255695
/en/jord-skog-jakt-og-fiskeri/statistikker/binfo/aar
255695
Agricultural incomes up 10 per cent
statistikk
2017-02-14T08:00:00.000Z
Agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing;Income and consumption
en
binfo, Farmers’ income and debt, agricultural income, income from self-employment, farmersIncome and wealth, Agriculture , Income and consumption, Agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing
true
On average, entrepreneurial income from agriculture for farmers amounted to NOK 192 000 in 2015. This represents an increase of NOK 18 000, or 10 per cent, from the previous year. The gross income averaged NOK 642 000. Entrepreneurial income from agriculture amounted to 30 per cent of the gross income in 2015.

Farmers’ income and debt

Updated

Next update

Key figures

10.3 %

increase in entrepreneurial income from agriculture for farmers

Farmers’ income and debt
2015Change in per cent
2014 - 20152010 - 2015
Personal holders (number)39 600-2.4-9.2
 
Average income for holders (NOK)642 3006.732.5
Wages and salaries263 7003.227.1
Entrepreneurial income from agriculture191 60010.323.8
Other entrepreneurial income73 3002.423.6
Pensions52 4008.978.8
Capital income etc.61 30015.281.4
 
Average debt for holders (NOK)1 988 0005.4..

See more tables on this subject

Table 1 
Entrepreneurial income from agriculture for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder

Entrepreneurial income from agriculture for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder
Entrepreneurial income from agricultureHolders by entrepreneurial income from agriculture
TotalPer holderHolders, totalWithout positive income1 - 49 999 NOK50 000 - 99 999 NOK100 000 - 249 999 NOK250 000 - 399 999 NOK400 000 and more
NOK millionNOKNumberPer cent
20136 794165 10041 161301513171214
20147 045173 70040 557291415171215
20157 586191 60039 600301214161116
 
2015
County
Østfold439205 5002 135291117161018
Akershus and Oslo417202 4002 059291116181016
Hedmark664210 2003 160291213161317
Oppland794181 9004 366301114171316
Buskerud332154 3002 14830131720912
Vestfold329237 5001 38532111615918
Telemark140101 2001 3854218131476
Aust-Agder91138 60065840151314811
Vest-Agder140136 3001 030411412121110
Rogaland1 038258 4004 015221214171223
Hordaland328109 8002 9834018131488
Sogn og Fjordane436153 5002 839271416191311
Møre og Romsdal448178 8002 503331212151316
Sør-Trøndelag526190 7002 756321011151318
Nord-Trøndelag731247 4002 955261113141423
Nordland489239 5002 041241012161325
Troms - Romsa183206 000890251112191420
Finnmark - Finnmárku63214 1002923315713922
 
Type of farming
Cereals and oil seeds715106 3006 7273615201775
Other field crops567128 9004 3974517121169
Horticulture and permanent crops340276 0001 231291212171021
Cattle - dairying2 157363 8005 929635192840
Cattle - rearing and fattening567151 1003 75532111820119
Cattle - mixed491424 4001 157524162251
Sheep85990 5009 4873718181774
Various grazing livestock282103 7002 7204813111288
Granivores1 009470 5002 1441257141646
Mixed cropping69318 00021626137151129
Mixed livestock250415 5006021746131347
Mixed crops - livestock280226 8001 23532131115920
 
Agricultural area in use
0 - 4 decares307305 8001 003301210141025
5 - 49 decares19950 2003 96259209733
50 - 99 decares43962 2007 0595021141032
100 - 199 decares1 335120 30011 0983215181997
200 - 299 decares1 519220 6006 88518816221719
300 - 499 decares1 941321 4006 03712510192134
500 decares or more1 847519 3003 556825131953
 
Holders by sex
Males6 861204 10033 607291214161218
Females725121 0005 9933715151698

Table 2 
Average income for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder. NOK

Average income for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder. NOK
Total gross incomeWages and salariesEntrepreneurial income from agricultureOther entrepreneurial incomePensionsCapital income etc
2013569 200243 100165 10069 50045 00046 500
2014602 000255 400173 70071 60048 10053 200
2015642 300263 700191 60073 30052 40061 300
 
2015
County
Østfold764 500299 800205 500103 50061 60094 200
Akershus and Oslo858 800326 700202 400136 80066 100126 800
Hedmark642 200243 400210 20087 60054 50046 500
Oppland588 100236 300181 90073 40043 50053 000
Buskerud723 800288 500154 300116 60055 000109 400
Vestfold830 700334 500237 50093 90056 200108 700
Telemark631 700318 200101 20079 30065 50067 500
Aust-Agder581 100253 500138 60076 00063 50049 500
Vest-Agder603 700281 000136 30069 00057 60059 800
Rogaland715 300260 500258 40066 50048 50081 500
Hordaland589 700326 300109 80051 70057 40044 500
Sogn og Fjordane548 400246 600153 50045 50056 50046 500
Møre og Romsdal572 600246 800178 80062 10052 10032 900
Sør-Trøndelag590 800249 400190 70055 20044 50051 000
Nord-Trøndelag634 600246 900247 40060 30035 80044 200
Nordland541 000183 400239 50042 60054 80020 700
Troms - Romsa525 900184 300206 00059 40053 70022 400
Finnmark - Finnmárku535 600200 400214 10052 00048 80020 400
 
Type of farming
Cereals and oil seeds748 200377 600106 300100 40074 50089 300
Other field crops663 100312 700128 90081 00068 80071 600
Horticulture and permanent crops794 200261 900276 00079 30062 000115 100
Cattle - dairying574 10098 000363 80048 70023 40040 200
Cattle - rearing and fattening591 300270 100151 10081 50043 30045 300
Cattle - mixed624 70081 700424 40057 50020 20040 800
Sheep557 200299 80090 50057 90063 60045 500
Various grazing livestock594 500292 200103 70086 60048 30063 900
Granivores823 500195 500470 50069 70020 40067 400
Mixed cropping765 400244 100318 00083 90053 10066 500
Mixed livestock787 600177 900415 50087 50020 40086 200
Mixed crops - livestock691 400241 800226 80087 10056 80078 900
 
Agricultural area in use
0 - 4 decares744 200253 300305 80055 50055 30074 300
5 - 49 decares603 700337 00050 20061 20081 40073 900
50 - 99 decares583 300332 80062 20057 40076 80054 000
100 - 199 decares588 900288 100120 30068 00056 60055 800
200 - 299 decares620 100230 400220 60071 80039 50057 700
300 - 499 decares669 000189 600321 40079 10027 00051 800
500 decares or more938 300162 200519 300132 90026 10097 800
 
Holders by sex
Males667 700263 100204 10078 80055 50066 100
Females500 100267 300121 00042 70035 10034 000

Table 3 
Holders by entrepreneurial income from agriculture as per cent of gross income, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder

Holders by entrepreneurial income from agriculture as per cent of gross income, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder
Holders, totalShare of holders by entrepreneurial income from agriculture as per cent of gross income
0 per cent1-9 per cent10-49 per cent50-89 per cent90 per cent or more
201341 1613015271711
201440 5572915281711
201539 6003014281612
 
2015
County
Østfold2 135281633158
Akershus and Oslo2 059291736143
Hedmark3 1602914281911
Oppland4 3662912281912
Buskerud2 148291734155
Vestfold1 385321629148
Telemark1 385421924105
Aust-Agder658401523148
Vest-Agder1 030411523129
Rogaland4 0152215291817
Hordaland2 983401923108
Sogn og Fjordane2 8392714321711
Møre og Romsdal2 5033213241515
Sør-Trøndelag2 7563211251815
Nord-Trøndelag2 9552513251918
Nordland2 041249281722
Troms - Romsa8902510271820
Finnmark - Finnmárku2923212211619
 
Type of farming
Cereals and oil seeds6 72736223461
Other field crops4 397441823105
Horticulture and permanent crops1 2312914282010
Cattle - dairying5 92963213635
Cattle - rearing and fattening3 755311335148
Cattle - mixed1 15752183639
Sheep9 48736183295
Various grazing livestock2 720471521107
Granivores2 144117253125
Mixed cropping2162613242414
Mixed livestock602175212631
Mixed crops - livestock1 2353212271910
 
Agricultural area in use
0 - 4 decares1 0032912271814
5 - 49 decares3 96258191642
50 - 99 decares7 05950222253
100 - 199 decares11 098321732127
200 - 299 decares6 8851811342116
300 - 499 decares6 037117302724
500 decares or more3 55685253726
 
Holders by sex
Males33 6072914281713
Females5 993361430128

Table 4 
Interest paid and debt for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder

Interest paid and debt for holders, by county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder
Interest paid, total. NOK millionInterest paid per holder. NOKDebt, total. NOK millionDebt per holder. NOK
20132 88870 20073 8391 794 000
20142 97073 20076 5081 886 000
20152 69768 10078 7261 988 000
 
2015
County
Østfold19289 7005 7932 713 000
Akershus and Oslo15675 5004 8762 368 000
Hedmark27085 5007 9422 513 000
Oppland26059 5007 5631 732 000
Buskerud11855 0003 7251 734 000
Vestfold12388 9003 7532 709 000
Telemark7352 5002 1341 541 000
Aust-Agder4161 6001 2221 857 000
Vest-Agder6462 5001 9821 925 000
Rogaland36591 00010 9862 736 000
Hordaland12842 8003 8611 294 000
Sogn og Fjordane10938 3003 3471 179 000
Møre og Romsdal14558 1004 0331 611 000
Sør-Trøndelag17162 0004 7751 733 000
Nord-Trøndelag26288 7007 3062 472 000
Nordland15575 9003 6981 812 000
Troms - Romsa4955 3001 2671 424 000
Finnmark - Finnmárku1759 0004641 591 000
 
Type of farming
Cereals and oil seeds36353 90011 1621 659 000
Other field crops23653 6007 0471 603 000
Horticulture and permanent crops9476 6002 8572 320 000
Cattle - dairying46878 80013 6682 305 000
Cattle - rearing and fattening25567 8007 1891 914 000
Cattle - mixed10590 5003 1112 689 000
Sheep40542 70011 1541 176 000
Various grazing livestock17965 6004 9901 834 000
Granivores371172 90010 7144 997 000
Mixed cropping2092 4006012 781 000
Mixed livestock100165 9003 0034 988 000
Mixed crops - livestock10483 8003 2332 618 000
 
Agricultural area in use
0 - 4 decares110109 4003 1683 158 000
5 - 49 decares17845 0004 9671 254 000
50 - 99 decares29742 0008 4151 192 000
100 - 199 decares54148 80015 4051 388 000
200 - 299 decares44164 10012 7081 846 000
300 - 499 decares56293 10016 7092 768 000
500 decares or more568159 70017 3544 880 000
 
Holders by sex
Males2 39171 20069 7242 075 000
Females30550 9009 0021 502 000

Table 5 
Holders by size of debt, county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder

Holders by size of debt, county, type of farming, agricultural area in use and sex of holder
Holders, totalHolders by size of debt
NOK 0-0.09 millionNOK 0.1-0.9 millionNOK 1-1.9 millionNOK 2-3.9 millionNOK 4 million or more
201341 1617 65912 7908 3847 5614 767
201440 5577 68911 9607 9757 7515 182
201539 6007 60311 1567 4727 7975 572
 
2015
County
Østfold2 135279552376459469
Akershus and Oslo2 059366529369432363
Hedmark3 160465834587654620
Oppland4 3668051 343903852463
Buskerud2 148460607426415240
Vestfold1 385235324203325298
Telemark1 385318398285258126
Aust-Agder65813516711915285
Vest-Agder1 030256243181195155
Rogaland4 015693877635874936
Hordaland2 983797922558524182
Sogn og Fjordane2 839775992521400151
Møre og Romsdal2 503524767480487245
Sør-Trøndelag2 756520818594511313
Nord-Trøndelag2 955399720569666601
Nordland2 041376629419385232
Troms - Romsa89014734518614369
Finnmark - Finnmárku2925389616524
 
Type of farming
Cereals and oil seeds6 7271 5351 9421 2851 285680
Other field crops4 3971 0281 297826829417
Horticulture and permanent crops1 231257324192259199
Cattle - dairying5 9296201 8261 1161 2641 103
Cattle - rearing and fattening3 7556191 057759840480
Cattle - mixed1 15793315207285257
Sheep9 4872 6372 9261 9521 528444
Various grazing livestock2 720448717601667287
Granivores2 144552872324671 103
Mixed cropping2163368243655
Mixed livestock602378482118281
Mixed crops - livestock1 235241313196219266
 
Agricultural area in use
0 - 4 decares1 003166232131163311
5 - 49 decares3 9621 2891 134698602239
50 - 99 decares7 0592 1422 1791 2971 057384
100 - 199 decares11 0982 5453 5832 2231 962785
200 - 299 decares6 8859522 1251 4901 577741
300 - 499 decares6 0374161 4451 1611 5711 444
500 decares or more3 556934584728651 668
 
Holders by sex
Males33 6075 9709 4136 4006 8085 016
Females5 9931 6331 7431 072989556

About the statistics

The statistics present figures for incomes and debt for persons who are operating agricultural holdings, independent of the holding as source of income. The amounts are derived from tax statistics for personal tax payers.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Agricultural holding

A single unit both technically and economically, which has single management and which produces agricultural products. The holding is independent of municipality boundaries. The agricultural holding's headquarter must be located to an agricultural property.



Holder

The person considered responsible for operating the holding.


Gross income

Total wages and salaries, pensions, entrepreneurial income and property income.


Wages and salaries

Comprise payments in cash and in kind, taxable sick pay and unemployment benefit.


Pensions

Cover all benefit paid by social security and private pension and life insurance benefit.


Entrepreneurial income

A result of the activities of a self-employed person, and is estimated from profit and loss account and balance sheet. The entrepreneurial income is transferred to the tax return and is included in the calculation of ordinary income.


Entrepreneurial income from agriculture

This is positive entrepreneurial income from agriculture according to the tax return. In addition, entrepreneurial social security benefits in agriculture, forestry and fishery are included. Deductions such as membership payments to industry organisations, the year's entrepreneurial deficit, interest on debt and a separate agricultural deduction are not deducted. Income from any supplementary industry executed on the holding, e.g. forestry, are included in other entrepreneurial income if the industry concerned are considered as independent according to taxation.


Capital income

Consist of interest income, dividends, realised capital gains, rent and other income from property.

Standard classifications

The following classifications are used in the tables: county where the holding is located, size of holding expressed in decares of utilised agricultural area, type of farming of the holding and sex of holder.

County
Oslo County is merged with Akershus County.





Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Farmers’ income and debt
Topic: Agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing

Next release

Responsible division

Division for Primary Industry Statistics

Regional level

County

Frequency and timeliness

Annual, about 55 weeks after the reference year

International reporting

Not relevant

Microdata

A data file with anonymous individual data is stored at Statistics Norway.

Background

Background and purpose

The purpose is to present statistics on incomes and debt for persons who are operating agricultural holdings, independent of the holding as source of income. An essential feature of the Norwegian agriculture is that many persons that are running agricultural holdings work part-time in agriculture or the work is concentrated to the growing season. Many holders have wage/salary or entrepreneurial income from other industries as main source of income.

Statistics Norway has produced statistics on the farmers' income, property and taxes based on the tax assessment for personal taxpayers since 1968. More detailed tax return data have been presented from 1999 and onwards.

Users and applications

There is much focus on level, distribution and development of incomes of holders in agriculture. The main users of the statistics are the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, the Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, the Agricultural Budget Commission, the Norwegian Farmers Union, the Norwegian Smallholders Union etc.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 08 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar.

Coherence with other statistics

Yearly, Statistics Norway also presents Income statistics for all self-employed persons . At first level the self-employed persons are classified into two groups: self-employed with main income from industry and self-employed with main income from wages/salaries and pensions. Furthermore, those with main income from industry are classified into primary industries and other industries. Primary industries consist of agriculture, forestry and fishery.

The The Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research yearly presents Account Results in Agriculture and Forestry. This survey shows results for holdings where most of the family's total income are derived from the holding. More information: http://www.nibio.no/.

Legal authority

Statistics Act §§2-1, 3-2

EEA reference

Not relevant

Production

Population

Agricultural holdings are operated by two main types of holders: natural person and legal person. The total number of holdings has been decreasing over many years, while during the last years the number of holdings operated by a legal person has increased. The percentage of holdings operated by a legal person has increased from 1 per cent in 1999 to 6 per cent in 2008. Later, the percentage has been almost unchanged. The statistics on the farmers' income and property cover only agricultural holdings operated by a natural person.

The holdings vary much in size, from hobby-like production to holdings with a turnover of more than NOK 1 million. Some of the holdings have small-scale production under the threshold to be considered an industry by the tax authorities.

The individual person who is considered as responsible for operating the holding is referred to as holder (farmer). Some holdings change holder during the year. Mainly, the holder being holder as per 31 July the year concerned is included. For the holders information has been obtained on any spouse, registered partner or cohabitant. Up to and including 2004, cohabitant included only he/she who had children in common with the holder. As from 2005, also cohabitant who lived together with holder according to the Population and Housing Census 2001 and still has common address is included.

Married couples and registered partners who jointly operate a holding may share the taxable entrepreneurial income. Cohabitants who want to share the entrepreneurial income from a jointly operated holding have to organise the management as a legal entity other than sole proprietorship, or one of them has to be an employee.

The population of persons may differ from one table to another. Mainly, a table either comprises holders only or an aggregate of holders and spouses/registered partners/cohabitants.

Data sources and sampling

The statistics are based on the population of agricultural holdings operated by a natural person and tax return data. Division for Income and Wage Statistics links data from the Tax statistics for personal tax payers to the population of farmers.  The tax statistics for personal taxpayers is a total census based on data from the ordinary tax assessments.

For more information:  http://www.ssb.no/en/inntekt-og-forbruk/statistikker/selvangivelse

Collection of data, editing and estimations

The statistics are based on collocation of data files that have been separately edited when established. Furthermore, the statistics have been examined for extreme values, i.g. values for individual holders or spouses/partners/cohabitants which significantly influence the whole population of agricultural holdings operated by a natural person. Individuals who fulfil one or more of the following conditions are omitted from the statistics: had a gross income of more than NOK 100 million, had a debt of more than NOK 100 million or had property of more than NOK 300 million. Annually, this concerns about 10 individuals.

Some holders and spouses/partners/cohabitants operate holdings separately. To avoid double counting, information from the tax return data are linked to the holding with the largest production. Annually, this concerns about 100 couples.

Average figures for a variable, e.g. wages and salaries for the holder, is estimated by summing up the value of the variable wages and salaries for all holders and divide the sum with the number of total holders. This means that holders without wages and salaries are included in the average figures.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant

Confidentiality

Figures are not presented if there is a risk of identifying any unit.

Comparability over time and space

Changes in the tax regulations influence the data and consequently the statistics over time. The tax regulations were significantly changed as from 1992. The statistics are essentially comparable for the period 1992 - 2002. In 2003, the tax return forms filled in by self-employed persons were considerably changed. Particularly, a separate deduction in entrepreneurial income from agriculture was deducted before the entrepreneurial income was transferred to the tax return form. Due to this neither the entrepreneurial income nor the gross income are comparable with the other years. As from 2004, the agricultural deduction again is stated as a deduction on the tax return.

Changes in tax regulations as from 1 January 2006 increased taxes for certain types of income. Due to this, taxpayers realised income in 2005 to avoid increased taxes in 2006 or later years.

Changes in the regulation concerning governmental production subsidies as per 31 July 2002 have caused increased number of holdings operated by other legal entities than sole proprietorship. This concerns particularly the legal entities general partnership and general partnership with shared liability. Furthermore, the changes of the regulation has influenced the number of holders participating in joint operation (organised as general partnerships) and at the same time running their own enterprise (sole proprietorship). Before 2002, holders participating in joint operation in milk production had to apply separately for area production subsidies. Now, the participants may choose whether they will cultivate fodder in own separate enterprise or operate the area jointly.

From 2002, holders applying governmental production subsidies as a general condition had to be registered in the Value Added Tax Registration List. Later, the minimum turnover for being in this list has increased. In order to still include small holdings, a new condition was introduced; the holding has to have an overall turnover, included withdrawal of commodities, over a certain threshold during the last 12 months. At the time being, this threshold is NOK 20 000. From 2014 there is no threshold.

A revised calculation of type of farming of the holdings was implemented in the Farmers' Income and Property 2007. The revision has caused a fall in the farm types "Various grazing livestock" and "Mixed crops - livestock", while the farm type "Other field crops" has increased. Other farm types are hardly affected.

New changes in the type of farming classification have been introduced as from 2010. Before 2010 standard gross margin (SGM) was used as common unit of measurement for various crop and livestock husbandry within a holding. From 2010 and onwards SGM is replaced by standard output (SO). Some other changes concerning the methodology are also introduced. The two versions are not fully comparable.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

The most important source of error is that taxpayers may fill in incorrect information on income, deductions, property or debt in the personal tax return or place amounts under wrong items. In most cases this will be detected and corrected by the local tax offices. Nevertheless, errors that do not influence the assessment of taxes may be ignored. Furthermore, errors may also originate during the scanning of the tax return forms, despite of the fact that controls are executed.

A non-significant number of holdings are missing information on income etc. No information is imputed for these holdings.

Statistics Norway receives data from the Directorate of Taxes before all complaints from taxpayers are finished.

Revision

Not relevant

Contact