External economy;Establishments, enterprises and accounts
ufats, Norwegian subsidiaries abroad, industry breakdown (e.g. manufacturing, building and construction, transport...), turnover, employment, breakdown by country.Establishments and enterprises , Foreign assets and liabilities , Establishments, enterprises and accounts, External economy

Norwegian subsidiaries abroad


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Key figures

1 397

NOK billion turnover

Norwegian subsidiaries abroad
EnterprisesTurnover (NOK million)1Employed persons
1Turnover: Taxes, duties or levies linked directly to revenue are as of 2018 excluded from turnover.
All countries4 3311 397 173302 089
Europe3 040765 788187 085
Africa12165 9234 683
Asia575151 35346 237
North and Central America392309 86934 131
South America13494 80227 018
Oceania699 4372 935

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
Norwegian subsidiaries abroad, by industrial sector (SN2007)

Norwegian subsidiaries abroad, by industrial sector (SN2007)
EnterprisesTurnover (NOK million)1Employed personsEnterprisesTurnover (NOK million)1Employed persons
1Turnover: Taxes, duties or levies linked directly to revenue are as of 2018 excluded from turnover.
All industries4 2011 305 079294 9094 3311 397 173302 089
Agriculture, forestry and fishing4826 5856 1254219 9164 668
Mining and quarrying103213 8979 160112285 0689 552
Manufacturing939520 830117 944977552 878124 127
Electricity and gas, water supply, sewerage, waste11314 4751 67612823 7012 160
Construction10423 0165 6589523 7625 925
Wholesale and retail trade522154 94227 695538146 00627 231
Transportation and storage43762 92223 01443764 33822 783
Accommodation and food service activities1369 9688 1491329 8158 772
Information and communication396128 45240 796408111 63036 658
Financial and insurance activities26943 0528 56027840 36810 098
Real estate activities34316 9943 29532316 3381 838
Professional, scientific and technical activities54960 12020 05257869 25722 746
Administrative and support service activities17826 31418 74320929 40920 227
Other industries643 5114 042744 6865 304

Table 2 
Norwegian subsidiaries abroad, geographical breakdown

Norwegian subsidiaries abroad, geographical breakdown
EnterprisesTurnover (NOK million)1Employed personsEnterprisesTurnover (NOK million)1Employed persons
1Turnover: Taxes, duties or levies linked directly to revenue are as of 2018 excluded from turnover.
2ASEAN: Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam.
3Offshore financial centres: Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Anguilla, Netherlands Antilles (up to 2010 data), Aruba (from 2011 data), Barbados, Bahrain, Bermuda, Bahamas, Belize, Cook Islands, Curaçao (from 2011 data), Dominica, Grenada, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Hong Kong, Isle of Man, Jersey, Jamaica (up to 2010 data), St Kitts and Nevis, Cayman Islands, Lebanon, Saint Lucia, Liechtenstein, Liberia, Marshall Islands, Mauritius (from 2011 data), Montserrat, Maldives (up to 2010 data), Nauru, Niue, Panama, Philippines, Seychelles (from 2011 data), Singapore, Turks and Caicos Islands, Sint Maarten (Dutch part) (from 2011 data), St Vincent and the Grenadines, Virgin Islands (British), Virgin Islands (U.S.), Vanuatu, Samoa.
4Brazil: Detailed data of Brazil are only available from year 2013.
All countries4 2011 305 079294 9094 3311 397 173302 089
Europe2 943750 833182 0013 040765 788187 085
Africa11955 8225 67712165 9234 683
Asia560153 80849 837575151 35346 237
North and Central America395244 99431 858392309 86934 131
South America11590 22722 97013494 80227 018
Oceania699 3952 566699 4372 935
Selected aggregates
EU2 780678 689175 6822 883693 160182 690
Europe except EU and Nordic countries14169 5785 73213570 5163 833
Nordic countries1 274345 28279 6881 381347 94384 471
ASEAN222975 24519 09122176 93316 265
Offshore financial centers320338 2025 28319942 0035 181
Selected countries
Sweden824195 92450 653895189 40553 971
Denmark282116 32118 324318123 20619 022
Germany20363 58312 45719065 74511 742
United Kingdom26559 33915 13626271 02317 422
United States279209 01320 489273274 25321 670
Brazil46973 63719 6028173 56421 411

About the statistics

The statistics give an overview of Norwegian subsidiaries abroad, which are controlled, either directly or indirectly, with more than 50 per cent. The variables included are number of enterprises, employment and turnover, broken down by industry and country.


Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Norwegian subsidiaries abroad

A Norwegian subsidiary abroad is defined as an enterprise that is controlled by an enterprise or other economic unit in Norway through an ownership share of more than 50 per cent.


According to Standard Industrial Classification (SIC2007), an enterprise is defined as the smallest combination of legal entity that produces goods or services. In the/this statistic, a legal entity is an enterprise. Legal entities are limited liability companies, partnerships and sole enterprises. Only economically active enterprises, with turnover and/or employment, are included in the population.


Employment is defined as the sum of the owners and wage-earners working in the enterprise. Persons with more than one job, may be counted as employed in several industries. Employment numbers show the average number employed during the year.


Turnover is defined as the enterprise's operating revenues minus public subsidies and profit from the sale of fixed assets. Taxes and duties are included, but VAT is not.

Standard classifications

The industrial classification is in accordance with the Norwegian Standard Industrial Classification (SIC 2007) which is based on the EU industry standard (NACE Rev. 2) and the UN (ISIC Rev. 3).

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Norwegian subsidiaries abroad
Topic: External economy

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Responsible division

Division for Financial Accounts

Regional level

National level. Ownership abroad is divided into countries and country groups.

Frequency and timeliness

The statistic is published annually, within 20 months after the reference year.

International reporting

The data will be reported to the EU statistics agency Eurostat and OECD , in line with the binding EEA Agreement and other international agreements.


Raw data and revised microdata are stored according to Statistics Norway's standard for archiving files (Datadok). Microdata are stored for the same periods as the published data on the Statistics Norway's website. Statistics' rules for disclosure of data are applicable for research purposes.


Background and purpose

The purpose is to provide a total overview of the Norwegian subsidiaries’ economic activity abroad, i.e. foreign affiliates abroad. The statistics are internationally known as Foreign Affiliates Statistics. A simplified name is outward FATS.

In Norway, data for outward FATS was collected for the first time in 2008.

Users and applications

Figures for the Norwegian subsidiaries’ activities abroad are used in economic research to measure the degree of globalization, and in international trade negotiations. Users are authorities, businesses, embassies, the media and educational and research institutions, among others. There is also extensive international reporting on data for foreign affiliates abroad, particularly to Eurostat and OECD.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.

Coherence with other statistics

With regard to ownership abroad, the statistics on Norwegian direct investment abroad (FDI) are related to the outward FATS statistics. The holdings of FDI describe claims of payments in the form of Norwegian-owned capital and other capital tied to direct investment. However, the direct investment statistics say little about how Norwegian ownership interests abroad affect other aspects of the economies where the investment takes place. The FATS statistics are useful in being able to describe this effect, and are a natural continuation of Statistics Norway's existing statistics on globalisation.

Statistics on foreign subsidiaries in Norway (inward FATS) show equivalent relations where foreigners control Norwegian enterprises. The statistics follow the same international requirements as outward FATS.

Legal authority

Statistics Norway's data collection from the reporters is based on the Statistics Act § 2-2 and § 3-2.

EEA reference

European Parliament and Council Regulation (EEC) No 716/2007 of 20 June 2007 concerning Community statistics on the structure and activity of foreign-controlled enterprises (FATS-Regulation). The statistics are prepared in line with recommendations from Eurostat, embodied in the "Recommendations manual on the production of Foreign Affiliates Statistics"(Doc. Eurostat/C4/FATS/LO/SEP06/5 (2006)).



The statistics cover, in principle, all Norwegian subsidiaries abroad, i.e. subsidiaries in foreign countries that are controlled either directly or indirectly by an enterprise in Norway. See section definitions for a closer definition of "Norwegian subsidiaries abroad". Only economically active enterprises are included in the population. The statistics include all Norwegian-controlled institutional sectors. Non-financial corporations are, in this context, the most important sector.

The statistics are based on a cut-off sampling survey. The sampling survey covers the largest Norwegian enterprises with activity abroad. In addition, a sample of smaller enterprises is drawn. The size of the sampling survey has increased since the first year (2008), but all the largest enterprises have been included the whole time.

Data sources and sampling

The statistics are based on Statistics Norway's own collection of reports on investment abroad, which is a joint collection with Norwegian direct investment abroad (outward FDI). The reports provide information about the foreign enterprises, including what the Norwegian enterprise owns, accounting information on investment and revenue, and information on turnover and employment. In addition, information is used from the annual report submitted to the Register of Company Accounts in Brønnøysund, information from the media, Internet etc. to map the changes in investment abroad. The sources are also used to map the ultimate owner country (the country where the enterprise in the ownership chain that is not controlled by another enterprise is located).

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Statistics on the activity of Norwegian subsidiaries abroad are based on Statistics Norway's collection of information on investment abroad. To ensure a high degree of relevance, emphasis is placed on covering large units in the population as measured by reported size. This limits the number of units and minimizes data collection COSTs.

The data collected is to a large extent compared to information with figures for the previous year and the annual accounts submitted to the Register of Company Accounts in Brønnøysund.

With regard to the Norwegian subsidiaries that are included in the survey, ownership is checked by reviewing the data with information from annual accounts and the enterprises' websites etc. on the enterprises' ultimate country of ownership. Only enterprises with Norway as ultimate owner country (Norwegian-controlled enterprises) are included in this statistic.

No methods have been established yet to inflate the number of enterprises, turnover and employment abroad to population level.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant


Figures are not published if fewer than three enterprises are the basis for a cell in the table. Having less than three enterprises creates the risk of identification. This also applies to more than three enterprises if one respondent is so dominating that, in practice, it can be identified.

Comparability over time and space

The size of the sampling survey has increased since the first year (2008), but all the largest enterprises have been included the whole time.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

The quality of the statistics is related to the quality of the register of enterprises for data collection. It is also related to the quality of data reported. Respondents can sometimes make errors when completing forms, and Statistics Norway's processing of the data during registration can lead to errors. Errors in this connection can include using the wrong scale, e.g. NOK instead of NOK 1 000, as well as incorrect evaluations.

It is difficult to capture all relevant units at the end of each reporting period.

Statistics on Norwegian subsidiaries abroad are based on Statistics Norway's own data collection. A fine is imposed on non-reporting units in accordance with the Statistics Act. An entity may fail to uphold the reporting requirement, but all the important entities are included in the statistics.

There are currently no calculations to measure the sampling error for the survey. The sampling error is the difference between the sample’s reported numbers and the numbers that would exist if the whole population was surveyed. To reduce this problem, we try to make sure that the largest enterprises are included in the sample.


Not relevant