Establishments, enterprises and accounts;Energy and manufacturing
utfono, Foreign subsidiaries in Norway, value added, country of ownership, enterprise by industry, FATS (Foreign Afiliates Statistics), globalisationManufacturing, mining and quarrying , Establishments and enterprises , Oil and gas , Establishments, enterprises and accounts, Energy and manufacturing

Foreign subsidiaries in Norway


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Key figures

3 506

Norwegian companies are owned from other Nordic countries

Enterprises under foreign control. The most important owners
EnterprisesPersons employedTurnover [mill. NOK]
Enterprises under foreign control, in all7 249336 9161 326 602
Sweden2 20083 213227 450
Denmark96432 12791 967
United Kingdom69837 497145 422
United States58256 013280 726
Germany33420 13775 404
Netherlands24912 06079 652
France22018 14781 732
Finland28313 30757 396
Switzerland19915 81365 797
In per cent
United Kingdom9.611.111.0
United States8.016.621.2

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Table 1 
Enterprises under foreign control, , , by country of ultimate owner. 2015

Enterprises under foreign control, , , by country of ultimate owner. 2015123
 Number of enterprisesNumber of persons employedNOK million
 Personell costsTurnoverProduction valueValue added at factor costTotal purchases of goods and servicesPurchases of goods purchased for resale in the same condition as receivedGross investment4
1Subsidiary enterprises under direct or indirect control by foreign enterprises.
2Section K Financial intermediation are not included.
3The enterprise in the ownership chain which is not controlled by another enterprise.
4Aquistion of tangible assets (ev fixed).
Corrected 7 July 2017.
Total7 249336 916234 0871 326 6021 044 555429 402875 655291 25495 941
EU5 788237 596152 887835 887665 965290 197538 302177 62467 903
Nordic contries3 506129 62773 522379 577280 278101 958263 47599 29415 977
Europe6 173261 255167 796916 095734 223310 123598 475189 63669 603
America73461 24453 820330 133257 823102 332213 29073 36725 091
Asia28113 02711 39775 48448 15815 07460 95027 792992
Oceania and Polar regions251 302:::::::
United States58256 01348 956280 726230 78194 767180 51751 09823 717
Sweden2 20083 21346 396227 450173 74264 327159 78053 77013 541
Great Britain and N-Ireland69837 49727 394145 422128 32856 80585 79717 1276 345
China302 6072 47218 55714 3074 48514 2884 294386
Japan733 4992 47924 45310 7273 58921 19914 096225

Table 2 
Enterprises under foreign control compared with all enterprises within the whole business economy 2010-2015

Enterprises under foreign control compared with all enterprises within the whole business economy 2010-201512
 Number of enterprisesNumber of persons employedNOK million
 Personnel costsTurnoverProduction valueValue added at factor costTotal purchases of goods and servicesPurchases of goods purchased for resale in the same condition as receivedGross investment,34
1Subsidiary enterprises under direct or indirect control by foreign enterprises.
2Section K Financial intermediation is not included.
3Aquistion of tangible assets.
4Sections D Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply and E Water supply, sewerage, waste management and remidiation activities are included in the statistics from 2008. Investment prior to 2012 for the oil and gas industry ara to low due to incomplete informatioen. This change in method creates a break in the time series.
Enterprises under foreign control         
20106 114289 443158 3101 123 048829 257364 083736 426292 41822 788
20116 034299 924175 6321 200 557917 725406 793780 506255 41230 376
20126 251305 982186 7971 312 8841 010 447461 427832 641281 700139 010
20136 400310 816199 7341 387 5761 071 437450 750911 178303 252117 300
20146 965337 639223 6341 491 5061 158 748466 833991 743328 536115 473
20157 249336 916234 0871 326 6021 044 555429 402875 655291 25495 941
All enterprises in the whole business economy         
2010266 7651 444 976651 4594 503 5253 513 3661 450 9883 046 589999 537244 985
2011271 0181 477 622697 9004 913 6333 897 8541 610 7153 300 9811 001 026260 874
2012277 6381 508 378743 6895 163 3494 113 0561 723 1203 434 4491 035 937382 118
2013280 8061 537 811801 2435 233 3534 168 8301 731 2793 498 5931 057 690359 677
2014285 0121 566 399825 5615 361 4894 249 5151 716 9803 631 6431 114 851367 145
2015292 1191 608 589848 8784 888 6923 723 8211 717 4723 197 6671 157 720371 762
     Per cent    
Enterprises under foreign control in per cent of all enterprises within the whole business economy         

About the statistics

The statistics provide an overview of foreign-controlled enterprises’ activity in Norway, and their effect on the economy, with a particular focus on employment and value added.


Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Number of enterprises
In the Standard Industrial Classification (SN), an enterprise is the smallest combination of legal entities that produce goods or services, and which to a certain extent have independent decision-making powers.
Number of employees
The number of employees is defined as the sum of owners and paid employees working in the enterprise. Persons with more than one position may be counted as employed in more than one business. Figures on number of employees in the structure statistics show an average number of employees for the year.
Salary and personnel costs
Salary costs include wages, holiday pay, fees etc., employer's National Insurance contributions, reportable pension costs and other personnel costs. Salary costs do not include remuneration to owners of sole proprietorships or general partnerships, or to family members with no fixed salary.
Turnover is defined as the enterprise's operating revenues minus public subsidies, special public duties in relation to sales and profit from the sale of fixed assets. Taxes and duties are included, but VAT is not.
Production value
Production value is defined as turnover adjusted for changes in the stock of finished goods, work in progress and goods and services bought for onward sale. The purchase of merchandise is deducted, while capitalised investments by the company are added.
Production value for the main industry sector C Oil and gas exploration
Due to poor data quality purchases of goods purschased for resale are not included.
Value added (factor prices)
Value added is defined as the sum of the output value minus the purchase of goods and services (for goods and services other than those bought directly for onward sale) and adjusted for changes in the stock of raw materials and consumables. Special public subsidies for manufactured/sold goods and other public subsidies//reimbursements are included.
Total purchase of goods and services
The total purchase of goods and services includes the value of all goods and services that are purchased during the course of the year for onward sale, for use in the enterprise's own production process or for storage. The procurement of tangible fixed assets is not included in these figures.
Purchase of merchandise
The purchase of merchandise includes the value of all goods that are purchased by the enterprise for onward sale without any further processing.
Gross investments
Gross investments include procurements of fixed capital, such as buildings and plants (excluding housing), machines, tools, instruments, fixtures and fittings and transport (excluding private use), both new and used. Sums spent on improvements/extensions to these are also added. Gross investments are quoted exclusive of incoming VAT.

Standard classifications

Norwegian Standard Industrial Classification (SIC2007), which is based on the industrial classifications approved by the EU (NACE Rev.2 ) and the UN (ISIC Rev.4).

Enterprises that operate businesses in a number of industries, are in principle classified according to the business that contributes most to the company's total added value. The country codes are in accordance with the ISO standard for country codes, ISO 3166.

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Foreign subsidiaries in Norway
Topic: Establishments, enterprises and accounts

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Responsible division

Division for business dynamics statistics

Regional level

National level. Abroad is divided into countries and country groups.

Frequency and timeliness

Yearly. The statistics are released within 20 months after the reference year, starting with the statistics for the year 2007.

International reporting

Reporting to Eurostat and the OECD


Raw data and revised microdata are stored in accordance with Statistics Norway's standard for archiving files (DataDok).


Background and purpose

The purpose is to provide a complete overview of foreign-controlled enterprises' economic activity in Norway, and their effect on the Norwegian economy, particularly in relation to employment and added value.

The statistics are internationally known as Foreign Affiliates Statistics. A simplified name is inward FATS..

Users and applications

Figures on foreign-controlled enterprises' activity in Norway are used to measure the extent of globalisation, international trade negotiations and economic research, amongst other things. Users are authorities, industry, embassies, education and research institutes etc. Data is also reported to Eurostat (the Statistical Office of the European Communities) and the OECD, in line with the obligations stipulated in the EEA agreement and other international agreements.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 10 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.

Coherence with other statistics

The figures for the individual industries included in the FATS statistics are based on Statistics Norway's enterprise-based structure statistics for these industries. The structure statistics provide detailed information on the activity in different industries. The direct link to the structure statistics makes it possible to make industry comparisons between nationally-controlled and foreign-controlled enterprises. For more information about the different industries see structure statistics

For some industries Statistics Norway releases statistics that differs from the ordinary structural business statistics. This applies to “Mining and quarrying” (NACE 06) and “Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply” (NACE 35). The performance of these industries will thus be slightly different from the results recorded in the Inward FATS statistics. The annual statistics for the extraction of crude oil and natural gas uses field/concession as observation unit, while the annual statistics for electricity includes all electricity plants that have a license for electricity generation, transmission and distribution of electricity or trade of electricity. The annual statistics for district heating is based on data collected by questionnaire and includes all district-heating plants. The inward FATS statistics only includes investments in material assets. Exploration and concept studies are thus excluded since these are intellectual property assets. 

With regard to foreign ownership, the statistics on foreign direct investments in Norway (inward FDI) are related to the FATS statistics. The statistics on inward FDI stocks describe the liabilities abroad in the form of foreign-owned share capital and other capital linked to direct investments. However, these statistics say little about how foreign ownership interests in Norway affect other aspects of the Norwegian economy. The FATS statistics are extremely helpful in being able to describe this effect, and are a natural continuation of Statistics Norway'' existing statistics on the globalisation field.

Statistics on Norwegian enterprises abroad (outward FATS) http://www.ssb.no/ufats/ shows equivalent relations where norwegians controll enterprises outside Norway.The statistics follow the same international requirements as inward FATS

Legal authority

The statistics are based on the re-use of various primary statistics and the associated authority, which is § 2-2 and § 3-2 of the Statistics Act. 2-2 and § 3-2 of the Statistics Act.

EEA reference

Regulation (EC) no. 716/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2007 on Community statistics on the structure and activity of foreign affiliates (the FATS regulation)

The statistics are prepared in line with recommendations by Eurostat, stipulated in "Recommendations manual on the production of Foreign Affiliates Statistics"



The statistics cover foreign-controlled enterprises in Norway, i.e. subsidiaries that are controlled either directly or indirectly by an enterprise abroad. See section 4.1 for a closer definition of "foreign-controlled". Only active enterprises are included in the population. Figures are also presented for the industry as a whole as a reference for the statistics on the foreign-controlled enterprises.

The statistics cover enterprises within the main industry sectors; oil and gas exploration and mining and quarrying, manufacturing, Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply, water supply, sewerage, waste management and remidiation,construction, wholesale an retail trade, transporttation and storage, accomdation and food service activities, information and communication, real estate activities, professional, scientific and tecnical activities and administrative and support services activities.

Enterprises within financial services and insurance are not included in the population. Neither are agriculture and forestry, fishing, public administration, education, health and social work and other community, social and personal service activities.

Data sources and sampling

In order to define which companies are controlled from abroad, we use the Directorate of Taxes' register of shareholders. The press and Internet etc. are also used to map new foreign-controlled enterprises in Norway, and to map the ultimate country of ownership (the country in which the enterprise in the ownership chain that is not controlled by another enterprise is located).

The FATS statistics include a full count of active foreign-controlled enterprises.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

There is no separate data collection for statistics on foreign-controlled enterprises' activity in Norway, cf. 3.2. These statistics are based on Statistic's Norway's structure statistics, which in turn use data from administrative registers such as the Directorate of Taxes' standard industrial form, the register of company accounts at Brønnøysund, the census of entrepreneurs liable to value added tax (the VAT register) and the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation's register of employers and employees. Additional information is also collected for the structure statistics from separate forms completed by a sample of enterprises.

Controls and alignments are carried out in the structure statistics of the data that emanates from tax questionnaires and supplementary forms for the enterprises included in the sample. Industry classification, number of employees, turnover, salary expenses, other operating costs, operating result, investments and costs of goods are all particularly critical controls.

The revision of the data material is carried out according to comparisons with figures for the previous year, the central register of establishments and enterprises, the register of company accounts at Brønnøysund, other available sources and in consultation with the customer where necessary.

With regard to the foreign-controlled enterprises, ownership is checked by reviewing the data from the register of shareholders, and with information from accounts and the companies' websites etc. on the enterprises' ultimate country of ownership.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant


Figures are not published where a cell in the table consists of less than three units, as this may enable the identification of a respondent, i.e. where figures can be traced to a respondent. This also applies to cells with more than three units where one or two respondents dominate the figures.

Comparability over time and space

Definitions of some identifiers, e.g. number of employees, have changed during the period to which the figures relate. Attempts have been made to take this into consideration in order to make the figures as comparable as possible over time.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

The quality of the statistics depends on the sources and the data.




Not relevant