registered incomes for residents. Number of persons with amount. Amount in NOK million.

Registered incomes for residents. Number of persons with amount. Amount in NOK million.
20172018
Number of persons with amountNOK millionNumber of persons with amountNOK million
1For recipients of new transitional benefits for single mothers/fathers from April 2014, the benefits will be taxed as wage. From the income year 2015, the benefits are included in Social security benefits.
2Includes recipients of the former private contractual pension scheme (AFP).
3Sickness benfits from the National Insurance Scheme. Holiday payments from sickness benefits are included.
4Other taxable transfers include benefits such as parental benefit, annuity, introduction benefits for newly arrived refugees and qualification benefits (from 2008).
5Other tax-free transfers benefits such as childcare benefit to single parents, lump sum maternity grants, compensation for work injury, education benefit to single parents and received child support managed by public arrangement. Various benefits received by people attending job creating programs are included from 2009. From 2014, extra compensation for recipients of contractual pension (AFP) is included.
6Negative transfers include paid child support managed by public arrangement, paid annuity and mandatory contribution to private pension plan
INCOME FROM WORK3 126 5551 313 138.63 153 0201 374 080.3
Wages and salaries3 017 5631 234 801.93 046 4331 295 838.2
Net income from self-employment323 38578 336.6317 20178 242.1
 
PROPERTY INCOME4 133 572107 759.44 173 837109 579.5
Interest received4 121 46612 080.84 160 31212 938.9
Share dividends received536 00258 329.9518 21762 414.8
Realised capital gains284 27830 847.3243 70626 980.2
Realised capital losses125 9759 364.1132 7658 337.4
Other capital incomes1 494 53115 865.41 540 58215 583.0
 
TRANSFERS RECEIVED3 089 816522 141.73 087 762537 172.5
TAXABLE TRANSFERS2 227 616478 352.32 222 714492 607.2
Social security benefits11 378 607321 232.21 394 923333 933.6
Old-age pensions869 889202 548.5889 333212 125.1
Disability benefits336 44280 688.3348 97785 694.0
Work Assessment Allowance189 54333 713.4180 70532 051.1
Service pensions etc844 86269 036.4864 06472 377.7
Contractual pension (AFP)101 14310 403.2111 92011 447.4
Contractual pension (AFP) in public sector234 5716 950.836 1827 482.0
Contractual pension (AFP) in private sector66 5853 452.475 7473 965.4
Unemployment benefits147 38213 577.8121 89910 689.4
Sickness benefits3703 66538 216.8699 93438 481.3
Other taxable transfers4265 94925 885.9258 80125 677.7
 
TAX-FREE TRANSFERS1 540 73243 789.41 535 81144 565.4
Familiy allowances709 58714 769.3705 35914 627.0
Dwelling support139 6822 793.4127 9412 684.6
Scholarships391 9968 449.4394 3789 025.4
Social assistance129 9956 451.3130 7716 866.5
Basic and attendance benefits166 9283 470.5166 5873 450.7
Cash for care45 2221 573.141 8571 624.5
Other tax-free transfers5270 0576 282.4269 8486 286.8
 
TOTAL INCOME4 382 9701 943 039.74 419 0712 020 832.3
 
Assessed taxes and negative transfers3 796 584492 319.33 830 398513 547.6
Assessed taxes3 762 141480 946.03 794 808501 738.3
Negative transfers61 228 16011 373.31 248 18911 809.3
 
AFTER-TAX INCOME4 383 2051 450 720.44 419 3071 507 284.7
 
NUMBER OF RESIDENTS5 295 619..5 328 212..

About the statistics

Income and wealth statistics for households provide figures for the level, composition, development and distribution of income. The survey comprises all monetary income, both taxable and tax-exempt, as well as wealth and debt. The statistics present the general developments of income and wealth as well as its distribution between household types and groups.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Total income is the sum of wages and salaries, property income and transfers.

After-tax income is calulated as the sum of wages and salaries, income from self-employment, property income and transfers received minus total assessed taxes and negative transfers.

Income from work is the sum of employee income and net income from self-employment during the calendar year.

Property income is the sum of interest received, share dividends received, realised capital gains (or losses) and other income received during the calendar year.

Taxable transfers is the sum of pensions and benefits from the social security scheme, service pension, unemployment benefits and some minor taxable benefits.

Tax-free transfers consist of child allowance, dwelling support, student grants, social assistance, basic and attendance benefit and more.

After-tax income per consumption unit (equivalent income) is the household after-tax income "corrected" for differences in household size and household composition. When comparing the level of income and living standards for households of varying size, income is often adjusted with the help of equivalence scales or consumption units. An equivalence scale, for instance, provides an indication of how much income a household of four must have in order to achieve the same standard of living as a single person.

EU-equivalence scale: This is the ‘OECD-modified equivalence scale’ which assigns a value of 1 to the household head, of 0.5 to each additional adult member and of 0.3 to each child under the age of 17.

Median income is the exact income amount that splits a distribution in two equally sized groups, when income is sorted ascending (or descending). The number of persons with income over the median income will be the same as the number of persons with income under the median income.

Low-income threshold. Defined as an equivalent income lower than different percentages of the median income, e.g. 50, 60 or 70 per cent of median income for all persons.

Low-income group. Persons with yearly equivalent income lower than the low-income threshold.

A household is regarded as all persons who live permanently in the same dwelling and having common housekeeping. The statistics include only persons in private households.

The main income earner is the person in the household who has the highest gross income of the income earners in the household. In those cases where there is no income earner in the household, the oldest person is the main income earner.

Person with economic activity
A person that has income from employment or self-employment that is greater than twice the basic amount of the National insurance scheme (so-called "G", or "grunnbeløpet"). For the income year 2010 and earlier, persons with income from employment or self-employment greater than the minimum pension for single people were regarded as economically active.

Single parents
Persons in the household type "mother/father with children aged 0-17 years".

Couples with children aged 0-17 years in the lowest income class
Couples with children aged 0-17 years where the equivalent after-tax income (EU-scale) is in the lowest decile.

Children under 18 years of age
People in households with children less than 18 years of age.

Old-age pensioners
People in households where the main income earner, according to the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation (previously the National Insurance Service), receives old age pension from the social security system.

Disability pensioners
People in households where the main income earner, according to the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation, receives disability pension from the social security system.

Pensioners within the Voluntary Early Retirement Scheme :
People in households where the main income earner, according to the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation, has used the opportunity for early retirement

Receivers of survivor's benefits
People in households where the main income earner, according to the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation, receives survivor's benefit (after deceased spouse) from the social security system.

Single pensioner, receiver of the minimum state pension
People living alone according to Statistics Norway's Income Statistics for Households and recipient of special allowance from the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation

Longstanding illness
People in households where the main income earner is registered with longstanding illness. Included are people in receipt of rehabilitation allowances, persons incapable of full employment but partaking in labour market schemes, and others. Up until 2005, persons who were incapable of full employment but who were taking part in programmes initiated by the National Insurance Scheme (e.g. school and work placements), and persons who were receiving vocational rehabilitation allowances, were not included in the statistics.

Long-term unemployed
People in households where the main income earner has been registered as unemployed for 6 consecutive months or more during the year.

Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents
People in households where the main income earner is born abroad by two foreign-born parents (first-generation immigrant) or born in Norway by two foreign-born parents.

Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents from non-western countries
People in households where the main income earner is an immigrant from Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, Central and South America or Turkey.

Refugees
People in households where the main income earner is a person with refugee background.

People on social assistance
People in households where the main income earner has received social assistance during the year.

Single people under 35 years of age
Single people according to Statistics Norway's Income Statistics for Households. Single students are excluded. The definition of student is a person without any economic activity and without social security benefits, but who does receive a student loan.

The senior population
People in households where the main income earner is in the age group 50 - 66 years.

Standard classifications

Types of household are in conformance with standard classifications. 

Socio-economic standard

A person with economic actitvity has income from employment or self-employment that is greater than twice the basic amount of the National insurance scheme (so-called "G", or "grunnbeløpet"). For the income year 2010 and earlier, persons with income from employment or self-employment greater than the minimum pension for single people were regarded as economically active.

The economically active population is divided into self-employed and employees. If income from self-employment is greater than income from employment, the person is classified as self-employed, and vice versa.

We have the following socio-economic groups:

Working

Self-employed

Self-employed in agriculture, forestry and fishing

Self-employed in other industries.

Employee

Non-working

Pensioners and National Insurance recipients

Other non-working

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Income and wealth statistics for households
Topic: Income and consumption

Responsible division

Division for Income and social welfare statistics

Regional level

National level, counties and municipalities.

Frequency and timeliness

Annually. During last quarter one year after the current income year.

International reporting

Income data is used in Eurostat's structural indicators on low income and income distribution. Micro data for selected years are also included in the database Luxembourg Income Study (LIS). Income data is also included in the Nordic publication "Social security in the Nordic countries" by the Nordic social committee, and in reports published by the OECD.

Microdata

A full survey of Statistics Norway's income statistics is available under subject 05.01 at Statistics Norway's website.

Data files with individual income data that have gone through the linkage and statistics files are stored.

Background

Background and purpose

The purpose of the statistics is to present income measurements as living standard indicators and data that measure the economic resources households have for saving and consumption. Additionally, the statistics presents general income trends and income distribution among different types of households.

The Income Distribution Survey was conducted annually from 1986 to 2004 based on a representative sample survey. Information on the household composition was collected from various Living Condition Surveys and Household Budget Surveys. Up until 1992, the income data was obtained in the form of paper forms from the local tax offices. In addition, tax-free transfers were obtained electronically from other government agencies. Beginning with the survey for the 1993 income year, it was possible to obtain all income data from the personal tax return in electronic form. From 2005 we have also established household composition by using registers. This means that we are now able to produce a totally register-based household income statistics.

Users and applications

The main users are the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Labour and Social Inclusion, Ministry of Children and Equality, Directorate for Health and Social Affairs, and research institutes in the areas of household economics, tax research and living conditions in general.

The tax model LOTTE is updated annually with data from the Income and Property Survey for households.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given inthe Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.

Coherence with other statistics

Data from the Tax Return is the basis for all of Statistics Norway's statistics on income for persons. The tax return statistics include data on types of taxable income, and is obtained for all persons residing in the country. The statistics was first available for the year 1993.

Legal authority

Statistics Act §§ 2-1 and 3-2.

EEA reference

None

Production

Population

All persons residing in Norway and resident in private households as of 31st December of the current income year.

The totally register-based income statistics as of 2004 is a total census. Households are derived at after performing certain adjustments to the formal households (formal adress according to the Central Population Register). These adjustments include omitting people living in institutions and removing students, that no longer reside with their parents, into single person households. Surveys suggest that less than 10 per cent of the students in Norway actually live at home. In addition, other administrative sources are used to identify more cohabitating couples that belong to the same household.

Data sources and sampling

Income data are received by linking different administrative registers and statistical data sources for the whole population as of 31st of December of the income year. Income and biographical data are collected from the following sources:

Data from tax returns (wages and salaries, entrepreneurial income, pensions etc.)

The Tax Register (taxes)

End of the Year Certificate Register (unemployment benefit, various tax-free transfers)

Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation (family allowances, basic and additional amounts, cash benefit etc.)

Ministry of Labour and Social Inclusion (social assistance)

State Educational Loan Fund (loans to students, scholarships)

State Housing Bank (dwelling support)

Education statistics from Statistics Norway (highest level of completed education etc.)

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Data are collected from various administrative registers. 

Consistency controls are undertaken by comparing information from different sources.

The population of the Income Distribution Survey (1986-2004) was weighted by the use of a calibration program. This method of estimation permits the population to show the same aggregates familiar from the register statistics (for the population) for selected variables. This applies to the different personal incomes and net wealth.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant

Confidentiality

The use of collected data will be in accordance with the standards of the Statistics Act. The information are kept in a responsible way.

Comparability over time and space

The Income Distribution Survey has gone through several significant changes up through the years. This is due in part to changes in the analysis unit (1982) and in part to changes in the income concept as a result of changes in the tax system and access to new income components from registers.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

Data from the Tax Returns may contain errors made by the individual taxpayer that fills out the form. A number of the errors are discovered and corrected by the Tax Offices. Errors that do not have any practical significance for the Tax Return are often not corrected by the Tax Offices, causing discrepancies in the material. In particular, small amounts under the tax-free limit are frequently left uncorrected even though they are not filled out properly.

Some data collection and processing errors are unavoidable. These include coding errors, revision errors, data processing errors, etc. Comprehensive efforts have been made to minimize these errors, and we regard these types of errors to be relatively insignificant.

From and including the income year 2005, this statistics is a total census and will not be affected by variance and bias. For previous years with survey based statistics the following is of relevance:

All sample surveys are subject to a certain amount of uncertainty. In general; the fewer observations the more uncertain the results. Results based on less than 20 observations are therefore not published.

Groups based on relatively few observations will be very strongly influenced by extreme observations, i.e. observations that deviate greatly from the average. In this statistics, extreme observations in most cases are included, but an attempt has been made to reduce the effect of such observations by adjustments (reduction) of the household weights.

Bias can occur when the distribution between certain groups in the population is not the same as the corresponding distribution in the total population. Sample bias of this type can occur through non-response. Most of the data for the Income Distribution Survey was obtained from administrative registers. Non-response is not a problem for this part of the material. The household composition was based on interviews, where there will always be non-response. Non-response is adjusted by replacing household data with data on family composition from registers.

Revision

Not relevant