About the statistics
Name and topic
Name: Police and prosecution - StatRes (discontinued)
Topic: Social conditions, welfare and crime
Division for Income and social welfare statistics
Definitions of the main concepts and variables
Key concepts within resource input measured in NOK:
Own production: Defined as the sum of wage costs, the purchase of goods and services and capital costs. Data for capital costs, i.e. depreciation and imputed interest as a result of capital ties, are not available for the activities within the police and prosecution service. This element is not therefore included in own production for this area. The starting point for the size is item 1-29 in the national accounts.
Wage costs: Includes all expenses that the activities have in their capacity as employer, including social security contributions and pension premiums. The starting point for the size is reported amounts in item 1-29, sub-post 11-19, ref. circular 101. This includes employer's NI contributions, but not travel expenses or the purchase of cleaning services or other outsourced labour-intensive services. Recognised wage reimbursements are deducted, while the estimated premium to the Norwegian Public Service Pension Fund is added.
Estimated premium to the Norwegian Public Service Pension Fund: The activities within the police and prosecution service do not pay pension premiums directly to the Norwegian Public Service Pension Fund, where the employees are members. These premiums, together with similar premiums for a number of other public sector activities, are instead paid in a collective transfer from the treasury to the Norwegian Public Service Pension Fund. As these premiums are not included in the reported wage costs, the reported wage costs show a lower level than is actually the case. A 15 per cent mark-up is therefore applied to the reported wage costs (excluding reported employer’s NI contributions), which roughly corresponds to the level by which direct paying activities charge to their accounts. A corresponding mark-up is also applied in StatRes for all activities that do not have costs for pension premiums included in their accounts.
Purchase of goods and services: Includes the value of used intermediate products and services in the production. The starting point for the size is reported amounts in item 1-29, sub-post 21-29, ref. circular 101.
Transfers: Covers contributions to the private sector, i.e. item 70-79 in the national accounts. The starting point for the size is reported amounts in item 70-79, ref. circular 101.
Investments: Acquisitions and major maintenance work in connection with property, or major acquisitions of assets with a long-term value. The starting point for the size is reported amounts in item 30-49, ref. circular 101. Any revenues from corresponding sales are deducted. No activities within the police and prosecution authority reported any investments in the years 2005, 2006 or 2007.
Own production in NOK per capita: The amount for own production in NOK divided into average population in the statistics year. This average is calculated by adding the number of inhabitants in Statistics Norway’s official population statistics at the start and end of the statistics year and dividing the total by two.
Key concepts and delimitations in the personnel statistics:
The total figures for man-years in the police and prosecution authority are limited to contracted man-years, adjusted for long-term leaves (sick leave recommended by a doctor and leave of absence to care for a child).
Police positions are limited to apply to specific job codes from SST. Statistics Norway’s delimitation is done in consultation with the National Police Directorate.
Key concepts in the crime statistics:
Offences reported to the police are defined as: All offences registered by the police as reported during the statistical year. Traffic-misdemeanours and misdemeanours against the Duty Act that are settled by means of on the spot fines, are not regarded as reported, and are not therefore included in the statistics.
Offences investigated are defined as: All offences that are completely investigated during the year. Completely investigated is defined as the offence been given a legally valid decision.
Category of offence is a standard that divides the offences into two, crimes and misdemeanours. A crime is a punishable act of a more serious nature than a misdemeanour. Crimes and misdemeanours in violation of the Penal Code are covered in sections 2 and 3 of the act respectively. According to § 2 of the Penal Code, punishable acts described in other legislation are crimes if they have a sentence framework of more than three months imprisonment, unless otherwise decided. Other punishable acts are misdemeanours.
Apart from this in criminal law difference of degree of misdemeanours and crimes, the manner of dealing with misdemeanours is simpler than for crimes. In misdemeanour cases, it is the police that decide whether charges should be brought, whereas the public prosecutor decides this in the case of a crime. Misdemeanours can to a greater extent than crimes be determined by a ticket fines with no sentence. When dealing with misdemeanours, no defence is normally required. Some offences (e.g. damage of property and some special laws) can, according to legislation, be classed both as crimes and misdemeanours. Whether the individual act is regarded as a misdemeanour or crime can be seen in the statistics, which use the standard for Type of offence. For a more detailed description, see Standard classifications.
Group of offence is a standard that divides the offences into 10 main groups. The standard is common to Statistics Norway and the police, but some statistics only use the standard to group crimes. For a more detailed description, see Standard classifications.
Offences solved is calculated based on Statistics Norway’s classification of the legally valid decisions. As a general rule, all offences in which the police and prosecution authority have charged at least one person at the end of the investigation, are regarded as solved. Offences are also regarded as solved when an application for prosecution is incomplete or withdrawn, but in such cases no details are obtained on potential persons charged. The percentage of offences solved is calculated based on the police and prosecution authority’s crime solving. This entails all offences that are transferred (with indictments or charges in the district court) and decided in a court of law, being regarded as solved. This also applies to the offences where the court has subsequently acquitted the supposed offender of the offences they were charged with/indicted for. Cases where the investigation has concluded that no violation has taken place are not included in the statistics of offences investigated, or in the calculation of the percentage of offences solved. There are major differences between the percentage of offences solved for the different types of crimes. The total percentage of offences solved for Norway, or for a police district, is therefore strongly dependent on how the offences are distributed by type.
Recidivism is calculated based on a survey of persons that have been charged at the end of an investigation. The survey covers persons charged with an offence in the year five years prior to the statistical year. Recidivism is defined here as a new charge in one or more of the subsequent five years. No consideration is given in the survey to different forms of recidivism obstacles during the observation period. Persons charged with no reliable identification data are not included in the survey.
Fear of being subject to a crime is measured in the Survey of level of living that include the topics victimization and fear of crime. Fear of exposure to violence or threats is measured by asking the interviewee whether they have recently been worried about being exposed to violence or threats when going out in their neighbourhood alone. Fear of being exposed to theft or criminal damage is measured by asking the interviewee if they have recently feared being exposed to theft or criminal damage.
The police districts in the crime statistics are used to break down violations of the law according to the body that is ascribed as owner of the criminal proceedings, on the date Statistics Norway takes an extraction of the basic data. In addition to the 27 police districts (see Standard classifications), the Governor of Svalbard and some central Special agencies can also be owners (i.e. have responsibility for follow-up) of criminal cases during different stages of the criminal proceedings process. The Norwegian National Authority for Investigation and Prosecution of Economic and Environmental Crime (Økokrim), National Criminal Investigation Service (Kripos) and the National Police Immigration Service (PU) can register and have their own cases in the first phase of the criminal proceedings, and therefore be included in the category Special agency in the statistics on reported crimes. Økokrim and Kripos also have prosecuting authority and can decide criminal cases, and are therefore included in the category Special agency in the statistics on investigated crimes.
Key concepts and delimitations in the statistics about the civil administration of justice:
The police districts are used in the statistics within the civil administration of justice at elementary level to break down which district is responsible for the follow-up of the case processing. An application for payment is normally registered with the enforcement officer in the police district where the defaulter has general legal domicile at the end of the relevant year. Physical persons have legal domicile where they live. With regard to execution cases, the legal domicile of companies registered in the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises is where the activity’s head office is located according to the register. Where the defaulter does not have a known address in Norway, the case may be processed for the last known address where the claim applies to an obligation incurred in Norway, or an obligation that is to be met in Norway. Where the defaulter lives abroad, but receives earnings from Norway, the case will be processed by the enforcement officer where the party paying the earnings is located (Enforcement Act). A debt settlement case can only be lodged when the defaulter lives in Norway, and must be lodged for the enforcement officer where the debtor lives (Debt Settlement Act).
Application for write of execution: A party with a pecuniary claim that has not been paid by the debtor can demand payment of the claim where an enforceable basis for execution exists. The enforcement officer shall thus ensure that the party with a legal claim for payment is paid by undertaking an execution lien in the defaulter’s property or an arrestment of the defaulter’s wages or earnings (Enforcement Act). The basis for execution is broken down into the general basis for execution (Enforcement Act l § 4-1), and the special basis for execution (Enforcement Act § 7-2). The most common basis for execution is a ruling by the Conciliation Board or district court (Enforcement Act § 4-1), and a debenture or written document (Enforcement Act § 7-2). A claimant may, in an application for writ of execution, demand payment for more than one pecuniary claim against the same defaulter. Payment can be demanded in the same application from more defaulters when they have a joint obligation, and payment can be demanded from everyone in the same district (Enforcement Act § 7-4).
A debt settlement gives persons with serious debt problems the opportunity to sort out their finances by agreeing with the creditors that the debtor will repay as much as possible of the debt within a specific period of time – normally 5 years (Debt Settlement Act). After this time, the debtor will normally be free of debt. This also applies even where the debtor is unable to pay some of the creditors.
Key concepts and delimitations in the statistics about immigration administration:
The police districts receive and prepare applications for residence permits, travel documents, permanent residence and citizenship. In some types of cases, the police districts can also grant permits where it is clear that the criteria have been met. The International Police Immigration Service (PU) registers asylum seekers and investigates their identity and travel route. The PU is also responsible for the extradition of persons who are not legally domiciled in Norway. The foreign service missions receive various types of applications and process the majority of visa applications. The foreign service missions help the UDI to collect and control data and documents in residence and asylum cases. Cases concerning resettlement refugees are sent directly to the UDI.
Cases received: A case that is registered as received by the police. See Population under Production.
Asylum applications: Applications for protection and recognition as a refugee. Only covers applications that are submitted in Norway.
Other cases: Other cases include cases relating to the Public Administration Act, expulsion cases and cases relating to identity.
Travel documents: Foreign nationals with a residence permit in Norway may be issued with Norwegian travel documents for refugees or foreign national passports if they have been granted refugee status in Norway. Persons who have been granted residence on humanitarian grounds can also obtain a Norwegian foreign national passport after assessment of the case. Others with residence permits who can document that they are unable to obtain a passport from the authorities in their native country may also be issued with a Norwegian foreign national passport.
Work and residence incl. EEA: Applications for work permits where the purpose of the stay is to work in Norway, in addition to permits granted in accordance with EEA regulations.
Registration system for EEA nationals: A temporary registration system was introduced on 1 October 2009 for non-Nordic EEA nationals, which was subsequently a part of Norway’s implementation of the EU directive on free mobility. Nationals of Bulgaria and Romania still had to apply for a residence permit in line with the EEA regulations, since transitional arrangements for them were still in force. The registration system was made permanent on 1 January 2010. This means that all non-Nordic EU nationals must register with the Norwegian authorities when they intend staying in Norway for more than 3 months. In order to obtain a personal identification number and to report the move to Norway, the EU nationals who are covered by the system must demonstrate that they are registered.
Permanent residence: Applications for permanent residence can be issued if a person has been living in Norway for three years with a valid residence or work permit which forms the basis for such permission. The permit entitles the holder to permanent residence and general entitlement to accept work in Norway.
Family immigration: Applications for permits where the applicant is or will be a close family member of a Norwegian national or a foreign national who is legally domiciled in Norway.
Citizenship: pplication for Norwegian citizenship.
Studies: Application for permits where the applicant is to study in Norway. Also includes applications for au pair permits and apprentice/trainee permits.
Deportation: ases where consideration is given to whether a foreign national must leave Norway and can only return if special criteria are met. As a general rule, the decision is also valid in other countries covered by the Schengen agreement, and for a minimum of two years.
Visas: Applications to stay in Norway for a specific period of time, normally up to three months. Visas are normally granted for just one visit, but may be granted for more. During the period that the visa is valid, the applicant is also entitled to visit other countries in the Schengen area.
Forced return by police: The police have the authority to forcibly return asylum seekers to another country in Europe where the asylum application is to be processed there. The police will also forcibly return to their native country previous asylum seekers and others who are illegally domiciled in Norway and who do not leave voluntarily, as well as other foreign nationals who are subject to deportation due to a criminal conviction. Expulsion and/or deportation are carried out in accordance with the Immigration Act. It is mainly the police districts that issue decisions and implement decisions on expulsion. Deportation decisions are mainly issued by the UDI after the case has been established by a police district. Deportation decisions are implemented by both the PU and police districts.
This is the total number of persons who are subject to a forced return in the three categories given below:
Asylum: This is all forced returns that are carried out because the person has an obligation to leave Norway based on a final rejection of an asylum application. Dublin: This is all forced returns that are carried out where the person has to go to a country that is a member of the cooperation under the Dublin II Regulation. Others: This category covers all other persons subject to a forced return, mainly convicted criminals and persons who are refused entry at the border.
Key concepts and delimitations in the education statistics:
Current education/registered students as at October the first are registered at an educational establishment.
The following Statistics Norway standards are used:
Expenses are mainly classified according to the definitions in the IMF’s Government Finance Statistics Manual 2001 (GFSM2001). In some cases, the definitions are deviated from in order to give a more realistic picture of the resource use.
Category of offence (see appendix A in NOS Crime statistics and appendix 9.3 in Thorsen and Haslund 2008).
Group of offence (see appendix B in NOS Crime statistics and appendix 9.3 in Thorsen and Haslund 2008).
Police district (There are 27 police districts, see also Database for standard classifications).
Education is grouped according to the Norwegian Standard Classification of Education, NUS2000. NUS2000 is a six-digit code system that classifies education activities by level and subject. Internationally, UNESCO’s International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is used, which is also based on level and subject classifications.
Population registered at January the first in the statistics year, per 1 000 inhabitants.
National and police district.
Frequency and timeliness
Accounting figures and personnel figures have been specially prepared for Police and prosecution StatRes, and can replace previous reporting to international bodies such as the UN, EU and Eurostat.
Further information is available from About the statistics for the statistics areas below:
For a more detailed description of microdata, see About the statistics for the statistics areas below:
Background and purpose
The aim of StatRes is to develop and disseminate statistics and indicators of a high quality on resource input, activities, services, production and results of public sector activities. Public sector activities in this context are limited to central government. StatRes is pivotal to the development of statistics on the public sector, and aims to represent a framework for further developing the statistics that cover central government.
Further information is also available under Purpose and History in About the statistics for the following individual statistics areas:
Users and applications
The country's inhabitants, as electors and citizens, are a key target group. The media, justice sector and researchers are also key user groups.
Coherence with other statistics
The indicators in StatRes are based on, and must be viewed in context with, Statistics Norway's specialist subject statistics in the area.
Statistics Act § 2-1, 2-2, 3-2 (Questionnaires/registers).
Statistics Norway has developed new personnel statistics and new accounting statistics based on existing data held by Statistics Norway. The statistics also cover a sample of the most central indicators from Statistics Norway’s crime statistics, including the Living Conditions Surveys and Education statistics.
Data sources and sampling
The different indicators are taken from various sources:
Account indicators: the data basis is taken from the Government Agency for Financial Management’s basic data for formulating White Paper no. 3 – the national accounts.
Personnel indicators: Statistics Norway’s register-based personnel statistics are based on individually-based register data from various registers. Information on employment conditions are taken from the Employer/Employee Register (Norwegian Labour and Welfare Service) and the Wages and Tax Deductions Register (Directorate of Taxes), and salary registers. The Central Coordinating Register of Legal Entities and the Register of Business Enterprises provide details of industries and sectors for enterprises and underlying businesses. In addition, the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Service's registers of persons on labour market initiatives, recipients of maternity pay and cash benefits, as well as Statistics Norway's register of certified sick leave are also used.
Crime statistics: The police service’s criminal record system (BL/STRASAK/PAL) and interviews in the Living Conditions Surveys.
Debt settlements and applications for write of execution: The National Police Directorate issues statistics on debt settlements and applications for writ of execution. The statistics are retrieved from the case processing system SIAN (Statens Innkrevingssentral og Alminnelig Namsmann). SIAN is a common system for the Norwegian National Collection Agency and law enforcement offices, and consists of a case processing module for enforcement proceedings, Conciliation Board processing, debt settlements and other civil activities, plus a calculation module. The Norwegian National Collection Agency is the system control centre for SIAN, but the National Police Directorate has right of ownership to all data.
Received and processed cases by the police – immigration administration: Statistics on police work relating to immigration regulation are reported by UDI and based on the Aliens Register. The Aliens Register is a common database for immigration administration in Norway. The various case processing systems that are used in the immigration administration (DUF, NORVIS and SESAM are the most important) update the information in the Aliens Register and retrieve information from the register. Between the Aliens Register and the Central Population Register, updates also take place on a daily basis. IMDi’s National Introduction Register also retrieves information from the Aliens Register.
Forces returns by police: The number returned by the police is provided by the International Police Immigration Service.
Student figures: The universities’ and university colleges’ administrative systems M-STAS (Micromachine-based- STudy Administrative System) and FS (in Norwegian - common student system).
The police and prosecution area in StatRes is organisationally limited to cover the Higher Prosecuting Authority, National Police Directorate, Police Districts, National Criminal Investigation Service, Norwegian National Authority for Investigation and Prosecution of Economic and Environmental Crime, Central Mobile Police Service, National Police Immigration Service, National Police Computing and Material Service, Public Prosecutors, Norwegian Police University College and Norwegian Bureau for the Investigation of Police Affairs.
For a further description of the samples for the individual indicators, see About the statistics for the statistics areas below:
Collection of data, editing and estimations
The data basis for the indicators is taken from a number of different external sources, see Data source and sampling.
A number of controls and revisions of the statistical basis are carried out on the statistics that are published in Police and prosecution StatRes. Some revisions are also made of the accounts and personnel statistics published in this field.
Resource input measured in NOK: the data basis that is taken from the basic data of the Government Agency for Financial Management (SSØ) used for compiling Report to the Storting no. 3 - National accounts, is checked against the printed version of Report to the Storting no. 3.
For a further description of the revisions for the individual indicators, see About the statistics for the statistics areas below:
Resource input measured in NOK:
Resource input measured in NOK is calculated in the same way as for other areas of activity in StatRes, where the accounts data sent from the Government Agency for Financial Management forms the data source. This data source includes accounts data from most of the activities in central government. In addition to the information in the national accounts, information is also included on which activities have reported the various data and what sub-posts have been used. The data from the Government Agency for Financial Management is adapted by Statistics Norway for StatRes purposes, for example to create a pivotal table of the data set.
The pivotal table is the starting point for the following procedure to ascertain the levels of the various indicators:
- The sections in the national accounts that correspond to the organisational units in these statistics are identified. These are the following sections: 440 National Police Directorate - police service and administration department (lensmann) 441 Oslo police district 442 Norwegian Police University College 445 Higher Prosecuting Authority 460 Norwegian Bureau for the Investigation of Police Affairs
- The figures are summed up and grouped based on circular 101 by the Ministry of Finance.
- Costs incurred by the police activities in sections other than the aforementioned are added.
- Non-reported pension premiums to cover the pension obligations of the employees are added to reported wage expenses. As an estimate for these obligations, 15 per cent of reported wages are used, excluding employer's NI contributions.
- Recognised wage reimbursements are reclassified as wage reductions, i.e. deducted from the reported wage expenses.
Contracted man-years adjusted for long term leaves are the sum of the contracted working hours in all employment contracts converted to full-time jobs, excluding certified sick leave recommended by a doctor and leave of absence to care for a child. Man-years are calculated as a percentage of a normal full-time position (37.5 hours per week). This is based on the working hours at the time of reference, which is a week in November. The number of contracted man-years adjusted for long-term leaves will not be identical to actual man-years worked, since the statistics do not intercept overtime working, self-certificated sick leave, holidays and other deviations from contracted working hours beyond certified sick leave recommended by a doctor and leave of absence to care for a child.
With regard to the statistics on offences reported to the police, calculations are made of the rate per 1 000 population on the basis of the population statistics as of 1 January in the relevant statistics year
For calculations of offences solved, per cent and recidivism, see Definitions of the main concepts and variables under Definition.
The indicators from Statistics Norway's crime statistics are based on data that contain sensitive personal data and information on criminal offences that are regarded to be very sensitive. Statistics Norway therefore manages the data basis of the crime statistics with great caution. In connection with publishing statistics with few units, consideration of personal protection is given in every single case.
Comparability over time and space
Police and prosecution StatRes publish indicators from the years 2005-2008. Police and prosecution StatRes was first published in 2008, with indicators from the years 2005-2007. Unless otherwise specified, the individual indicators are comparable with the statistics year 2005.
Sources of error and uncertainty
Resource input measured in NOK:
The activities within the police and prosecution keep accounts in accordance with the rules of the central government's appropriation regulations, including circular 101. The Office of the Auditor General of Norway carries out controls to ensure that the accounting is in accordance with these rules. Errors in the accounts data in relation to these rules are only expected to be marginal.
One weakness of the data basis is that the pension premiums are not charged at activity level. This is compensated for by Statistics Norway when processing the figures. The correction of 15 Per cent can deviate somewhat from the actual size, but Statistics Norway believes that a theoretically correct mark-up will never be far from the estimate of 15 per cent.
However, the accounts data has certain weaknesses such as the tool for measuring resource input in NOK, which can entail measurement errors. One such weakness is that the capital stock is not capitalised and depreciated, and no costs are registered in connection with the binding of government capital brought about by the activity. Inadequate registration of the capital costs in the form of depreciation and calculated interest costs normally entail the indicators for resource input measured in NOK represented by own production being lower than is actually the case. The Based on the fact that book investments in all the published years has been NOK 0, the basis is, however, that the capital stock in the relevant activities here is relatively small and that omission of depreciation and imputed interest costs do not represent any major measurement errors.
Neither is using cash accounting instead of the accruals principle expected to have anything other than a marginal effect on the measured levels of the various amounts.
The boundary between the purchase of certain goods that for accounting purposes are classified as the purchase of goods and services, and major acquisitions that are classified as investments, can be set incorrectly. The fact that no police activities from 2005 to 2007 classified any acquisitions as investments can indicate that the threshold for classifying acquisitions as investments is disproportionately high. This alone indicates that the indicator for operating expenses is too high and the investment indicator is too low. The effect of the operating expenses being too high is offset by the effect of the capital costs not being included in the operating expenses, ref. the aforementioned.
For a more detailed description of Sources of error and uncertainty, see About the statistics for the statistics areas below: