# Stable amount of household waste

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The amount of household waste was nearly 2.3 million tonnes in 2016. The last four years the amount has been at about the same level.

If we compare the amount of household waste generated today with the amount generated in 2010, the amount has increased by 9 per cent. Each inhabitant discarded 433 kilos of household waste last year. This is 6 kilos less than in 2015, but 9 kilos more than in 2010, according to the statistics Waste from households.

### Consumption grows faster than the amount of waste

While the amount of household waste was reduced by 0.5 per cent, the consumption volume of households grew by 1.5 per cent from 2015 to 2016. In the years up to 2008, the amount of household waste increased by 5 per cent each year, on average. This was more than the growth in consumption volume.

During the last six years, the increase in waste amounts have been less than the increase in consumption. In 20 years, the increase in the amount of waste and consumption volume has been approximately the same.

#### Figure 1. Consumption (constant basic prices) and household waste. Index 1996=1

 Household consumpion (constant basic prices) Household waste 1996 1.00 1.00 1997 1.03 1.05 1998 1.06 1.14 1999 1.10 1.17 2000 1.15 1.21 2001 1.17 1.26 2002 1.21 1.35 2003 1.25 1.40 2004 1.32 1.46 2005 1.37 1.54 2006 1.44 1.62 2007 1.53 1.70 2008 1.55 1.74 2009 1.55 1.71 2010 1.61 1.75 2011 1.64 1.83 2012 1.69 1.82 2013 1.73 1.89 2014 1.76 1.89 2015 1.80 1.89 2016 1.82 1.88

### More plastic for material recovery

The amount of household waste delivered for material recovery was nearly 870 000 tonnes in 2016, including waste for fermenting and composting. For certain materials sent for material recovery, we can see some continuing trends:

• The amount of plastic has increased the last three years, and increased by 7 per cent from 2015 to 2016.
• The amount of glass has had a steady increase the last four years, and increased by 4 per cent from 2015 to 2016.
• The amount of metals has gone up the last three years, and went up by 6 per cent from 2015 to 2016.
• The amount of paper and cardboard was reduced for the fifth year in a row, and has fallen 4 per cent from 2015 to 2016.

#### Figure 2. Houshold waste sent to material recovery. 2016

 Houshold waste Paper 30 % 258222 Wetorganic waste 21 % 182811 Metals 10 % 89216 Glass 7 % 62258 EE-waste 6 % 48341 Plastic 4 % 38357 Other 22 % 188678

The share of household waste sent for material recovery was 38 per cent in 2016, about the same level as the year before. It was also an equal share of waste sent for incineration and depositing. Almost 80 per cent of the waste sent for incineration was utilised for energy recovery.

#### Figure 3. Houshold waste, by disposal

 Sent for recovery Incinerated Deposited in landfills Other 2006 40 39 18 3 2007 43 37 19 1 2008 44 38 18 1 2009 43 41 14 1 2010 42 50 6 2 2011 40 56 2 2 2012 40 56 2 2 2013 39 57 2 1 2014 37 58 2 2 2015 38 58 3 1 2016 38 58 3 1

### Increase in food waste for biogas production

Some of the increase in the amount of household waste sent for material recovery is attributable to food waste and other wet organic waste, which went up by 5 per cent from 2015 to 2016. The amount of waste for biogas production increased by 13 per cent from 2015 to 2016, and was doubled compared to 2012. Wet organic material delivered for composting declined by 9 per cent from 2015 to 2016, and by 30 per cent since 2012. In the same period of these shifts from composting to biogas production, more biogas production plants have been installed, while some of the composting plants have been shut down.

In about 150 municipalities the food waste goes with the mixed waste, mostly for incineration.

### Fee calculation basis still unchanged

For 2016, the income per inhabitant from waste fees was NOK 993, while the fee calculation basis per inhabitant was NOK 1 044. As in previous years, there is a difference between the income per inhabitant from fees and the fee calculation basis per inhabitant.

The total income from fees in 2016 was almost 5 per cent lower than the sum of the fee calculation basis the same year. This difference also applies to the period 2012- 2016. The increase in fee calculation basis for the period 2012- 2016 was 15 per cent, while the increase in income from fees was 13 per cent during the same period.

## Costs in the municipal waste sector

Costs in the municipal waste sector are covered by fees paid by the users of the service. Regulations stipulate that fees shall cover all the costs in the municipal waste service, and cannot exceed the actual costs for providing that service, i.e. laid-down cost principle. Accurately calculating income from fees to cover the real calculation basis in a single year is complicated. The municipalities are therefore allowed to decide on fee levels so that income from fees over a five-year period equals the fee calculation basis.