About the statistics
Name and topic
Name: Turnover in oil and gas, manufacturing, mining and electricity supply
Topic: Energy and manufacturing
Division for Business Cycle Statistics
Definitions of the main concepts and variables
Local unit (establishment): An enterprise or part of an enterprise that is located in one particular place and can be identified geographically.
Enterprise: The smallest combination of legal units that is an organisational unit producing goods or services and that benefits from a certain degree of autonomy in decision-making.
Altinn: The Reporting portal for delivery of figures electronically to Statistics Norway.
NACE: Standard for industrial classification used by EUROSTAT. Based on the UN's international standard for industrial classification, ISIC Rev. 3.
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) : The standard is primarily a statistical standard. It forms the basis for classifying units according to main activity in the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises (CRE). The use of common standards is essential in enabling the comparison and analysis of statistical data at national/international level and over time. The standard is identical to NACE. However, a fifth figure (subclass) is added to the standard to create a national Norwegian level.
Processing level: The most detailed level of the statistics.
Seasonally-adjusted figures: Time series for which calendar and seasonal effects have been removed. X12-ARIMA is used to calculate these figures.
Unadjusted figures: Raw data figures with primary information from the respondent.
Value index: Statistically comparable figures that are used, for example, to throw light on the development of turnover over time.
Imputation: An estimated value for a missing observation.
Accrual: A method that is used to adjust a reported value (total turnover and self-produced turnover) in order to correspond to the calendar month in cases where submitted figures are given for a different period.
Period of turnover: The period for which the turnover is reported.
Period of shutdown: Shutdown in production due to vacation, strike, maintenance etc.
Total turnover for the establishment: Total turnover (including self-production), liable to duty, excl. VAT.
Turnover, self-production: Total turnover of self-production, liable to duty and duty-free sales, excl. VAT.
From 2002 to 2008, the survey was classified according to the Standard Industrial Classification 2002 (SIC2002), which is a Norwegian adaptation of NACE Rev.1 (EUROSTAT). As from January 2009, SIC2002 has been replaced by the Standard Industrial Classification 2007 (SIC2007), which is a Norwegian adaptation of NACE Rev. 2 (EUROSTAT). SIC2007 forms the basis for coding units according to principal activity in the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises. The use of common standards is essential in enabling the comparison and analysis of statistical data at national/international level and over time.
The survey is also classified according to EUROSTAT's end-use categories (Main Industrial Groupings, MIG). The end-use categories (MIGs) are based on the 3-digit level industrial groupings in SIC2007. Six end-use categories are included in the survey:
Consumer goods (E3+E4)
The following table summarises the most important industries included in the different end-use categories:
Main industries included
Services in oil and gas extraction, wood and wood products, Pulp, paper and paper products, Basic chemicals and Basic metals
Machinery and equipment and Building of ships, boats and oil platforms, Repair and installation of machinery
Manufacture of furniture
Food products, Printing and reproduction, Basic pharmaceuticals
Consumer goods (E3+E4)
Manufacture of furniture, Food products, Printing and reproduction, Basic pharmaceuticals
Mining of coal, Oil and gas extraction, Refined petroleum products and Electricity, gas and steam supply
The objective of this classification is to provide an activity breakdown of NACE, which is more detailed. The classification of the different units is based on the application of the produced products. It should be noted that the MIGs are not comparable in size, in particular the consumer durables heading is smaller than the others. For a complete description of industries covered in each MIG, see Commission regulation (EC) No 656/2007 .
National level only
Frequency and timeliness
The statistics on turnover has a monthly frequency and is released about 35 days after the reference month
The statistics on turnover is reported to EUROSTAT on a monthly basis.
Non-revised and revised micro data are stored in accordance with Statistics Norway's guidelines for storing computer files.
Background and purpose
The statistics on turnover is part of a system of short-term statistics compiled to monitor the economy. The primary goal of the survey is to monitor the level and development of sales in mining and quarrying, oil and gas extraction, manufacturing, electricity and gas supply. Turnover data have been collected since February1996,however the survey has existed in its current form since May 2002. As from March 2006, all results are divided by market. A new method for inflating sample data to population level (see paragraph 3.6) was implemented in January 2009. Results dating back to 2006 are recalculated using this method.
As from January 2009, all results will refer to SIC2007 (see paragraph 4.2). The historical series are recalculated according to this version of SIC, and results for total turnover dating back to 1998 are available in the Statbank database. Results classified by market are available back to 2000. Historical series based on SIC2002 (see paragraph 6.1) also remain available for the period 1998 to 2008.
The survey is financed exclusively by government appropriations.
Users and applications
The results are used in internal controls in other economic trend surveys such as Index of production and Quarterly national accounts . Other users include financial and analytical institutions and, to some extent, public institutions (the Ministry of Finance and Norges Bank among others).
Equal treatment of users
No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 08:00. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given inthe Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.
Coherence with other statistics
The Statistics on turnover is a leading indicator of future turnover of oil and gas extraction, mining and quarrying, manufacturing, electricity and gas supply, and is one of several indicators that monitor the performance of the economy. The correlation with the following statistics is utilised for control purposes:
- Index of production
- Statistics on new orders. Manufacturing
- Quarterly investment statistics Manufacturing, Mining and quarrying and Electricity supply
- Economic trends for Norway and abroad
- Manufacturing statistics. Structural data
- Quarterly national accounts
- External trade in goods
The Statistics on turnover. Oil and gas extraction, mining and quarrying, manufacturing, electricity and gas supply and the Index of production have joint data collection.
The Statistics Act 21st of June 2019 number 32 $10 and $20.
Council Regulation (EC) no. 1165/98 of 19 May 1998 concerning short-term statistics
Commission Regulation 586/2001
Commission and Council Regulation 1158/2005
Commission and Council Regulation 1983/2005
Commission Regulation 1503/2006
Commission Regulation 656/2007
Commission Regulation 472/2008
The population covers all establishments in mining and quarrying (SIC 05, SIC 07-08, SIC 09.9), oil and gas extraction (SIC 06, 09.1), manufacturing (SIC 10-33) and electricity and gas supply (SIC 35), see Standard Industrial Classification 2007 (SIC2007) . The Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises defines the population, and the establishment is the observation unit in the survey. (See paragraph 4.1 for a complete definition of establishment and enterprise.)
Data sources and sampling
The survey uses turnover data collected by questionnaire from the units included in the sample, in addition to information from the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises. Annual Manufacturing statistics , monthly statistics on External trade in goods and annual Electricity statistics are used to estimate the total turnover. Monthly statistics on External trade in goods are used for classifying results by market.
The sample consists of 1780 establishments (January 2009). This includes all establishments with 100 employees or more, or establishments with a turnover of at least 10 per cent of the publishing level. The remaining units are drawn based on stratification and optimal allocation, proportional to the size of the unit measured by the number of employees (PPS). The sample does not include establishments with less than 10 employees.
1 - (> 100)
2 - (50-99)
31 per cent of the remaining 1310 establishments.
3 - (20-49)
41 per cent of the remaining 1310 establishments.
4 - (10-19)
27 per cent of the remaining 1310 establishments.
5 - (< 10)
Collection of data, editing and estimations
The survey is based on data collected by questionnaires. The questionnaires are returned electronically via Altinn. The questionnaire is sent at the end of the month. The deadline for returning the questionnaire is normally the 15th of the following month. Establishments registered with an e-mail address in Altinn are notified by e-mail when the questionnaire is available on the internet.
The establishment's local office normally fills in the questionnaire, but in some cases the head office reports data for several units. Establishments that fail to return the questionnaire receive a reminder within a week of the deadline. A new deadline of seven days is set. Establishments that still fail to return the questionnaire receive a second reminder and a compulsory fine if they do not return the questionnaire within five days.
The questionnaires are downloaded from the Internet, and the data are automatically checked for duplicates and errors in totals. The figures are revised on the basis of a revision program (for example errors regarding reporting in NOK million or major deviations from previous reported figures). Where there are considerable deviations, the establishment is contacted. In cases of extreme deviations, further revisions are carried out.
Mining and quarrying and Manufacturing: About 70 per cent of the total turnover is covered by the sample. In addition, data from the annual Manufacturing statistics is used to estimate the turnover for the establishments not covered by the sample. This is done by a stratified ratio estimator.
Extraction of oil and natural gas: Total turnover for the industry Extraction and related services is estimated by using export figures from monthly statistics on External trade in goods. Total export turnover is inflated to total turnover by using a factor giving the home market share. Data from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) are used to update the home market share on an annual basis (January).
Electricity and gas supply: Total turnover is estimated as the sum of sample figures for the industry, multiplied with a fixed factor. The factor is calculated as the sample coverage of turnover in the annual Electricity statistics. This factor is updated in January each year.
Division of total turnover by market: Administrative data from customs declarations are used for classifying results by market. The ratio between estimated total turnover and the sum of exports for a particular industry determines the distribution by home and export market. The product classification in the statistics on External trade in goods is used to aggregate export turnover for each industry. The home market share is defined as the difference between total turnover and export turnover.
Seasonal adjustments: The turnover will normally vary from month to month in several industries due to factors such as the length of month, number of working days and holidays such as Easter. Pre-adjusted series are calculated and published in order to deal with some of these effects (Calendar adjusted series).
Improved method from 2013: The new method takes into account the Norwegian calendar and thereby improving the quality of the seasonally adjusted results. The change has been applied from the July 2013 publishing, and concerns the pre-treatment method (calendar adjustment). The new method adjusts for different effects of working-days in each industry and distinctively Norwegian effects in relation to moving holidays (Easter, Pentecost, and Ascension Day). The new method also adjusts for fixed Norwegian public holidays (1 January, 1 and 17 May) and for the Christmas holiday (24-26 December).
Seasonal effects are also corrected for and seasonally adjusted figures are published. These adjustments are carried out by X12-Arima, and multiplicative forms are the main method. Aggregated series are adjusted directly. Routines are updated on a yearly basis.
The index for oil and gas extraction, mining and quarrying, manufacturing and electricity, gas and steam supply (total index) is adjusted indirectly as a result of the underlying main aggregated series. Macro-controls are carried out each month based on results from the index of production, producer price statistics, new orders and the business tendency survey. A part of these macro-controls is an evaluation of seasonally adjusted figures for all published aggregates.
Confidential micro data: According to §8 of the Statistics Act, collected data are subject to secrecy and are to be kept or destroyed in a secure manner. Any use of the data must be in accordance with the rules set out by the Data Inspectorate.
Time series that are not to be published: The publication of data is subject to the provisions of §7 of the Statistics Act. The main rule is that data should not be published if they can be traced back to the respondent, i.e. figures for which less than three respondents make up the foundation for a cell in the table, figures where one respondent represents more than 90 per cent of the total value, or figures where two respondents represent at least 95 per cent of the total value.
Unpublished data: Revised data that are not published are subject to secrecy. This means they are unavailable to users without explicit approval. Such agreements only apply to internal users.
Comparability over time and space
As from January 2009, has the Standard Industrial Classification 2002 (SIC2002) been replaced by the Standard Industrial Classification 2007 (SIC 2007) (see paragraph 2.1). The historical series based on this new version of SIC have been recalculated back to 1998. For the years 1998 to 2005, a macro-approach is used for back-casting the time series, and for the years 2006-2008 the survey is recalculated by a detailed re-working of individual data (micro-approaches). Users of the data must ensure they use results based on the same version of SIC when making comparisons over time. When looking at changes from January 1998 to December 2008 either the series based on SIC2002 or the series based on SIC2007 must be used.
Historical series based on SIC2002 remain available in the Statbank database under Completed time series. However, as from January 2009, only series based on SIC2007 will be continued. To get an overview of possible changes in industrial groupings, see the article on new Standard for Industrial Classification .
Sources of error and uncertainty
Measurement errors are caused by the questionnaire or the respondents internal system for obtaining the data. Examples are ambiguous questions, misunderstood questions or erroneous data from the respondents. In the Statistics on turnover, errors in reported figures may originate from misunderstandings of the concept of turnover or the definition of the main variables used in the survey. Unambiguous guidelines and definitions are therefore emphasised. The use of incorrect units of measurement can occur since the figures should be reported in NOK million. This type of error will become evident during the revision of the data.
Processing errors can occur when Statistics Norway processes the data. Typical examples are misinterpretations of answers (1 may be interpreted as 7 and so on) or that correct answers for some reason are assumed to be false and corrected. The introduction of Altinn has helped to reduce such errors, as data from electronic questionnaires are loaded directly into the system. Questionnaires that are not verified by the optical reading are dealt with manually. Thus there is room for human error, but considerable deviations will normally become evident during the revision of the data.
Errors of non-response refer to errors that either occur due to missing questionnaires or due to blank boxes in the questionnaires. The response rate when the deadline expires lies around 98 per cent. Critical units, i.e. units that have a considerable impact on the results on a detailed level aggregation (2-digit NACE), are contacted by telephone. Missing questionnaires are mainly imputed automatically, based on previous reported figures (cold-deck method).
Sampling errors refer to uncertainties that occur in sample surveys as opposed to full counts. The Statistics on turnover covers about 70 per cent of the turnover in the population. In order to ensure a high degree of relevance at the lowest cost possible, great effort is put into including all large units in the population in the sample. Uncertainty due to sampling errors is estimated when inflating sample data to population level, and the result is compared with figures from previous months. The coefficient of variation for the aggregate Manufacturing and mining and quarrying is estimated to be 1.6 (January 2009).
Coverage errors refer to errors in registers that define the population, in this case the Central Register of Establishments and Enterprises. As a result of such errors, units may be incorrectly included in or excluded from the population. Other problems are related to delays in the update of the registers and units that are incorrectly classified. From experience it is known that a limited share of the population units is incorrectly classified. This is usually due to misleading or insufficient information at a certain time. Calculations of the size and significance of such errors have not been carried out. However, such errors are not considered to be greater than for other quantitative short-term statistics.
Modelling errors are mainly related to problems with the seasonal adjustment of time series. Such problems are caused by deviation from the conditions that form the basis for the model used. Typical problems are related to public holidays such as Christmas and Easter. X12-ARIMA generates a number of indicators that are used to evaluate the quality of the seasonal adjustment. These indicators have identified a stable seasonal pattern.
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