Prices and price indices;Transport and tourism
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Transport and storage, price indices


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Key figures

2.2 %

increase in passenger air transport prices in Q2 2017

SPPI for transport and storage. 2010=100
IndexChange in per cent
2nd quarter 20171st quarter 2017 - 2nd quarter 20172nd quarter 2016 - 2nd quarter 2017
Freight transport by road115.1-0.41.2
Passenger air transport115.62.2-6.3
Storage and warehousing107.3-0.33.9
Cargo handling, total index114.41.02.7
Postal and courier activities114.63.77.6

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Table 1 
Freight transport by road

Freight transport by road
IndexPer cent changes
Last quarter changeLast year change
2nd quarter 2015113.60.72.3
3rd quarter 2015113.60.02.3
4th quarter 2015113.4-0.11.3
1st quarter 2016113.60.20.8
2nd quarter 2016113.70.10.1
3rd quarter 2016114.40.60.7
4th quarter 2016113.6-0.70.2
1st quarter 2017115.61.81.7
2nd quarter 2017115.1-0.41.2

Table 2 
Freight transport by road and type of freight

Freight transport by road and type of freight
IndexChange per cent
Last quarter changeLast year change
Frozen or refrigerated goods
2nd quarter 2015107.60.23.1
3rd quarter 2015107.8-0.62.4
4th quarter 2015107.2-0.6-0.7
1st quarter 2016107.20.0-1.2
2nd quarter 2016107.1-0.1-0.4
3rd quarter 2016107.60.5-0.2
4th quarter 2016107.80.20.5
1st quarter 2017108.00.20.7
2nd quarter 2017105.3-2.5-1.8
Petroleum products
2nd quarter 2015114.30.22.9
3rd quarter 2015114.40.13.1
4th quarter 2015114.0-0.32.8
1st quarter 2016113.0-0.9-0.9
2nd quarter 2016113.80.7-0.5
3rd quarter 2016113.3-0.4-0.9
4th quarter 2016113.80.4-0.2
1st quarter 2017113.90.10.8
2nd quarter 2017113.90.00.1
Other liquids or gases in bulk
2nd quarter 2015110.5-0.10.7
3rd quarter 2015109.8-0.60.1
4th quarter 2015109.3-0.4-0.3
1st quarter 2016110.00.6-0.5
2nd quarter 2016109.4-0.5-1.0
3rd quarter 2016109.50.1-0.2
4th quarter 2016110.20.60.8
1st quarter 2017110.40.20.3
2nd quarter 2017110.70.31.2
Mixed goods/container goods
2nd quarter 2015117.91.52.3
3rd quarter 2015117.8-0.12.8
4th quarter 2015117.7-0.12.2
1st quarter 2016118.10.31.7
2nd quarter 2016117.5-0.5-0.3
3rd quarter 2016118.60.90.7
4th quarter 2016116.4-1.9-1.0
1st quarter 2017120.03.11.6
2nd quarter 2017120.20.22.2
Dry goods in bulk
2nd quarter 2015112.02.13.3
3rd quarter 2015112.00.03.2
4th quarter 2015111.9-0.13.1
1st quarter 2016111.8-0.11.9
2nd quarter 2016112.40.50.4
3rd quarter 2016111.9-0.4-0.1
4th quarter 2016111.90.00.0
1st quarter 2017111.90.00.1
2nd quarter 2017113.01.00.5
Other transportation in special vehicle
2nd quarter 2015113.31.01.2
3rd quarter 2015113.2-0.11.2
4th quarter 2015113.50.31.4
1st quarter 2016114.10.51.7
2nd quarter 2016115.31.11.8
3rd quarter 2016115.70.32.2
4th quarter 2016116.00.32.2
1st quarter 2017118.21.93.6
2nd quarter 2017118.80.53.0

Table 3 
Passenger air transport

Passenger air transport1
IndexPer cent change
Last quarter changeLast year change
1Figures for Passenger air transport regarding the four quarters of 2015 have been revised due to updated weight basis.
B2A - Scheduled air transport, domestic and international traffic
2nd quarter 2015119.14.76.6
3rd quarter 2015117.0-1.80.3
4th quarter 2015122.24.43.0
1st quarter 2016126.53.511.1
2nd quarter 2016123.4-2.53.6
3rd quarter 2016116.9-5.3-0.1
4th quarter 2016118.41.3-3.1
1st quarter 2017113.1-4.5-10.6
2nd quarter 2017115.62.2-6.3
B2C - Leisure travel, domestic and international traffic
2nd quarter 2015121.98.510.1
3rd quarter 2015120.5-1.11.7
4th quarter 2015127.76.06.4
1st quarter 2016132.03.417.5
2nd quarter 2016129.0-2.35.8
3rd quarter 2016122.4-5.11.5
4th quarter 2016123.81.1-3.0
1st quarter 2017116.1-6.2-12.0
2nd quarter 2017120.74.0-6.4
B2B - Business travel, domestic and international traffic
2nd quarter 2015115.8-2.31.7
3rd quarter 2015113.7-1.8-0.9
4th quarter 2015114.81.0-1.8
1st quarter 2016119.03.70.5
2nd quarter 2016115.2-3.2-0.5
3rd quarter 2016108.7-5.6-4.4
4th quarter 2016110.41.6-3.8
1st quarter 2017111.51.0-6.4
2nd quarter 2017108.7-2.5-5.6
B2A - Scheduled air transport, domestic traffic
2nd quarter 2015120.44.73.9
3rd quarter 2015120.0-0.3-0.3
4th quarter 2015126.45.34.8
1st quarter 2016131.13.714.0
2nd quarter 2016126.5-3.55.1
3rd quarter 2016121.7-3.81.5
4th quarter 2016123.61.6-2.2
1st quarter 2017116.6-5.7-11.1
2nd quarter 2017118.51.6-6.3
B2A - Scheduled air transport, international traffic
2nd quarter 2015115.35.718.6
3rd quarter 2015108.7-5.73.0
4th quarter 2015109.00.3-2.9
1st quarter 2016110.00.90.8
2nd quarter 2016112.62.4-2.3
3rd quarter 2016103.2-8.3-5.1
4th quarter 2016103.1-0.1-5.4
1st quarter 2017101.7-1.4-7.5
2nd quarter 2017106.54.7-5.4

Table 4 
Storage and warehousing

Storage and warehousing
IndexPer cent change
Last year changeLast year change
2nd quarter 201598.9-0.42.8
3rd quarter 201599.30.42.8
4th quarter 201599.80.53.3
1st quarter 2016103.03.23.7
2nd quarter 2016103.20.24.4
3rd quarter 2016103.60.44.4
4th quarter 2016102.4-1.22.6
1st quarter 2017107.65.14.5
2nd quarter 2017107.3-0.33.9

Table 5 
Storage and warehousing by type

Storage and warehousing by type
IndexPer cent change
Last quarter changeLast year change
Price index for storage and warehousing, general storage
2nd quarter 2015104.6-0.45.4
3rd quarter 2015105.30.75.3
4th quarter 2015105.1-0.25.0
1st quarter 2016108.63.33.5
2nd quarter 2016109.10.54.4
3rd quarter 2016109.7-1.44.2
4th quarter 2016108.2-1.43.0
1st quarter 2017......
2nd quarter 2017......
Price index for storage and warehousing, frozen/cooled
2nd quarter 201590.1-0.3-0.3
3rd quarter 201590.10.0-0.3
4th quarter 201591.41.41.2
1st quarter 201694.02.84.0
2nd quarter 201694.10.14.4
3rd quarter 201694.10.04.5
4th quarter 201693.5-0.62.3
1st quarter 2017......
2nd quarter 2017......
Price index for storage and warehousing, other storage and warehousing
2nd quarter 2015113.90.0-1.9
3rd quarter 2015113.90.0-1.9
4th quarter 2015113.90.0-1.9
1st quarter 2016113.90.00.0
2nd quarter 2016113.90.00.0
3rd quarter 2016120.35.65.6
4th quarter 2016120.30.06.4
1st quarter 2017......
2nd quarter 2017......

Table 6 
Cargo handling

Cargo handling
IndexPer cent change
Last quarter changeLast year change
2nd quarter 2015111.00.02.9
3rd quarter 2015110.9-0.12.0
4th quarter 2015110.8-0.11.9
1st quarter 2016111.50.60.4
2nd quarter 2016111.4-0.10.4
3rd quarter 2016111.40.00.5
4th quarter 2016111.50.10.7
1st quarter 2017113.31.61.6
2nd quarter 2017114.41.02.7

Table 7 
Post and courier transport

Post and courier transport
IndexPer cent change
Last quarter changeLast year change
53 Postal and courier activities
2nd quarter 2015102.7-2.33.2
3rd quarter 2015102.5-0.23.1
4th quarter 2015102.70.23.1
1st quarter 2016106.43.61.2
2nd quarter 2016106.40.03.7
3rd quarter 2016106.3-0.13.8
4th quarter 2016105.8-0.53.1
1st quarter 2017110.54.43.8
2nd quarter 2017114.63.77.6
53.1 Postal activities under universal service obligation
2nd quarter 201598.3-2.73.0
3rd quarter 201598.0-0.32.9
4th quarter 201598.14.32.6
1st quarter 2016102.24.21.2
2nd quarter 2016102.1-0.13.8
3rd quarter 2016101.8-0.33.9
4th quarter 2016101.1-0.73.1
1st quarter 2017106.65.44.3
2nd quarter 2017111.04.18.8
53.2 Other postal and courier activities
2nd quarter 2015119.6-1.33.8
3rd quarter 2015120.00.34.0
4th quarter 2015120.70.64.6
1st quarter 2016122.91.81.4
2nd quarter 2016123.50.53.2
3rd quarter 2016124.10.53.5
4th quarter 2016124.30.23.0
1st quarter 2017125.61.02.2
2nd quarter 2017128.42.24.0

About the statistics

The price index for transport and storage measures the price development of passenger air transport, freight transport by road, storage and warehousing, postal and courier activities and cargo handling.


Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Price refers to te observed prices producers get as a remuneration for their effort in the production process. Prices are exclusiv VAT and other taxes but include subsidies and discounts.

Base price refers to a price in previouse period (price reference period) against which prices in the current period are compared to.

Base year which is also known as Index reference period, is the period for which the value of the index is set at 100.

Laspeyres price index is a price index defined as a fixed weight index, and uses base period weights constant. The base period serves as both the weight reference period and the price reference period.

Elementary group refers to the lowest grouping or aggregate in an index estimation hierrchy. An elementary index is a relative price change between current peiode and the price reference period.

Jevons index is an elementary index defined as the unweighted geometric average of the current to base period price relatives.

Weight shows to the value share og a group of products or services that constitute an index component. A weight share of an index component defines how important that component is in a given index.

Business to Business (B2B), Business to Consumers (B2C) og Business to All (B2All) refers to whom the services are delivered to. For Passenger air transport, the distinction between B2B and B2C is made depending on whether a ticket is flexible or not.

Standard classifications

The applicable standard industrial classification is Statistics Norway's standard industrial classification, SIC 2007. SIC 2007 is developed based on EU's standard NACE Rev. 2.

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Transport and storage, price indices
Topic: Prices and price indices

Next release

Responsible division

Transport, tourism and ICT statistics

Regional level

Only at national Level.

Frequency and timeliness

Frequency: Quarterly.

Timeliness: The reference period is one quarter (i.e., 3 months). The index is published within 60 days after the end of the reference period.

International reporting

The indices are reported to Eurostat quartely.


Data are stored as text files on UNIX.


Background and purpose

The purpose of the statistics is to measure the price development for Transport and storage services in SN 2007, the Norwegian equivalent of the EU Standard Industrial Classification.

Industries that are covered with price indices within transport and storage are freight transport by road, sea transport, passenger air transport, storage and warehousing, cargo handling services, and postal and courier services. The indices go back to first quarter of 2006 with the exception of freight transport by road that starts from the fourth quarter of 2004.

The indices' base year (reference year) was originally set to 2006 (i.e. 2006=100) but was changed to 2010=100 in 2013.


Users and applications

Research institutions, industry organisations, public authorities and the media. The indices are also used to deflate the National Accounts.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 08 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given inthe Statistics Release Calendar.

Coherence with other statistics

Statistics Norway produces Turnover index and Structural business statistics for all industries within transportation and storage services.

Sea transport : The index is used in National Accounts. The Consumer Price Index has an index on passenger transport by sea.

Passenger air transport : Statistics Norway produce Structural business statistics for the industry. Tickets for leisure travevls are also presented as a sub-index in The Consumer Price Index . When comparing the Consumer price index (CPI) and the Service producer price index (SPPI) it is important to keep the following considerations in mind:

  • Objective - While the CPI measures the price development for households, the service producer price index measures the price development for the producer that together with volume gives the producers' turnover. These two prices may differ due to fees and taxes that are collected on behalf of a third party (i.e.: VAT to the tax authorities or security charges to the airports)
  • The differences in method of data collection reflects the differences in the objective. While the dataset for the SPPI consist of list prices (per 15. every month) and actual volume, the data for the CPI is compiled by mimicking the actual consumer behaviour - i.e.: Orders are simulated on the internet and are held constant between periods.

Freight transport by road : The index may be used in the National Accounts. Cost index for road goods transport is also published for the industry.

Legal authority

The Statistics Act, Sections 2-1, 2-2 and 2-3.

EEA reference

Regulation (EC) No 1158/2005 of the European Parliament and amending Council Regulation (EC) No 1165/98 concerning short-term statistics.



The industries are classified according to the Norwegian standard industrial classification, SN 2007. The statistical unit is the enterprise in all but freight transport by road and cargo handling services where the statistical unit is local kind-of-activity units (local KAUs).

The indices fall under section H - transport and storage in SN 2007. The population coverage is detailed below:

Index for freight transport by road: The population embraces all local kind-of-activity units with in class 49.41

Sea transport : The population comprise all active enterprises within division 50.

Passenger air transport index : The population encompasses all Norwegian enterprises within group 51.1.

Storage and warehousing index : The population is defined as all enterprises with in group 52.1.

Cargo handling : The population is defined as local kind-of-activity units belonging to 52.24, operating in harbours and running stevedoring facility.

Postal and courier services : All enterprises within division 53.

Data sources and sampling

Quarterly survey data, register data, and turnover data from the structural business statistics constitute the data source.

Statistics Norways business register (VOF) is the main source in identifying the population frame, and drawing samples. In the case of class 49.41 (SN 2007), VOF is suplemented by a vehicle register from the Norwegian road transport authority (Statens vegvesen).

The samples are drawn predominantly using random sampling techniques. A combination of random and non random sampling such as Purposive samples is employed to augment the representativeness of the sample where the largest sample unites are selected with certainty while the rest are drawn on brobablistic basis.

A cut off threshold is also applied in some cases to limit the population where the industry is more of a homogenious nature or where units falling below the cut off limit constitue a negligible market share. Turnover size or number of employees is used as cut off criteria. Sample units in industries with large populations size are rotated to reduce respondent burden.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Data is collected electronically using a web questionnaire with the exception of the industry Passenger air transport. The enterprises in this industry provide their price categories and the number of sold tickets within each price category. The questionnaires are made available on Statistics Norway's website and the respondents are notified by mail.

The questionnaire is controlled and revised both automatically and manually. The price data goes through several statistical editing to identify the most critical and unusual observations. If price changes seem unlikely large the respondents are contacted.

At the bottom of the aggregation process, an elementary index is estimated as a geometric average of price relatives between the base period and the current period. The elementary indices are then weighted togather following a criteria defined for a given indeks. The process of agregation repeats itself to the highest agregation level to finally yield a total indeks as a weighted average of price relatives of all activities in the industry.

The index is agregated using a Laspeyre index methode. Weights are fixed for one whole year with the exception of the price index for air transport that adjusts its weights every month. The weights are based on turnover which is obtained either directley through the survey or from structural business statistics.

Eurostat requires indices' reference year to be set to 2006=100. For the indices that were developed post 2006 and survey data was lacking, an industry's indeks values are estimated earnings indeks that is closely correlated to the service price index.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant


The use of collected data is in accordance with Statistics Norways Statistical Act.

Norway Post has allowed Statistics Norway to publish the index about postal activities under universal obligation.

Comparability over time and space

The calculation method has remained unchanged thoughout the period.

First quarter of 2015 the indices associated with industry group Passenger air transport were revised going back to first quarter of 2006. The new figures were calculated using weights that more accurately reflect the distribution of turnover among enterprises in the industry.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

Measurement error might generally arrise due to:

1) The respondent might report the same price even though price has actually changed.

2) The respondent report prices on different services than the ones covered by the questionnaire.

Data editing routines at micro and macro level controll for measurment error. If measurement error is suspected, the respondent is contacted to get the right price.

Non-responses exists either when respondents do not return the questionnaire or when the questionnaire is only partially completed. About 98 per cent of the sample returns the questionnaire.

A sample can be skewed if som services or enterprises are less represented than the realities in the market. Such skewness could then result in biases and unstable fluctuations in the index estimates.

To reduce sampling error and hence skewness, samples are designed to include major market agents. In addition, the sample is stratified to enhance inclusiveness. Sample rotation is another technique Statistics Norway employs to reduce skewness in cases were the population size is big enough.

Standard deviation is calculated for all index estimats. Indices with few observations tend to be less significant.

Other sources of error may include quality change in the service provided. In the long run the service's product characteristics may gradually change. Quality change my also arise as a result of enhancement in productivity.


Not relevant