Establishments, enterprises and accounts;Immigration and immigrants
styre, Board and management in limited companies, board members, directorship, general managers, chairman of the board, limited companyEstablishments, enterprises and accounts, Ownership and roles , Establishments, enterprises and accounts, Immigration and immigrants

Board and management in limited companies


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Key figures


of board representatives in private limited companies are women

Board representatives and general managers in limited companies
20192018 - 2019
NumberShareRelative change
Board representatives in private limited companies
Total615 654100.03.6
Men499 57881.13.3
Women116 07618.94.9
Board representatives in public limited companies
Total1 234100.0-0.5
General managers in private limited companies
Total240 093100,02.7
Men200 60483.62.6
Women39 48916.43.5
General managers in public limited companies

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
Board representatives, by sex, age groups, level of education, size groups and economic activity

Board representatives, by sex, age groups, level of education, size groups and economic activity
Private limited companiesPublic limited companies
TotalPercentage menPercentage womenTotalPercentage menPercentage women
Total615 65481.118.91 23457.542.5
Age groups
Total615 654100,0100,01 234100,0100,0
16-24 years3 6350.50.800.00.0
25-44 years166 58725.932.217312.416.2
45-66 years366 91560.057.993171.580.8
67 years or older78 51713.69.213016.13.0
Level of education
Total615 654100,0100,01 234100,0100,0
Primary and lower secondary education58 5399.68.9253.20.4
Upper secondary education240 24740.532.616616.89.0
Tertiary education, undergraduate level183 64028.336.344835.537.3
Tertiary education, graduate level102 25916.318.036725.435.6
Other30 9695.24.222819.017.7
Size groups
Total615 65481.118.91 23457.542.5
No employees364 01082.717.333159.840.2
1-4 employees114 39677.322.713856.543.5
5-9 employees53 24678.321.713158.042.0
10-19 employees39 13781.418.613553.346.7
20-49 employees26 70982.117.919456.743.3
50-99 employees9 02581.918.19959.640.4
100-249 employees5 64981.418.69152.747.3
250 or more employees3 48276.823.211559.140.9
Industrial activity
Total615 65481.118.91 23457.542.5
Agriculture, forestry and fishing9 76086.313.73357.642.4
Mining and quarrying3 29184.915.17561.338.7
Manufacturing30 76284.715.321358.741.3
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply5 12981.618.42860.739.3
Water supply2 25885.914.1366.733.3
Construction84 45690.29.83063.336.7
Wholesale and retail trade84 42878.621.48655.844.2
Transportation and storage21 15086.713.313259.140.9
Accommodation and food service activities19 27773.526.50..
Information and communication31 89085.614.410859.340.7
Financial and insurance activities27 93280.020.029354.345.7
Real estate activities138 74082.617.43554.345.7
Professional, scientific and technical activities67 68578.721.316357.142.9
Administrative and support service activities26 13380.719.32657.742.3
Public administration and defence26061.238.80..
Education8 05067.732.30..
Human health and social work activities17 95759.340.70..
Arts, entertainment and recreation11 92275.224.80..
Other service activities8 25246.753.30..
Activities of household as employers1100.00.00..
Activities of extraterritorial organisations and bodies0..0..
Unknown industry16 32182.417.6955.644.4

Table 2 
General managers, by sex, age groups, level of education, size groups and economic activity

General managers, by sex, age groups, level of education, size groups and economic activity
Private limited companiesPrivate limited companies
TotalPercentage menPercentage womenTotalPercentage menPercentage women
Total240 09383.616.421193.46.6
Age groups
Total240 093100,0100,0211100,0100,0
16-24 years1 2400.50.600.00.0
25-44 years67 63726.934.42713.27.1
45-66 years146 03761.259.018185.885.7
67 years or older25 17911.
Level of education
Total240 093100,0100,0211100,0100,0
Primary and lower secondary education27 81711.810.642.00.0
Upper secondary education104 66845.136.22612.214.3
Tertiary education, undergraduate level65 61726.034.28037.642.9
Tertiary education, graduate level32 88513.415.58139.128.6
Other education9 1063.83.6209.114.3
Size groups
Total240 09383.616.421193.46.6
No employees132 69586.813.26293.56.5
1-4 employees57 80379.021.02892.97.1
5-9 employees22 34277.222.82592.08.0
10-19 employees14 70882.018.02395.74.3
20-49 employees8 33482.717.33293.86.3
50-99 employees2 30886.213.81580.020.0
100-249 employees1 26886.913.112100.00.0
250 or more employees63583.616.414100.00.0
Industrial activity
Total240 09383.616.421193.46.6
Agriculture, forestry and fishing3 82391.09.05100.00.0
Mining and quarrying92592.87.214100.00.0
Manufacturing11 07688.111.93290.69.4
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply1 15590.89.25100.00.0
Water supply66393.46.61100.00.0
Construction35 71995.74.34100.00.0
Wholesale and retail trade37 32677.822.213100.00.0
Transportation and storage8 11592.87.22692.37.7
Accommodation and food service activities8 79569.330.70..
Information and communication11 98389.210.81794.15.9
Financial and insurance activities10 48986.513.55190.29.8
Real estate activities44 62488.611.47100.00.0
Professional, scientific and technical activities30 11081.318.72989.710.3
Administrative and support service activities10 71782.018.05100.00.0
Public administration and defence5993.26.80..
Education3 40465.334.70..
Human health and social work activities8 03757.043.00..
Arts, entertainment and recreation3 86472.927.10..
Other service activities4 25634.365.70..
Activities of household as employers1100.00.00..
Activities of extraterritorial organisations and bodies0..0..
Unknown industry4 95286.513.52100.00.0

Table 3 
Board representatives and general managers in private and public limited companies, by sex and county

Board representatives and general managers in private and public limited companies, by sex and county
Board representativesGeneral managers
Private limited companiesPublic limited companiesPrivate limited companiesPublic limited companies
TotalPercentage menPercentage womenTotalPercentage menPercentage womenTotalPercentage menPercentage womenTotalPercentage menPercentage women
Total615 65481.118.91 23457.542.5240 09383.616.421193.46.6
Østfold26 36181.318.71656.343.811 61184.915.13100.00.0
Akershus62 82879.920.122857.942.126 75182.917.13697.22.8
Oslo116 50281.518.558557.142.939 45582.018.010391.38.7
Hedmark17 20381.218.82564.036.06 90983.516.54100.00.0
Oppland18 03880.919.10..7 21883.916.10..
Buskerud31 97181.019.02157.142.913 59384.715.33100.00.0
Vestfold27 24982.117.9955.644.411 72785.114.92100.00.0
Telemark17 89582.018.0666.733.37 67485.214.81100.00.0
Aust-Agder12 65681.618.41050.050.05 35984.215.82100.00.0
Vest-Agder23 53483.916.1771.428.68 99585.814.21100.00.0
Rogaland54 80082.517.57458.141.921 70384.815.213100.00.0
Hordaland60 65980.419.612656.343.722 84883.316.72290.99.1
Sogn og Fjordane13 48680.819.2771.428.64 89882.717.31100.00.0
Møre og Romsdal32 29281.218.83154.845.212 27284.815.2683.316.7
Trøndelag49 15481.218.86858.841.218 90383.616.41090.010.0
Nordland25 40879.720.31353.846.29 86581.418.62100.00.0
Troms - Romsa16 51179.720.3540.060.06 58782.117.91100.00.0
Finnmark - Finnmárku8 62677.422.6366.733.33 55081.318.71100.00.0

Table 4 
Board representatives in private and public limited companies, by number of positions in board and sex

Board representatives in private and public limited companies, by number of positions in board and sex
Number of board membersPer cent
Total314 554234 19780 357100.0100.0100.0
1 board position207 731145 29162 44066.062.077.7
2-3 board positions74 95360 36914 58423.825.818.1
4-5 board positions17 22815 1072 1215.56.52.6
6-9 board positions9 2538 4218322.93.61.0
10-19 board positions4 0783 7703081.31.60.4
20-49 board positions1 1431 083600.40.50.1
50-99 board positions147137100.00.10.0
100 or more positions in board211920.00.00.0

Table 5 
General managers in (public) limited companies, by number of positions as general manager and sex

General managers in (public) limited companies, by number of positions as general manager and sex
Number of general managersPer cent
Total204 960164 26540 695100.0100.0100.0
General manager in 1 enterprise149 498114 61334 88572.969.885.7
General manager in 2-3 enterprises44 28139 1165 16521.623.812.7
General manager in 4-5 enterprises7 1066 6654413.54.11.1
General manager in 6-9 enterprises2 8522 7001521.41.60.4
General manager in 10-19 enterprises968929390.50.60.1
General manager in 20-49 enterprises224214100.10.10.0
General manager in 50-99 enterprises262330.00.00.0
General manager in 100 or more enterprises5500.00.00.0

Table 6 
Private and public limited companies, by size of board, size groups, economic activity and sex of board representatives

Private and public limited companies, by size of board, size groups, economic activity and sex of board representatives
Private limited company (AS)Public limited company (ASA)
TotalPercentage both women and menPercentage only menPercentage only womenTotalPercentage both women and menPercentage only menPercentage only women
Total320 09120.471.18.5213100.00.00.0
Size of board
Total320 09120.471.18.5213100.00.00.0
1-2 board representatives237 68911.477.511.00...
3-4 board representatives67 80543.055.61.449100.00.00.0
5-6 board representatives12 46159.140.60.390100.00.00.0
7-8 board representatives1 88376.323.60.157100.00.00.0
9-10 board representatives21284.415.60.013100.00.00.0
11 or more board representatives4190.29.80.04100.00.00.0
Size groups
Total320 09120.471.18.5213100.00.00.0
No one employeed201 67818.174.37.664100.00.00.0
1-4 employees65 67320.267.812.028100.00.00.0
5-9 employees24 09725.664.110.325100.00.00.0
10-19 employees15 54828.665.06.423100.00.00.0
20-49 employees8 76333.462.04.632100.00.00.0
50-99 employees2 38339.958.71.515100.00.00.0
100-249 employees1 30446.552.21.212100.00.00.0
250 employees and more64559.539.41.114100.00.00.0
Industrial activity
Total320 09120.471.18.5213100.00.00.0
Agriculture, forestry and fishing4 74619.676.73.75100.00.00.0
Mining and quarrying1 24626.771.31.914100.00.00.0
Manufacturing12 95123.871.25.132100.00.00.0
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply1 50939.358.91.85100.00.00.0
Water supply81625.173.31.61100.00.00.0
Construction44 35513.883.72.64100.00.00.0
Wholesale and retail trade44 65921.767.011.313100.00.00.0
Transportation and storage10 13418.577.53.926100.00.00.0
Accommodation and food service activities10 30526.759.413.80...
Information and communication15 38318.576.74.817100.00.00.0
Financial and insurance activities18 93614.674.910.651100.00.00
Real estate activities69 08822.072.75.27100.00.00
Professional, scientific and technical activities37 87920.369.410.331100.00.00
Administrative and support service activities13 51321.170.48.55100.00.00
Public administration and defence6681.818.20.00..0
Education4 16727.553.419.10..0
Human health and social work activities9 56730.245.324.50..0
Arts, entertainment and recreation5 13129.358.911.80..0
Other service activities4 93324.831.843.30..0
Activities of household as employers10.0100.00.00..0
Activities of extraterritorial organisations and bodies0...0...
Unknown industry10 70614.875.89.42100.00.00.0

About the statistics

The statistics give an overview of board representatives and general managers in private and public companies categorized by sex. national background, age and educational level.


Definitions of the main concepts and variables

An enterprise is defined as an organisational unit comprising all economic activities engaged in by the same owner. Hence, an enterprise is a legal entity covering one or more productive units.

Organisational structure
Structure registered in CRE. In this statistics, public limited companies and private limited companies are included.

Public limited company and private limited company
These are organisational structures in which none of the owners have personal responsibility for the company's liability. The owners' responsibility for the company's debt is restricted to the share capital. A private limited company cannot, unlike a public limited company, receive share capital from the public.

All public limited companies must have a general manager and a board with at least three members. Private limited companies must have a board with one or more members and may have a general manager.

Roles used in this statistics are chairmen of the board, deputy chairman and board members (i.e. board representatives), as well as general manager in public and private limited companies.

The number of employees comprises all employees with a payroll or expenditure allowance above NOK 1 000 per annum (A-Scheme Register).

National background is the person's own, their mother's or possibly their father's country of birth. Persons without an immigrant background only have Norway (000) as their national background. When both parents are born abroad they are in most cases born in the same country. In cases where the parents have different countries of birth the mother's country of birth is chosen

Standard classifications

The Standard Industrial Classification (SIC2007)

Classification of enterprises by size Group

Classification of Organization form

The Norwegian Standard Classification of Education (NUS2000)

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Board and management in limited companies
Topic: Establishments, enterprises and accounts

Next release

Responsible division

Division for Business Dynamics Statistics

Regional level

National and county level

Frequency and timeliness


International reporting

Not relevant


Information on the population is temporarily stored in the program language SAS and long term as text files. StatBank is updated each year.


Background and purpose


The purpose of the statistics is to give an overview of who the board representatives and the general managers in existing limited companies are. The statistics is categorized by sex, age, level of education and country background (immigration category), the size of the enterprises and their economic activity.


The aim was to use different data sources in Statistics Norway to establish a statistical basis, which would make it possible to focus on new aspects of establishments/enterprises by describing those who establish, own, run and manage enterprises.

The first publication for limited companies as of January 1 was for the year 2004 and for new limited companies for the year 2003. The last publication for new limited companies was for the year 2013.

The first publication focused on women and immigrants in personally owned enterprises and the board representatives in public limited companies. The background for this statistics was a law proposal for a minimum of 40 per cent of both men and women on the boards of public limited companies. The last publication on gender balance on boards of public limited companies was in July 2008, half a year after the required minimum of gender balance had taken effect.

Users and applications

The users of this statistics are public authorities, research institutions, students, industry and commerce, and the media.

Equal treatment of users

Principles for equal treatment of users in releasing statistics and analyses

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on www.ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar.

Coherence with other statistics

The figures for levels that are presented will deviate from the number of legal units in the Central Coordination Register for Legal Entities, and may on an industrial level deviate from what is presented in the structure statistics. The deviation in relation to the Central Coordination Register for Legal Entities is mainly caused by the fact that it comprises all legal units, including those that are not conducting industrial activities, and that CRE controls to find out whether an enterprise has activity or not.

The statistics on ownership and roles may also deviate from Statistics Norway's other statistics on enterprises. The reason for this is that these statistics only include enterprises that have physical persons who fill roles in the enterprises.

Legal authority

Not relevant

EEA reference

Not relevant



Public and private limited companies as of January 1

The population differs from the one used for enterprises. The statistics includes all limited companies that are registered in the Enterprise Register (FR) and are active as of a certain date.

Statistics on enterprises comprises all industries according to the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC2007), except for public administration and defense, and primary industries. These are directly taken from the register and have to be registered in the Enterprise Register. This method is used until public administration and primary industries are included in the enterprise statistics.

Data sources and sampling

The statistics is based on the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises (CRE), information on roles from the Central Coordination Register for Legal Entities and population register data. The Division for Labour Market Statistics provides the number of employees.

Information about roles from the Central Coordination Register for Legal Entities provides a survey of all physical persons and body cooperates that have roles in the Norwegian business enterprise sector. The physical persons are registered by a national identity number or with a D-number, while the body cooperates are enterprises that are registered by organisation number. No one can register an enterprise in CRE without also registering roles. The different types of organisational structures have different requirements concerning the roles.

Information about the physical person is updated continuously, and information is checked with the Central Population Register every 24 hours.

Statistical Population Register
The statistics is based on population register data. Since 1946, each municipality has had a local population registry that registers all residents in the municipality pursuant to the Population Registration Act and its regulations. The population registries receive reports of births, deaths, marriages, divorces, migration etc. from various sources.

Population's level of education

The level of education register is originally based on information from the 1970 Population and Housing Census. Each year, the database is updated with new information on completed degrees in Norway. Education completed abroad and supported by the State Education Loan Fund is included from 1986 onwards. Statistics Norway's special surveys Education Completed Abroad from 1990 and 1999 have also been used to update the database. The Health Personnel Register (HPR) and National Certificate Database (NVB) have been used as additional data sources since 2001, and the Norwegian computer system for cases involving foreign nationals and refugees (UDB) since 2008.

The National Education Database (NUDB) was created in 2002 and contains individually based education statistics dating back to 1970. Each year the database is updated with records of current students and completed educations for the previous academic year. Course codes from the completed educations are used to update the population's level of education where applicable. If an individual has completed two courses of the same level, the one with the highest class level is chosen. Specific fields of study are chosen over general fields and newer courses are counted before older courses. Credit points have also been used to determine education level since 1999. Between 1999 and 2004, a tertiary level education was attained with a single year full-time loading of 60 credit points. From October 1, 2005, 120 credit points are required to attain a tertiary level of education.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

The statistics uses only administrative data and already existing statistical registers.

The Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises (CRE) is a comprehensive register. Its quality is ensured in relation to population and basic characteristics like addresses, legal form and industry codes.

The quality of the population of active enterprises is taken care of among other things by directly contacting units in connection with the data collection for the SBS and through links towards administrative registers in the monitoring system for establishments in the CRE.

The quality regarding the industry code for establishments and enterprises is continuously taken care of. This takes place by contacting the enterprises in SN's SBS-surveys, through administrative sources such as the National Insurance administration's annual check, and in other ways through direct contact with the enterprises, and furthermore with the help of statements of purposes with the Central Coordination Register for Legal Entities.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant


Not relevant

Comparability over time and space

The statistics is published every year so that the results are comparable. In StatBank, the results are to be found for the whole country and by county.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

Enterprise statistics
The statistics is based on statistical and administrative sources. Several administrative sources are instrumental in the work of updating the CRE, and are used both to define the population and to collect characteristics and information: the Central Coordination Register for Legal Entities, the VAT Register and the A-Scheme Register are used to collect information about the units. This may cause register errors that can affect the uncertainty of the statistics.

A possible source for errors is out-of-date information caused by lags in the registration. Such lags are caused by the fact that changes are often registered some time after they have occurred. The consequence is that the registers are not always up-to-date, which can lead to outdated information being used as a basis for the statistics.

In connection with new registrations, the respondent is to state whether this is a new activity or a change in ownership. In cases where such information is lacking, a duplicate check against existing enterprises is carried out in order to identify possible ownership changes. All changes are not intercepted in these routines, and the number of new establishments is assumed to be somewhat high in relation to the number of new registrations. Furthermore, there are many newly established enterprises that do not start up any activity.

Population statistics
The quality of the data from the Central Population Register is generally very good for statistical purposes, however one relevant complaint is delayed reporting. Delayed reporting can lead to some events being registered and counted in the wrong year.

The Central Population Register consists of persons with a Norwegian national identity number or a D-number. Some of the persons with a D-number are persons living abroad while working in Norway. These persons will not be issued with a national identity number, but persons immigrating to Norway will get a national identity number after a period of time. It can therefore be difficult to distinguish between immigrants who have moved to Norway and persons living abroad. Another problem could be persons who change their national identity number as a consequence of new information about their date of birth.

Statistics on the population's level of education
For sources of error in the education statistics, see About the statistics.


Not relevant