External economy
ufats, Norwegian subsidiaries abroad, industry breakdown (e.g. manufacturing, building and construction, transport...), turnover, employment, breakdown by country.Foreign assets and liabilities , External economy

Norwegian subsidiaries abroad


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Key figures

1 215

NOK billion turnover

Norwegian subsidiaries abroad
EnterprisesTurnover (NOK million)Employed persons
All countries4 3831 214 609284 010
Europe3 048731 208169 918
Africa12235 0825 860
Asia603153 72253 615
North and Central America416208 00929 938
South America12377 98022 839
Oceania718 6081 840

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
Norwegian subsidiaries abroad, by industrial sector (SN2007)

Norwegian subsidiaries abroad, by industrial sector (SN2007)
EnterprisesTurnover (NOK million)Employed personsEnterprisesTurnover (NOK million)Employed persons
All industries4 4601 278 868281 6784 3831 214 609284 010
Agriculture, forestry and fishing5024 8357 4975530 6106 512
Mining and quarrying115191 0927 621102148 6259 358
Manufacturing1 047547 838112 2431 039506 488112 517
Electricity and gas, water supply, sewerage, waste10610 4941 6821079 8581 488
Construction10819 2724 84910423 3815 237
Wholesale and retail trade539152 29924 994514150 97425 720
Transportation and storage50165 05025 83445064 35725 139
Accommodation and food service activities1278 2377 5941308 1817 807
Information and communication451132 20845 689438141 35546 318
Financial and insurance activities26338 3439 27725536 7846 770
Real estate activities40614 1282 09038814 3793 030
Professional, scientific and technical activities54661 41420 87456658 88319 760
Administrative and support service activities1399 6167 40416417 27110 008
Other industries624 0444 030713 4624 346

Table 2 
Norwegian subsidiaries abroad, geographical breakdown

Norwegian subsidiaries abroad, geographical breakdown
EnterprisesTurnover (NOK million)Employed personsEnterprisesTurnover (NOK million)Employed persons
1ASEAN: Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam.
2Offshore financial centres: Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, Netherlands Antilles (up to 2010 data), Aruba (from 2011 data), Barbados, Bahrain, Bermuda, Bahamas, Belize, Cook Islands, Curaçao (from 2011 data), Dominica, Grenada, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Hong Kong, Isle of Man, Jersey, Jamaica (up to 2010 data), St Kitts and Nevis, Cayman Islands, Lebanon, Saint Lucia, Liechtenstein, Liberia, Marshall Islands, Mauritius (from 2011 data), Montserrat, Maldives (up to 2010 data), Nauru, Niue, Panama, Philippines, Seychelles (from 2011 data), Singapore, Turks and Caicos Islands, Sint Maarten (Dutch part) (from 2011 data), St Vincent and the Grenadines, Virgin Islands (British), Virgin Islands (U.S.), Vanuatu, Samoa.
3Brazil: Detailed data of Brazil are only available from year 2013.
All countries4 4601 278 868281 6784 3831 214 609284 010
Europe3 107738 114164 2113 048731 208169 918
Africa11442 1457 27912235 0825 860
Asia629185 16555 274603153 72253 615
North and Central America409218 82832 132416208 00929 938
South America13181 64819 60812377 98022 839
Oceania7012 9683 174718 6081 840
Selected aggregates
EU2 941663 726158 6362 878663 621163 605
Europe except EU and Nordic countries14973 5165 27915165 3975 765
Nordic countries1 388343 46872 9241 360348 09076 208
ASEAN1265101 53120 05425683 97618 568
Offshore financial centers221751 0226 63720936 9325 918
Selected countries
Sweden919190 25650 138890193 52452 985
Denmark294121 34015 593276118 92215 749
Germany22573 59412 58219667 88911 619
United Kingdom25760 74415 31626955 76514 967
United States290179 60122 696296170 09121 252
Brazil38069 75816 4477866 66519 779

About the statistics

The statistics give an overview of Norwegian subsidiaries abroad, which are controlled, either directly or indirectly, with more than 50 per cent. The variables included are number of enterprises, employment and turnover, broken down by industry and country.


Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Norwegian subsidiaries abroad

A Norwegian subsidiary abroad is defined as an enterprise that is controlled by an enterprise or other economic unit in Norway through an ownership share of more than 50 per cent.


According to Standard Industrial Classification (SIC2007), an enterprise is defined as the smallest combination of legal entity that produces goods or services. In the/this statistic, a legal entity is an enterprise. Legal entities are limited liability companies, partnerships and sole enterprises. Only economically active enterprises, with turnover and/or employment, are included in the population.


Employment is defined as the sum of the owners and wage-earners working in the enterprise. Persons with more than one job, may be counted as employed in several industries. Employment numbers show the average number employed during the year.


Turnover is defined as the enterprise's operating revenues minus public subsidies and profit from the sale of fixed assets. Taxes and duties are included, but VAT is not.

Standard classifications

The industrial classification is in accordance with the Norwegian Standard Industrial Classification (SIC 2007) which is based on the EU industry standard (NACE Rev. 2) and the UN (ISIC Rev. 3).

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Norwegian subsidiaries abroad
Topic: External economy

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Responsible division

Division for Financial Accounts

Regional level

National level. Ownership abroad is divided into countries and country groups.

Frequency and timeliness

The statistic is published annually, within 20 months after the reference year.

International reporting

The data will be reported to the EU statistics agency Eurostat and OECD , in line with the binding EEA Agreement and other international agreements.


Raw data and revised microdata are stored according to Statistics Norway's standard for archiving files (Datadok). Microdata are stored for the same periods as the published data on the Statistics Norway's website. Statistics' rules for disclosure of data are applicable for research purposes.


Background and purpose

The purpose is to provide a total overview of the Norwegian subsidiaries’ economic activity abroad, i.e. foreign affiliates abroad. The statistics are internationally known as Foreign Affiliates Statistics. A simplified name is outward FATS.

In Norway, data for outward FATS was collected for the first time in 2008.

Users and applications

Figures for the Norwegian subsidiaries’ activities abroad are used in economic research to measure the degree of globalization, and in international trade negotiations. Users are authorities, businesses, embassies, the media and educational and research institutions, among others. There is also extensive international reporting on data for foreign affiliates abroad, particularly to Eurostat and OECD.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.

Coherence with other statistics

With regard to ownership abroad, the statistics on Norwegian direct investment abroad (FDI) are related to the outward FATS statistics. The holdings of FDI describe claims of payments in the form of Norwegian-owned capital and other capital tied to direct investment. However, the direct investment statistics say little about how Norwegian ownership interests abroad affect other aspects of the economies where the investment takes place. The FATS statistics are useful in being able to describe this effect, and are a natural continuation of Statistics Norway's existing statistics on globalisation.

Statistics on foreign subsidiaries in Norway (inward FATS) show equivalent relations where foreigners control Norwegian enterprises. The statistics follow the same international requirements as outward FATS.

Legal authority

Statistics Norway's data collection from the reporters is based on the Statistics Act § 2-2 and § 3-2.

EEA reference

European Parliament and Council Regulation (EEC) No 716/2007 of 20 June 2007 concerning Community statistics on the structure and activity of foreign-controlled enterprises (FATS-Regulation). The statistics are prepared in line with recommendations from Eurostat, embodied in the "Recommendations manual on the production of Foreign Affiliates Statistics"(Doc. Eurostat/C4/FATS/LO/SEP06/5 (2006)).



The statistics cover, in principle, all Norwegian subsidiaries abroad, i.e. subsidiaries in foreign countries that are controlled either directly or indirectly by an enterprise in Norway. See section definitions for a closer definition of "Norwegian subsidiaries abroad". Only economically active enterprises are included in the population. The statistics include all Norwegian-controlled institutional sectors. Non-financial corporations are, in this context, the most important sector.

The statistics are based on a cut-off sampling survey. The sampling survey covers the largest Norwegian enterprises with activity abroad. In addition, a sample of smaller enterprises is drawn. The size of the sampling survey has increased since the first year (2008), but all the largest enterprises have been included the whole time.

Data sources and sampling

The statistics are based on Statistics Norway's own collection of reports on investment abroad, which is a joint collection with Norwegian direct investment abroad (outward FDI). The reports provide information about the foreign enterprises, including what the Norwegian enterprise owns, accounting information on investment and revenue, and information on turnover and employment. In addition, information is used from the annual report submitted to the Register of Company Accounts in Brønnøysund, information from the media, Internet etc. to map the changes in investment abroad. The sources are also used to map the ultimate owner country (the country where the enterprise in the ownership chain that is not controlled by another enterprise is located).

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Statistics on the activity of Norwegian subsidiaries abroad are based on Statistics Norway's collection of information on investment abroad. To ensure a high degree of relevance, emphasis is placed on covering large units in the population as measured by reported size. This limits the number of units and minimizes data collection COSTs.

The data collected is to a large extent compared to information with figures for the previous year and the annual accounts submitted to the Register of Company Accounts in Brønnøysund.

With regard to the Norwegian subsidiaries that are included in the survey, ownership is checked by reviewing the data with information from annual accounts and the enterprises' websites etc. on the enterprises' ultimate country of ownership. Only enterprises with Norway as ultimate owner country (Norwegian-controlled enterprises) are included in this statistic.

No methods have been established yet to inflate the number of enterprises, turnover and employment abroad to population level.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant


Figures are not published if fewer than three enterprises are the basis for a cell in the table. Having less than three enterprises creates the risk of identification. This also applies to more than three enterprises if one respondent is so dominating that, in practice, it can be identified.

Comparability over time and space

The size of the sampling survey has increased since the first year (2008), but all the largest enterprises have been included the whole time.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

The quality of the statistics is related to the quality of the register of enterprises for data collection. It is also related to the quality of data reported. Respondents can sometimes make errors when completing forms, and Statistics Norway's processing of the data during registration can lead to errors. Errors in this connection can include using the wrong scale, e.g. NOK instead of NOK 1 000, as well as incorrect evaluations.

It is difficult to capture all relevant units at the end of each reporting period.

Statistics on Norwegian subsidiaries abroad are based on Statistics Norway's own data collection. A fine is imposed on non-reporting units in accordance with the Statistics Act. An entity may fail to uphold the reporting requirement, but all the important entities are included in the statistics.

There are currently no calculations to measure the sampling error for the survey. The sampling error is the difference between the sample’s reported numbers and the numbers that would exist if the whole population was surveyed. To reduce this problem, we try to make sure that the largest enterprises are included in the sample.


Not relevant