Statistical analyses 155
Immigrants in Norway 2017
The publication entitled Immigrants in Norway 2017 gives an overarching description of immigrants and their Norwegian-born children in Norway. It is a continuation of similar publications: (Henriksen, Østby and Ellingsen 2010), (Daugstad 2008 and 2006), (Tronstad 2004), (Lie 2002), (Bjertnæs 2000) and (Vassenden 1997). When we write about immigrants and Norwegian-born children with immigrant parents, it is important to remember that these make up one of the most heterogeneous and complex groups in the population. At the beginning of 2017, the population of Norway included people with a background from a total of 221 countries and autonomous regions.
The publication contains two demographic articles: one describes immigrants and their Norwegian-born children, the composition of the group, marital patterns and fertility, and the other looks at different reasons for immigration. Participation in the education system helps pave the way for employment and income, and this is an important goal of integration. The article on education examines immigrants’ and Norwegian-born children with immigrant parents’ path through the education system, from kindergarten to higher education.
The Introduction programme for newly arrived immigrants is the most extensive integration policy instrument that Norway has ever seen. Refugees who have been granted residence take part in studies and training that equip them to participate in the Norwegian labour market. The article on the introduction programme examines who takes part, the cost of the programme and the education and employment status of participants one to five years after the programme. Together with the education system, the labour market is probably the most important arena for immigrant integration. The article about work describes disparities in the employ¬ment level by country background and length of residence. We examine who works full time and part time, what occupations and industries they work in, and who does not participate in the labour market.
Immigrants generally have lower incomes than the rest of the population. However, there are major disparities among immigrants, and income levels vary according to reason for immigration, country background and length of residence. The article on income and wages describes the reasons why some immigrant groups have low income and wage levels. Having a low income means that the immigrants have a lower than average material standard of living than the rest of the population. Two of the articles describe the composition of immigrant households by type and size, and immigrants’ living conditions.
Voter participation is an important component in the integration of immigrants into the political processes and institutions that are part of our democracy, and is itself an indicator of integration. Political participation can involve anything from participating in elections and various demonstrations to signing up to political organisations or other interest groups. In the article about elections, we examine these and other forms of political participation.
The article on crime provides an overview of available knowledge on crime among immigrants in Norway. We examine registered criminals, and are interested in the disparities between immigrants, Norwegian-born children with immigrant parents and the general population, as well as variations by country of origin and basis for residence.
The final article summarises some findings from the Living Conditions Survey among persons with an immigrant background in 2016.