Women in the minority
Establishments, enterprises and accounts;Immigration and immigrants
styre, Board and management in limited companies, board members, directorship, general managers, chairman of the board, limited companyEstablishments, enterprises and accounts, Ownership and roles , Immigration and immigrants, Establishments, enterprises and accounts
The statistics gives an overview of board representatives and general managers in private and public limited companies categorized by sex, country background, age and level of education.

Board and management in limited companies


Next update

Key figures

18.4 %

of board representatives in private limited companies are women

Board representatives and general managers in limited companies
20172016 - 2017
NumberShareRelative change
Board representatives in private limited companies
Total569 487100.04.0
Men464 62481.63.7
Women104 86318.45.5
Board representatives in public limited companies
Total1 231100.0-3.6
General managers in private limited companies
Total226 411100,03.2
Men189 73783.82.9
Women36 67416.24.7
General managers in public limited companies

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
Board representatives, by sex, age groups, level of education, size groups and economic activity

Board representatives, by sex, age groups, level of education, size groups and economic activity
Private limited companiesPublic limited companies
TotalPercentage menPercentage womenTotalPercentage menPercentage women
Total569 48781.618.41 23157.942.1
Age groups
Total569 487100,0100,01 231100,0100,0
16-24 years3 5410.60.900.00.0
25-44 years155 88926.133.017112.116.4
45-66 years341 67560.657.393573.179.9
67 years or older68 38212.78.812514.93.7
Level of education
Total569 487100,0100,01 231100,0100,0
Primary and lower secondary education55 3139.89.4293.41.0
Upper secondary education227 03841.134.316615.810.2
Tertiary education, undergraduate level168 86428.236.045536.238.0
Tertiary education, graduate level90 00915.716.337427.534.4
Other28 2635.24.020717.116.4
Size groups
Total569 48781.618.41 23157.942.1
No employees328 89583.116.932359.440.6
1-4 employees107 37877.822.214557.942.1
5-9 employees51 93578.921.113857.242.8
10-19 employees38 06881.818.211756.443.6
20-49 employees25 80482.917.119557.442.6
50-99 employees8 47182.117.911460.539.5
100-249 employees5 48282.018.08653.546.5
250 or more employees3 45478.221.811357.542.5
Industrial activity
Total569 48781.618.41 23157.942.1
Agriculture, forestry and fishing8 45886.413.63259.440.6
Mining and quarrying3 27885.514.58557.642.4
Manufacturing30 57485.314.723860.139.9
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply4 97583.116.92860.739.3
Water supply2 08584.415.6757.142.9
Construction76 34890.49.62763.037.0
Wholesale and retail trade83 02278.921.17156.343.7
Transportation and storage20 85886.713.311957.142.9
Accommodation and food service activities17 64274.925.10..
Information and communication28 26486.113.911158.641.4
Financial and insurance activities24 38480.119.926456.143.9
Real estate activities129 81882.817.24156.143.9
Professional, scientific and technical activities61 41579.420.617257.642.4
Administrative and support service activities24 23781.318.73158.141.9
Public administration and defence3473.526.50..
Education7 07569.930.10..
Human health and social work activities16 53860.339.70..
Arts, entertainment and recreation10 44876.423.60..
Other service activities7 37247.053.00..
Activities of household as employers837.562.50..
Activities of extraterritorial organisations and bodies650.050.00..
Unknown industry12 64883.516.5560.040.0

Table 2 
General managers, by sex, age groups, level of education, size groups and economic activity

General managers, by sex, age groups, level of education, size groups and economic activity
Private limited companiesPrivate limited companies
TotalPercentage menPercentage womenTotalPercentage menPercentage women
Total226 41183.816.221393.07.0
Age groups
Total226 411100,0100,0213100,0100,0
16-24 years1 1820.50.700.00.0
25-44 years65 02327.435.52812.620.0
45-66 years138 28961.658.217985.466.7
67 years or older21 91710.55.762.013.3
Level of education
Total226 411100,0100,0213100,0100,0
Primary and lower secondary education26 49411.811.142.00.0
Upper secondary education100 32045.637.53013.620.0
Tertiary education, undergraduate level61 89626.034.08840.946.7
Tertiary education, graduate level29 73112.914.27234.820.0
Other education7 9703.63.2198.613.3
Size groups
Total226 41183.816.221393.07.0
No employees124 00786.913.16791.09.0
1-4 employees54 32879.420.62986.213.8
5-9 employees21 87777.722.32495.84.2
10-19 employees14 17782.417.62095.05.0
20-49 employees8 08083.616.43196.83.2
50-99 employees2 11386.413.61788.211.8
100-249 employees1 22387.712.311100.00.0
250 or more employees60685.614.414100.00.0
Industrial activity
Total226 41183.816.221393.07.0
Agriculture, forestry and fishing3 35291.18.95100.00.0
Mining and quarrying97091.98.11794.15.9
Manufacturing11 01388.711.33491.28.8
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply1 11192.37.75100.00.0
Water supply63493.86.21100.00.0
Construction32 98395.74.34100.00.0
Wholesale and retail trade37 10177.822.21291.78.3
Transportation and storage7 90593.26.82391.38.7
Accommodation and food service activities8 13470.030.00..
Information and communication10 80789.810.217100.00.0
Financial and insurance activities9 56786.313.74991.88.2
Real estate activities43 00988.511.58100.00.0
Professional, scientific and technical activities27 93581.818.23190.39.7
Administrative and support service activities10 02782.517.5683.316.7
Public administration and defence14100.00.00..
Education3 03667.332.70..
Human health and social work activities7 44757.342.70..
Arts, entertainment and recreation3 42174.026.00..
Other service activities3 86134.465.60..
Activities of household as employers30.0100.00..
Activities of extraterritorial organisations and bodies10.0100.00..
Unknown industry4 08087.412.61100.00.0

Table 3 
Board representatives and general managers in private and public limited companies, by sex and county

Board representatives and general managers in private and public limited companies, by sex and county
Board representativesGeneral managers
Private limited companiesPublic limited companiesPrivate limited companiesPublic limited companies
TotalPercentage menPercentage womenTotalPercentage menPercentage womenTotalPercentage menPercentage womenTotalPercentage menPercentage women
Total569 48781.618.41 23157.942.1226 41183.816.221393.07.0
Østfold24 61581.618.41353.846.210 97985.114.92100.00.0
Akershus57 34480.519.523557.942.124 73583.116.940100.00.0
Oslo106 42682.018.058158.042.037 41382.217.810191.18.9
Hedmark15 97781.718.31266.733.36 54783.916.12100.00.0
Oppland16 80881.418.60..6 84484.415.60..
Buskerud29 40881.019.02065.035.012 71484.815.2366.733.3
Vestfold25 02182.817.2450.050.011 03685.614.41100.00.0
Telemark16 72982.018.01361.538.57 19585.314.73100.00.0
Aust-Agder11 57681.818.22657.742.34 96984.115.95100.00.0
Vest-Agder21 87684.115.9771.428.68 58585.314.71100.00.0
Rogaland51 13383.116.97456.843.220 60885.114.91392.37.7
Hordaland56 85380.919.110560.040.021 76783.816.21984.215.8
Sogn og Fjordane12 61280.819.20..4 56183.216.80..
Møre og Romsdal30 83581.918.14955.144.911 88285.214.8988.911.1
Sør-Trøndelag31 76881.418.65757.942.112 60383.316.78100.00.0
Nord-Trøndelag13 52281.518.5633.366.75 11284.115.91100.00.0
Nordland23 54980.419.61656.343.89 30081.918.12100.00.0
Troms - Romsa15 02979.820.21050.050.06 15482.217.82100.00.0
Finnmark - Finnmárku7 98377.422.6333.366.73 23981.218.81100.00.0

Table 4 
Board representatives in private and public limited companies, by number of positions in board and sex

Board representatives in private and public limited companies, by number of positions in board and sex
Number of board membersPer cent
Total295 036221 21573 821100.0100.0100.0
1 board position196 695138 54658 14966.762.678.8
2-3 board positions69 02456 26312 76123.425.417.3
4-5 board positions15 89014 0501 8405.46.42.5
6-9 board positions8 5237 7697542.93.51.0
10-19 board positions3 7633 5062571.31.60.3
20-49 board positions995944510.30.40.1
50-99 board positions12912270.00.10.0
100 or more positions in board171520.00.00.0

Table 5 
General managers in (public) limited companies, by number of positions as general manager and sex

General managers in (public) limited companies, by number of positions as general manager and sex
Number of general managersPer cent
Total188 876152 20136 675100.0100.0100.0
General manager in 1 enterprise138 929107 19331 73673.670.486.5
General manager in 2-3 enterprises40 05235 6444 40821.223.412.0
General manager in 4-5 enterprises6 3685 9863823.43.91.0
General manager in 6-9 enterprises2 4942 3891051.31.60.3
General manager in 10-19 enterprises838808300.40.50.1
General manager in 20-49 enterprises172159130.10.10.0
General manager in 50-99 enterprises201910.00.00.0
General manager in 100 or more enterprises3300.00.00.0

Table 6 
Private and public limited companies, by size of board, size groups, economic activity and sex of board representatives

Private and public limited companies, by size of board, size groups, economic activity and sex of board representatives
Private limited company (AS)Public limited company (ASA)
TotalPercentage both women and menPercentage only menPercentage only womenTotalPercentage both women and menPercentage only menPercentage only women
Total290 91020.271.58.3215100.00.00.0
Size of board
Total290 91020.271.58.3215100.00.00.0
1-2 board representatives209 98010.378.611.00...
3-4 board representatives67 06442.756.01.351100.00.00.0
5-6 board representatives11 83358.041.70.392100.00.00.0
7-8 board representatives1 78273.826.10.154100.00.00.0
9-10 board representatives21587.412.60.017100.00.00.0
11 or more board representatives3686.113.90.01100.00.00.0
Size groups
Total290 91020.271.58.3215100.00.00.0
No one employeed179 38517.874.87.469100.00.00.0
1-4 employees60 63319.968.211.929100.00.00.0
5-9 employees23 45025.464.79.924100.00.00.0
10-19 employees14 95227.865.86.420100.00.00.0
20-49 employees8 45332.863.33.931100.00.00.0
50-99 employees2 18139.958.71.317100.00.00.0
100-249 employees1 24345.354.10.611100.00.00.0
250 employees and more61362.836.21.014100.00.00.0
Industrial activity
Total290 91020.271.58.3215100.00.00.0
Agriculture, forestry and fishing4 03019.776.83.55100.00.00.0
Mining and quarrying1 18728.770.31.017100.00.00.0
Manufacturing12 60123.871.64.534100.00.00.0
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply1 42337.960.91.25100.00.00.0
Water supply74828.669.81.61100.00.00.0
Construction39 81113.384.02.74100.00.00.0
Wholesale and retail trade43 44021.567.311.212100.00.00.0
Transportation and storage9 64819.277.13.723100.00.00.0
Accommodation and food service activities9 42324.461.913.80...
Information and communication13 25218.777.04.317100.00.00.0
Financial and insurance activities16 39214.075.210.850100.00.00
Real estate activities63 98821.972.95.28100.00.00
Professional, scientific and technical activities33 78020.070.39.732100.00.00
Administrative and support service activities12 34220.571.08.56100.00.00
Public administration and defence1546.753.30.00..0
Education3 59226.556.017.50..0
Human health and social work activities8 63730.446.523.10..0
Arts, entertainment and recreation4 34829.160.610.30..0
Other service activities4 35324.631.943.60..0
Activities of household as employers540.020.040.00..0
Activities of extraterritorial organisations and bodies1100.00.00.00...
Unknown industry7 89414.476.78.91100.00.00.0

About the statistics

The statistics give an overview of board representatives and general managers in private and public companies categorized by sex. national background, age and educational level.


Definitions of the main concepts and variables

An enterprise is defined as an organisational unit comprising all economic activities engaged in by the same owner. Hence, an enterprise is a legal entity covering one or more productive units.

Organisational structure
Structure registered in CRE. In this statistics, public limited companies and private limited companies are included.

Public limited company and private limited company
These are organisational structures in which none of the owners have personal responsibility for the company's liability. The owners' responsibility for the company's debt is restricted to the share capital. A private limited company cannot, unlike a public limited company, receive share capital from the public.

All public limited companies must have a general manager and a board with at least three members. Private limited companies must have a board with one or more members and may have a general manager.

Roles used in this statistics are chairmen of the board, deputy chairman and board members (i.e. board representatives), as well as general manager in public and private limited companies.

The number of employees comprises all employees with a payroll or expenditure allowance above NOK 1 000 per annum (A-Scheme Register).

National background is the person's own, their mother's or possibly their father's country of birth. Persons without an immigrant background only have Norway (000) as their national background. When both parents are born abroad they are in most cases born in the same country. In cases where the parents have different countries of birth the mother's country of birth is chosen

Standard classifications

The Standard Industrial Classification (SIC2007)

Classification of enterprises by size Group

Classification of Organization form

The Norwegian Standard Classification of Education (NUS2000)

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Board and management in limited companies
Topic: Establishments, enterprises and accounts

Next release

Responsible division

Division for Business Dynamics Statistics

Regional level

National and county level

Frequency and timeliness


International reporting

Not relevant


Information on the population is temporarily stored in the program language SAS and long term as text files. StatBank is updated each year.


Background and purpose


The purpose of the statistics is to give an overview of who the board representatives and the general managers in existing limited companies are. The statistics is categorized by sex, age, level of education and country background (immigration category), the size of the enterprises and their economic activity.


The aim was to use different data sources in Statistics Norway to establish a statistical basis, which would make it possible to focus on new aspects of establishments/enterprises by describing those who establish, own, run and manage enterprises.

The first publication for limited companies as of January 1 was for the year 2004 and for new limited companies for the year 2003. The last publication for new limited companies was for the year 2013.

The first publication focused on women and immigrants in personally owned enterprises and the board representatives in public limited companies. The background for this statistics was a law proposal for a minimum of 40 per cent of both men and women on the boards of public limited companies. The last publication on gender balance on boards of public limited companies was in July 2008, half a year after the required minimum of gender balance had taken effect.

Users and applications

The users of this statistics are public authorities, research institutions, students, industry and commerce, and the media.

Equal treatment of users

Principles for equal treatment of users in releasing statistics and analyses

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on www.ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar.

Coherence with other statistics

The figures for levels that are presented will deviate from the number of legal units in the Central Coordination Register for Legal Entities, and may on an industrial level deviate from what is presented in the structure statistics. The deviation in relation to the Central Coordination Register for Legal Entities is mainly caused by the fact that it comprises all legal units, including those that are not conducting industrial activities, and that CRE controls to find out whether an enterprise has activity or not.

The statistics on ownership and roles may also deviate from Statistics Norway's other statistics on enterprises. The reason for this is that these statistics only include enterprises that have physical persons who fill roles in the enterprises.

Legal authority

Not relevant

EEA reference

Not relevant



Public and private limited companies as of January 1

The population differs from the one used for enterprises. The statistics includes all limited companies that are registered in the Enterprise Register (FR) and are active as of a certain date.

Statistics on enterprises comprises all industries according to the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC2007), except for public administration and defense, and primary industries. These are directly taken from the register and have to be registered in the Enterprise Register. This method is used until public administration and primary industries are included in the enterprise statistics.

Data sources and sampling

The statistics is based on the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises (CRE), information on roles from the Central Coordination Register for Legal Entities and population register data. The Division for Labour Market Statistics provides the number of employees.

Information about roles from the Central Coordination Register for Legal Entities provides a survey of all physical persons and body cooperates that have roles in the Norwegian business enterprise sector. The physical persons are registered by a national identity number or with a D-number, while the body cooperates are enterprises that are registered by organisation number. No one can register an enterprise in CRE without also registering roles. The different types of organisational structures have different requirements concerning the roles.

Information about the physical person is updated continuously, and information is checked with the Central Population Register every 24 hours.

Statistical Population Register
The statistics is based on population register data. Since 1946, each municipality has had a local population registry that registers all residents in the municipality pursuant to the Population Registration Act and its regulations. The population registries receive reports of births, deaths, marriages, divorces, migration etc. from various sources.

Population's level of education

The level of education register is originally based on information from the 1970 Population and Housing Census. Each year, the database is updated with new information on completed degrees in Norway. Education completed abroad and supported by the State Education Loan Fund is included from 1986 onwards. Statistics Norway's special surveys Education Completed Abroad from 1990 and 1999 have also been used to update the database. The Health Personnel Register (HPR) and National Certificate Database (NVB) have been used as additional data sources since 2001, and the Norwegian computer system for cases involving foreign nationals and refugees (UDB) since 2008.

The National Education Database (NUDB) was created in 2002 and contains individually based education statistics dating back to 1970. Each year the database is updated with records of current students and completed educations for the previous academic year. Course codes from the completed educations are used to update the population's level of education where applicable. If an individual has completed two courses of the same level, the one with the highest class level is chosen. Specific fields of study are chosen over general fields and newer courses are counted before older courses. Credit points have also been used to determine education level since 1999. Between 1999 and 2004, a tertiary level education was attained with a single year full-time loading of 60 credit points. From October 1, 2005, 120 credit points are required to attain a tertiary level of education.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

The statistics uses only administrative data and already existing statistical registers.

The Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises (CRE) is a comprehensive register. Its quality is ensured in relation to population and basic characteristics like addresses, legal form and industry codes.

The quality of the population of active enterprises is taken care of among other things by directly contacting units in connection with the data collection for the SBS and through links towards administrative registers in the monitoring system for establishments in the CRE.

The quality regarding the industry code for establishments and enterprises is continuously taken care of. This takes place by contacting the enterprises in SN's SBS-surveys, through administrative sources such as the National Insurance administration's annual check, and in other ways through direct contact with the enterprises, and furthermore with the help of statements of purposes with the Central Coordination Register for Legal Entities.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant


Not relevant

Comparability over time and space

The statistics is published every year so that the results are comparable. In StatBank, the results are to be found for the whole country and by county.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

Enterprise statistics
The statistics is based on statistical and administrative sources. Several administrative sources are instrumental in the work of updating the CRE, and are used both to define the population and to collect characteristics and information: the Central Coordination Register for Legal Entities, the VAT Register and the A-Scheme Register are used to collect information about the units. This may cause register errors that can affect the uncertainty of the statistics.

A possible source for errors is out-of-date information caused by lags in the registration. Such lags are caused by the fact that changes are often registered some time after they have occurred. The consequence is that the registers are not always up-to-date, which can lead to outdated information being used as a basis for the statistics.

In connection with new registrations, the respondent is to state whether this is a new activity or a change in ownership. In cases where such information is lacking, a duplicate check against existing enterprises is carried out in order to identify possible ownership changes. All changes are not intercepted in these routines, and the number of new establishments is assumed to be somewhat high in relation to the number of new registrations. Furthermore, there are many newly established enterprises that do not start up any activity.

Population statistics
The quality of the data from the Central Population Register is generally very good for statistical purposes, however one relevant complaint is delayed reporting. Delayed reporting can lead to some events being registered and counted in the wrong year.

The Central Population Register consists of persons with a Norwegian national identity number or a D-number. Some of the persons with a D-number are persons living abroad while working in Norway. These persons will not be issued with a national identity number, but persons immigrating to Norway will get a national identity number after a period of time. It can therefore be difficult to distinguish between immigrants who have moved to Norway and persons living abroad. Another problem could be persons who change their national identity number as a consequence of new information about their date of birth.

Statistics on the population's level of education
For sources of error in the education statistics, see About the statistics.


Not relevant