366637
/en/utenriksokonomi/statistikker/muh/maaned
366637
statistikk
2020-06-15T08:00:00.000Z
External economy
en
muh, External trade in goods, import, export, balance of trade (export minus import), mainland exports, imports excluding ships and oil platforms, trade ( between countries, continents and trade regions), international product groups (for example hs, sitc and bec), product groups (for example food, crude oil and metals)External trade , External economy
true

External trade in goods

Updated

Next update

Key figures

-1.2

NOK billion – trade deficit of goods in May 2020

External trade in goods1
NOK BillionChange in per centNOK Billion - so far this yearChange in per cent - so far this year
May 2020April 2020 - May 2020May 2019 - May 2020May 2020May 2019 - May 2020
1The figures are marked with the symbol *. This is Statistics Norways standard symbol for indicating preliminary figures. Due to the data collection method, the preliminary monthly figures published for ships and oil platforms are often incomplete. In retrospect, therefore, the trade in these goods could in some cases lead to revisions. Please see tables 1-3 for the impact these figures have on the external trade.
Exports56.2-4.8-26.0341.1-15.1
Crude oil16.218.9-17.893.2-7.8
Natural gas6.9-31.3-49.956.8-39.5
Natural gas condensates0.1-78.4-89.32.27.8
Ships and oil platforms0.428.0373.31.9-38.2
Mainland exports32.6-6.0-21.9187.0-7.3
Fish7.6-2.4-8.843.13.0
 
Imports57.43.5-14.5301.2-5.6
Ships and oil platforms0.0-83.3-95.22.96.0
 
The trade balance-1.2-132.0-113.140.0-51.7
The mainland trade balance-24.8-19.81.9-111.22.9

See selected tables from this statistics

Table 1 
Imports of goods, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted main figures. NOK Million

Imports of goods, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted main figures. NOK Million
Total importsCommodities excl. ships and oil platformsShipsOil platforms
UnadjustedUnadjustedSeasonally adjustedUnadjustedUnadjusted
Yearly figures
2015615 485588 519.8 71518 251
2016629 042609 376.19 666-
2017684 335661 447.12 67410 214
2018710 330707 163.3 168-
2019757 902750 361.7 541-
 
Monthly figures (last 25 months)
May 201863 24863 08660 053162-
June 201859 20359 00058 721203-
July 201854 72854 72357 1885-
August 201856 45256 43958 75613-
September 201859 31759 18657 992131-
October 201865 55865 14562 480413-
November 201865 02665 02462 5001-
December 201853 31753 16956 739149-
January 201960 63959 72662 460913-
February 201962 23161 91966 634312-
March 201966 84266 25660 466586-
April 201962 23161 44161 307790-
May 201967 16767 00163 414167-
June 201960 01259 97660 16036-
July 201959 86059 32762 090533-
August 201959 90459 12661 547778-
September 201967 46567 11166 009354-
October 201966 89765 71363 0671 184-
November 201963 05462 50260 111553-
December 201961 60060 26464 7971 337-
January 202060 80760 11262 413695-
February 202058 37756 38358 7351 994-
March 202069 14068 95162 432189-
April 202055 43155 38455 25848-
May 202057 39757 39054 2458-

Table 2 
Exports of goods, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted figures. NOK Million

Exports of goods, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted figures. NOK Million
Total exportsCommodities excl. ships and oil platformsMainland exportsShipsOil platforms
UnadjustedUnadjustedSeasonally adjustedUnadjustedSeasonally adjustedUnadjustedUnadjusted
Yearly figures
2015835 267826 330.403 973.5 6113 326
2016751 583739 078.386 536.12 506-
2017863 624849 329.418 165.14 295-
20181 000 272991 771.458 226.8 501-
2019914 652907 117.472 926.7 536-
 
Monthly figures (last 25 months)
May 201880 62779 04982 33338 15737 8081 578-
June 201879 84978 90484 47239 88138 247946-
July 201882 05381 55187 74534 64237 422502-
August 201887 09786 66090 47240 39141 493437-
September 201881 68980 22888 49636 18738 2961 461-
October 201898 28198 18689 90043 01739 95095-
November 201886 96086 84381 45742 05239 212117-
December 201879 69679 66277 50635 66938 02834-
January 201986 77286 70478 50142 56541 44268-
February 201976 46276 25076 89237 45538 741212-
March 201985 33484 94178 29740 54937 803394-
April 201977 34475 01077 73939 54940 6662 334-
May 201976 02275 93679 82441 71541 29986-
June 201966 07965 12072 24936 98537 281959-
July 201966 77966 55370 50936 42438 530226-
August 201965 55665 52969 72637 14539 21927-
September 201966 19864 23170 19237 65439 1401 967-
October 201976 57476 39470 05942 09838 678180-
November 201986 10185 70680 51341 83939 854395-
December 201985 43184 74280 19838 94839 885689-
January 202080 53780 45872 82240 70639 35479-
February 202075 07575 05273 56637 97938 76323-
March 202070 20569 12262 79341 05337 6331 083-
April 202059 06258 74461 60134 69135 932318-
May 202056 23755 83060 63332 59534 163407-

Table 3 
The trade balance for goods. NOK Million

The trade balance for goods. NOK Million
Exports-importsExports-imports (both excl. ships and oil platforms)Mainland exports - imports excl. ships and oil platforms
Yearly figures
2015219 782237 811-184 546
2016122 541129 701-222 841
2017179 289187 882-243 281
2018289 941284 608-248 936
2019156 750156 755-277 435
 
Monthly figures (last 25 months)
May 201817 37915 962-24 929
June 201820 64619 904-19 119
July 201827 32526 827-20 081
August 201830 64530 221-16 048
September 201822 37221 042-22 999
October 201832 72333 041-22 128
November 201821 93521 819-22 973
December 201826 37826 493-17 500
January 201926 13426 978-17 160
February 201914 23114 331-24 464
March 201918 49318 685-25 706
April 201915 11213 569-21 893
May 20198 8558 936-25 285
June 20196 0675 144-22 991
July 20196 9207 226-22 904
August 20195 6526 403-21 981
September 2019-1 267-2 880-29 458
October 20199 67710 681-23 615
November 201923 04623 204-20 663
December 201923 83124 479-21 315
January 202019 73020 346-19 406
February 202016 69818 669-18 404
March 20201 065171-27 898
April 20203 6313 360-20 693
May 2020-1 161-1 560-24 795

Table 4 
Exports of crude oil, natural gas and natural gas condensates, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted figures. NOK Million

Exports of crude oil, natural gas and natural gas condensates, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted figures. NOK Million
Crude oil, natural gas and natural gas condensates in totalCrude oilNatural gasNatural gas condensates
UnadjustedSeasonally adjustedUnadjustedSeasonally adjustedUnadjustedSeasonally adjustedUnadjusted
Yearly figures
2015422 356.197 116.220 676.4 565
2016352 542.187 595.161 129.3 817
2017431 163.223 073.203 105.4 985
2018533 545.261 334.265 435.6 776
2019434 190.251 912.176 534.5 744
 
Monthly figures (last 25 months)
May 201840 89244 00721 81021 77718 27721 207805
June 201839 02346 27421 37223 35117 65123 027-
July 201846 90950 22023 02423 91223 45926 274425
August 201846 26949 63923 20622 90922 06426 704999
September 201844 04150 07724 04324 98719 62925 246369
October 201855 16950 19127 77227 82326 60423 680793
November 201844 79241 45418 07918 10425 58822 1401 125
December 201843 99339 53917 14415 54626 68122 273168
January 201944 13838 05620 90719 42623 23218 903-
February 201938 79438 06917 87318 92020 40619 055515
March 201944 39142 15821 49920 94522 21619 479676
April 201935 46136 53321 11520 62314 12714 752219
May 201934 22137 32519 74620 15013 83416 105641
June 201928 13533 64414 07215 51913 34317 436720
July 201930 13032 29418 73819 63510 55811 834834
August 201928 38530 60318 97118 9999 08210 975332
September 201926 57730 25219 70720 2566 2298 005641
October 201934 29631 15120 28120 26913 61612 071399
November 201943 86740 38228 81628 74714 33312 412717
December 201945 79440 80730 18727 02015 55812 98649
January 202039 75234 22123 63421 87715 28912 391829
February 202037 07336 21224 04725 37912 32311 531704
March 202028 06926 58115 65015 08612 12510 655294
April 202024 05324 96513 64913 41910 08810 543317
May 202023 23525 53616 23416 7906 9338 10568

Table 5 
Imports of goods, main groups by SITC

Imports of goods, main groups by SITC
NOK MillionChange in per centNOK MillionChange in per cent
May 2019May 2020May 2019 - May 2020So far this yearMay 2019 - May 2020
May 2019May 2020
Total67 16757 397-14.5319 110301 152-5.6
Of which:
Ships and oil platforms (part of SITC 793)1678-95.22 7672 9336.0
Imports excl. Ships and oil platforms67 00157 390-14.3316 342298 219-5.7
 
0 Food and live animals4 3124 224-2.020 31221 6586.6
00 Live animals other than animals of div.031717-0.48579-6.9
01 Meat and meat preparations114102-10.4550548-0.4
02 Dairy products and birds' eggs11914925.360871617.7
03 Fish, crustaceans, molluscs and prep. thereof406323-20.42 4142 5194.3
04 Cereals and cereal preparations676523-22.53 0322 782-8.2
05 Vegetables and fruit1 3051 4269.35 7726 40511.0
06 Sugars, sugar prepatations and honey1141238.36266595.3
07 Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices3013071.91 5481 78615.4
08 Feeding stuff for animals (not cereals)6516560.82 9153 1187.0
09 Miscellaneous edible products610598-2.02 7613 04610.3
 
1 Beverages and tobacco9651 21425.84 1384 97120.1
11 Beverages6566671.82 8173 0909.7
12 Tobacco and tobacco manufactures30954776.81 3211 88142.4
 
2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels4 1414 60311.219 53121 4139.6
21 Hides, skins and furskins, raw41-71.62019-3.9
22 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits25142464.17908578.5
23 Crude rubber2015-26.96564-0.3
24 Wood, lumber and cork5215403.62 3172 241-3.2
25 Pulp and waste paper6429-54.2208185-11.1
26 Textile fibres and their waste77-8.0485820.9
27 Crude fertilizers and crude minerales358309-13.71 5991 6835.3
28 Metalliferous ores and metal scrap2 7503 15814.812 97914 66613.0
29 Crude animal and vegetable materials3924033.01 5051 6398.9
 
3 Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials3 8202 250-41.119 70415 953-19.0
32 Coal, coke and briquettes212197-7.11 1101 065-4.0
33 Petroleum, petroleum products3 1591 959-38.015 32013 995-8.6
334 Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (other than crude); preparations, n.e.s., containing by weight 70% or more of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparation2 1271 417-33.49 9548 142-18.2
34 Gas , natural and manufactured607017.0445404-9.2
342 Liquefied propane and butane56606.1369302-18.1
35 Electric current38925-93.72 829490-82.7
 
4 Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes46972254.02 6323 28024.6
41 Animal oils and fats22937363.11 1791 33413.1
42 Fixed vegetable fats and oils, crude, refined or fractionated22333349.01 3731 85935.4
43 Animal or vegetable fats and oils, processed1716-2.9798710.0
 
5 Chemicals and related products n.e.s.6 7896 416-5.530 90832 6945.8
51 Organic chemicals830581-30.03 8073 198-16.0
52 Inorganic chemicals458446-2.62 2722 4648.4
53 Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials3533530.01 6211 6904.3
54 Medicinal and pharmaceutical products1 6691 86912.08 2539 59716.3
55 Essential oils and resinoids etc64572412.23 1563 48410.4
56 Fertilizers299251-16.21 3871 3930.5
57 Plastics in primary forms4204230.62 1822 178-0.1
58 Plastics in non-primary forms6536905.62 8223 0889.4
59 Chemical materials and products, n.e.s.1 4611 080-26.15 4095 6023.6
 
6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material9 2798 396-9.547 57244 685-6.1
61 Leather, leather manufactures, furskins4138-7.1202195-3.4
62 Rubber manufactures, n.e.s.497496-0.32 3862 4663.3
63 Cork and wood manufactures714689-3.53 3663 287-2.3
64 Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof651614-5.73 2623 3191.7
65 Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles7738398.53 6993 9115.7
66 Non-metallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.892845-5.24 1814 050-3.1
67 Iron and steel1 7601 452-17.58 0119 64120.4
68 Non-ferrous metals852496-41.84 0643 528-13.2
69 Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.3 0992 929-5.518 40114 288-22.4
 
7 Machinery and transport equipment28 54821 457-24.8130 007114 056-12.3
71 Power generating machinery and equipment1 3091 183-9.712 8598 252-35.8
72 Machinery for special industries2 9932 256-24.612 73412 133-4.7
73 Metal working machinery174143-17.8821761-7.3
74 General industrial machinery and equipment3 5413 125-11.816 74615 956-4.7
75 Office machines, data processing machines1 4131 67218.37 4227 7724.7
76 Telecommunications apparatus and equipment2 3132 146-7.210 70711 0012.7
77 Electrical machinery and apparatus3 4603 5071.416 37217 4876.8
78 Road vehicles8 8664 226-52.340 43629 384-27.3
781 Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons4 3871 807-58.823 73716 153-31.9
79 Other transport equipment including ships4 4783 199-28.611 91111 308-5.1
 
8 Miscellaneous manufactured articles8 7458 014-8.443 83241 840-4.5
81 Prefabricated buildings862731-15.24 0373 577-11.4
82 Furniture and parts thereof1 3751 338-2.77 2146 853-5.0
83 Travel goods, handbags etc.166114-31.5781681-12.7
84 Articles of apparel and accessories1 4071 394-0.98 5117 964-6.4
85 Footwear379339-10.62 5302 113-16.5
87 Professional and scientific instruments1 7391 450-16.77 7617 537-2.9
88 Photographic and optical goods279241-13.71 3481 224-9.2
89 Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s2 5372 407-5.111 65011 8902.1
 
9 Other commodities and transactions1001000.047560327.1
91 Postal packages not classified according to kind00.0-.
93 Special transactions and commodities not classified according to kind3613-64.9163104-36.1
96 Coin (other than gold coin), not being legal tender25120.7521317.8
97 Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold, ores and concentrates)628233.130747855.8

Table 6 
Exports of goods, main groups by SITC

Exports of goods, main groups by SITC
NOK MillionChange in per centNOK MillionChange in per cent
May 2019May 2020May 2019 - May 2020So far this yearMay 2019 - May 2020
May 2019May 2020
1Due to confidentiality in commodity group 56, this group can not be published separately. This group is included in group 59.
Total76 02256 237-26.0401 934341 116-15.1
Of which:
Crude oil (part of SITC 333)19 74616 234-17.8101 14193 214-7.8
Natural gas (SITC 343)13 8346 933-49.993 81556 757-39.5
Natural gas condensates (part of SITC 333)64168-89.42 0512 2117.8
Ships and oil platforms (part of SITC 793)86407373.33 0931 910-38.2
Mainland exports41 71532 595-21.9201 834187 024-7.3
 
0 Food and live animals9 1208 272-9.345 12146 3432.7
00 Live animals other than animals of div.0338174.3203785.2
01 Meat and meat preparations2622-17.51111218.9
02 Dairy products and birds' eggs7166-8.1357310-13.1
03 Fish, crustaceans, molluscs and prep. thereof8 3267 590-8.841 86143 1223.0
04 Cereals and cereal preparations4737-20.8225224-0.3
05 Vegetables and fruit182010.275806.8
06 Sugars, sugar prepatations and honey72-66.82918-39.7
07 Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices3026-15.41781917.0
08 Feeding stuff for animals (not cereals)402288-28.41 4921 413-5.3
09 Miscellaneous edible products18921312.87738287.1
 
1 Beverages and tobacco9668-29.339849724.8
11 Beverages9466-29.639548823.7
12 Tobacco and tobacco manufactures21-10.639154.0
 
2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels1 7001 639-3.68 1868 5644.6
21 Hides, skins and furskins, raw3017-42.1385239-37.9
22 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits11-26.4349.3
23 Crude rubber42-55.31914-26.2
24 Wood, lumber and cork376358-4.61 8061 772-1.9
25 Pulp and waste paper278232-16.61 2221 2451.9
26 Textile fibres and their waste2814-48.811187-21.5
27 Crude fertilizers and crude minerales406377-7.21 8711 866-0.3
28 Metalliferous ores and metal scrap53760212.12 6023 18022.2
29 Crude animal and vegetable materials4035-12.4167158-5.7
 
3 Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials41 75926 244-37.2231 953176 314-24.0
32 Coal, coke and briquettes00-100.0363-92.7
33 Petroleum, petroleum products25 99518 112-30.3127 654111 787-12.4
334 Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (other than crude); preparations, n.e.s., containing by weight 70% or more of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparation5 5741 789-67.924 17116 202-33.0
34 Gas , natural and manufactured15 4897 937-48.8102 65363 667-38.0
342 Liquefied propane and butane1 396958-31.47 7166 380-17.3
35 Electric current275195-29.21 610858-46.7
 
4 Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes21323711.31 0751 33724.4
41 Animal oils and fats142129-8.955174435.2
42 Fixed vegetable fats and oils, crude, refined or fractionated2470189.720424821.5
43 Animal or vegetable fats and oils, processed4838-19.53203457.8
 
5 Chemicals and related products n.e.s.5 2424 667-11.025 64825 9401.1
51 Organic chemicals1 6181 214-25.07 1467 4294.0
52 Inorganic chemicals633623-1.63 3693 6528.4
53 Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials14917013.981191312.6
54 Medicinal and pharmaceutical products647479-26.02 8723 1499.7
55 Essential oils and resinoids etc1401453.171782615.2
56 Fertilizers1::::::
57 Plastics in primary forms466450-3.42 4972 469-1.1
58 Plastics in non-primary forms121100-18.05755882.4
59 Chemical materials and products, n.e.s.1 4661 4871.47 6636 914-9.8
 
6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material8 3136 542-21.337 57636 380-3.2
61 Leather, leather manufactures, furskins73-54.13129-7.9
62 Rubber manufactures, n.e.s.496124.426837640.5
63 Cork and wood manufactures14315810.374385414.9
64 Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof483383-20.82 4192 101-13.1
65 Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles1241251.369176610.8
66 Non-metallic mineral manufactures, n.e.s.151140-7.2765717-6.2
67 Iron and steel1 4841 035-30.36 8115 659-16.9
68 Non-ferrous metals5 0213 971-20.922 23722 2490.1
69 Manufactures of metals, n.e.s.851666-21.83 6113 6290.5
 
7 Machinery and transport equipment7 2386 368-12.041 08934 446-16.2
71 Power generating machinery and equipment73781210.24 5703 426-25.0
72 Machinery for special industries1 028995-3.24 7524 8692.5
73 Metal working machinery6631-53.4266240-9.8
74 General industrial machinery and equipment1 6101 235-23.37 3697 271-1.3
75 Office machines, data processing machines2492583.51 2781 222-4.4
76 Telecommunications apparatus and equipment517456-11.92 5012 86414.5
77 Electrical machinery and apparatus1 0441 23017.87 7166 383-17.3
78 Road vehicles738557-24.53 8973 268-16.1
79 Other transport equipment including ships1 249795-36.38 7414 902-43.9
 
8 Miscellaneous manufactured articles2 2572 065-8.510 55110 7291.7
81 Prefabricated buildings12315526.15916459.2
82 Furniture and parts thereof246187-23.91 2121 143-5.7
83 Travel goods, handbags etc.1312-9.46745-33.7
84 Articles of apparel and accessories7555-26.2365286-21.6
85 Footwear1412-10.99255-40.2
87 Professional and scientific instruments1 057857-19.04 9224 785-2.8
88 Photographic and optical goods2524-1.6113109-3.8
89 Miscellaneous manufactured articles, n.e.s7057638.23 1883 66214.8
 
9 Other commodities and transactions8413358.433756768.3
91 Postal packages not classified according to kind00.00.
93 Special transactions and commodities not classified according to kind018 392.302422.1
96 Coin (other than gold coin), not being legal tender10-100.010-80.3
97 Gold, non-monetary (excluding gold, ores and concentrates)8413258.133556568.4

Table 7 
Imports and exports of goods, by trade areas, continents and countries.

Imports and exports of goods, by trade areas, continents and countries.
ImportsExports
NOK Million - so far this yearChange in per centNOK Million - so far this yearChange in per cent
May 2019May 2020May 2019May 2020
1Figures for EU does not include Great Britain from February 2020 on.
Total319 110301 152-5.6401 934341 116-15.1
 
Trade areas
Nordic countries66 09058 377-11.754 00554 0790.1
EFTA4 2783 897-8.93 2313 2480.5
EU1195 623169 636-13.3325 258210 819-35.2
OECD201 239187 395-6.9330 088258 306-21.7
Developing countries55 88360 7518.732 67651 36857.2
LDC - least developed countries2 2492 134-5.19319593.0
 
Continents and countries
Europe212 239197 280-7.0333 576262 282-21.4
Belgium4 8484 779-1.418 79514 094-25.0
Denmark20 08417 032-15.217 23213 238-23.2
Estonia2 6412 241-15.16727247.7
Finland7 3637 194-2.35 5774 135-25.9
France10 0009 333-6.724 16418 177-24.8
Greece457314-31.36581 11168.8
Ireland1 9581 9781.02 9652 613-11.9
Iceland819685-16.41 9521 887-3.3
Italy9 6808 783-9.35 9224 215-28.8
Lithuania3 6774 12412.22 2392 90429.7
Netherlands12 21410 404-14.841 40034 946-15.6
Poland12 46910 976-12.09 6578 141-15.7
Portugal1 3261 242-6.32 4542 435-0.8
Romania1 3812 14655.4438431-1.6
Russia7 8245 715-27.01 2001 2867.2
Slovakia1 3741 348-1.9213151-29.1
Spain7 1617 5886.09 0975 810-36.1
United Kingdom15 36116 7749.284 97158 572-31.1
Switzerland3 4333 187-7.21 2771 3606.5
Sweden37 36533 079-11.529 03034 53219.0
Czech Republic3 5483 6222.1937861-8.1
Turkey3 3883 6337.22 8944 27947.9
Germany34 85532 501-6.865 73642 054-36.0
Hungary1 2271 71739.9314298-5.1
Austria3 7572 553-32.01 2381 138-8.1
Other countires in Europe4 0294 3327.52 5442 89013.6
 
Asia60 38957 916-4.132 28751 94760.9
Hong Kong372369-0.8864751-13.1
India2 2432 174-3.11 0891 30619.9
Japan6 0596 96715.04 3303 538-18.3
China29 48631 0505.39 82429 843203.8
Malaysia1 4381 247-13.376691018.8
Singapore1 2421 78243.52 9282 522-13.9
South Korea9 6663 898-59.73 7475 40644.3
Taiwan2 0712 053-0.9959953-0.6
Thailand1 4061 4080.11 2311 2572.1
Vietnam2 6062 93012.47438149.6
Other countires in Asia3 8004 0386.35 8064 647-20.0
 
North and Central America35 12832 122-8.622 43817 129-23.7
Canada6 2038 40935.63 1322 488-20.6
United States26 69421 846-18.217 87012 927-27.7
Other countries in North- and Central-America2 2311 867-16.31 4361 714-75.4
 
South America5 7437 89837.52 5652 344-8.6
Brazil3 5705 72460.31 6591 567-5.5
Chile5425440.4498378-24.1
Peru627512-18.32658123.1
Other countries in South-America1 0041 11811.4382341-10.7
 
Africa4 4585 41321.410 1966 535-35.9
Angola325316-2.8112549390.2
Botswana6924-65.2--.
South Africa1 307910-30.4692397-42.6
Other countires in Africa2 7574 16351.09 3925 589-40.5
 
Oceania1 151524-54.58728790.8
Australia975327-66.566875613.2
New Zealand17419512.1134100-25.4
Other countires in Oceania220.07023-67.1

Table 8 
Imports and exports of goods (imports excl. ships and oil platforms and mainland exports), by trade areas, continents and countries.

Imports and exports of goods (imports excl. ships and oil platforms and mainland exports), by trade areas, continents and countries.
Imports excl. ships and oil platformsMainland exports
NOK Million - so far this yearChange in per centNOK Million - so far this yearChange in per cent
May 2019May 2020May 2019May 2020
1Figures for EU is without Great Britan from February 2020 on.
Total316 342298 219-5.7201 834187 024-7.3
 
Trade areas
Nordic countries65 48858 358-10.937 88035 075-7.4
EFTA4 2703 883-9.13 2243 2480.7
EU1195 103169 517-13.1131 135111 004-15.4
OECD200 091186 303-6.9136 315127 127-6.7
Developing countries55 08359 7988.631 61529 553-6.5
LDC - least developed countries2 2492 134-5.1931930-0.1
 
Continents and countries
Europe210 992196 187-7.0139 782130 793-6.4
Belgium4 8484 779-1.46 9235 944-14.1
Denmark19 59317 026-13.113 05511 862-9.1
Estonia2 6412 241-15.16727247.7
Finland7 3637 194-2.33 1753 3836.6
France10 0009 322-6.86 6726 011-9.9
Greece457314-31.34871 111128.1
Ireland1 9581 935-1.22 3572 291-2.8
Iceland812671-17.41 9451 887-3.0
Italy9 6608 783-9.13 9893 409-14.5
Lithuania3 6714 10811.92 0052 0220.8
Netherlands12 21410 360-15.220 74019 288-7.0
Poland12 46910 976-12.07 9038 0822.3
Portugal1 3261 242-6.32 1402 1580.8
Romania1 3812 14655.4438431-1.6
Russia7 8245 715-27.01 1791 2102.6
Slovakia1 3741 348-1.9213151-29.1
Spain7 1617 5886.05 4524 826-11.5
United Kingdom15 36116 7328.917 74816 448-7.3
Switzerland3 4333 187-7.21 2771 3606.5
Sweden37 36133 079-11.519 49217 660-9.4
Czech Republic3 5483 6222.1937861-8.1
Turkey2 7682 716-1.92 8942 138-26.1
Germany34 85532 501-6.813 99413 442-3.9
Hungary1 2271 71739.9314298-5.1
Austria3 7572 553-32.01 2381 138-8.1
Other countries in Europe3 9304 33210.22 5432 6584.5
 
Asia58 86956 111-4.731 17931 5851.3
Hong Kong372369-0.8760676-11.1
India2 2432 174-3.11 0891 30619.9
Japan6 0596 96715.04 3303 538-18.3
China29 30631 0506.09 30810 52113.0
Malaysia1 4381 247-13.376691018.8
Singapore1 2421 2460.32 8502 522-11.5
South Korea8 3252 629-68.43 7034 60624.4
Taiwan2 0712 053-0.9959953-0.6
Thailand1 4061 4080.11 2311 2572.1
Vietnam2 6062 93012.47438149.6
Other countries in Asia3 8014 0386.25 4404 482-17.6
 
North and Central America35 12832 086-8.717 89215 076-15.7
Canada6 2038 40935.62 0011 218-39.1
United States26 69421 846-18.214 81312 487-15.7
Other countries in North and Central America2 2311 831-17.91 0781 37127.2
 
South America5 7437 89837.52 3822 344-1.6
Brazil3 5705 72460.31 5851 567-1.1
Chile5425440.4390378-3.1
Peru627512-18.32658123.1
Other countries in South America1 0041 11811.4381341-10.5
 
Africa4 4585 41321.49 7726 347-35.0
Angola325316-2.8112538380.4
Botswana6924-65.2--.
South Africa1 307910-30.4331237-28.4
Other countries in Africa2 7574 16351.09 3295 572-40.3
 
Oceania1 151524-54.58268796.4
Australia975327-66.566875613.2
New Zealand17419512.1134100-25.4
Other countries in Oceania220.02423-4.2

Table 9 
Imports of goods from selected trade areas and countries, commodity groups by SITC. NOK million

Imports of goods from selected trade areas and countries, commodity groups by SITC. NOK million
So far this year
May 2020
Total importsFood and live animalsBeverages and tobaccoCrude materials, inedible, except fuelsMineral fuels, lubricants and related materialsAnimal and vegetable oils, fats and waxesChemicals and related products n.e.s.Manufactured goods classified chiefly by materialMachinery and transport equipmentMiscellaneous manufactured articlesOther commodities and transactions
1Figures for EU is without Great Britain from February 2002 on.
Total301 15221 6584 97121 41315 9533 28032 69444 685114 05641 840603
 
EU (incl. the Nordic countires)1169 63613 2784 3957 6138 0371 28722 18329 24462 50220 508589
Nordic countries58 3774 3341 3334 0115 2028046 63811 18516 9997 328543
Developing countries60 7514 741835 3523 4265901 9436 51223 49014 6094
Russia5 715498105731 7967526661 28667661
India2 174344132114505852265340
Japan6 96755412202612 9533 2554250
China31 0504450101167383 91616 9958 8480
Singapore1 7828010091691 4022110
South Korea3 8981608531241523 4061830
United States21 8464911151401 8433443 8021 22610 8902 9914
Canada8 40911587 322423151835171860
Brazil5 7241 30513 36273304899144294
South Africa910282163170963523960

Table 10 
Exports of goods to selected trade areas and countries, commodity groups by SITC. NOK Million

Exports of goods to selected trade areas and countries, commodity groups by SITC. NOK Million
So far this year
May 2020
Total exportsFood and live animalsBeverages and tobaccoCrude materials, inedible, except fuelsMineral fuels, lubricants and related materialsAnimal and vegetable oils, fats and waxesChemicals and related products n.e.s.Manufactured goods classified chiefly by materialMachinery and transport equipmentMiscellaneous manufactured articlesOther commodities and transactions
1Figures for EU is without Great Britain from February 2020 on.
Total341 11646 3434978 564176 3141 33725 94036 38034 44610 729567
 
EU (incl. the Nordic countries)1210 81928 0162256 731113 26272012 89225 74718 2204 94857
Nordic countries54 0797 5661592 19724 8183743 6717 0865 9222 2789
Developing countries51 3686 4151099726 5511847 3342 6385 6281 6120
Russia1 28619804312104323559561
India1 306110177383037326172290
Japan3 5381 7211402871508397508750
China29 8431 812448419 88484 1498572 2314150
Singapore2 5222583179011231408963100
South Korea5 4061 3531361 087122421 2591 0503670
United States12 9273 2091911757882722 0411 5433 0971 6110
Canada2 488322411 2719125259412850
Brazil1 567304142033043074931130
South Africa39790021601511263180

Table 11 
Mainland exports by county of production.

Mainland exports by county of production.1
NOK MillionChange in per centNOK Million - so far this yearChange in per cent
May 2019May 2020May 2019 - May 2020So far this yearMay 2019 - May 2020
May 2019May 2020
11) County of production is defined as the county with the highest value added. Where the export consists of a mix of goods from different counties, and the county of production is difficult to determine, the goods are regarded as originating from several counties. Where the value of an imported intermediate good is more than doubled, the good is considered to be produced in Norway. Otherwise, it is considered to be an export of a good produced abroad.
The whole country41 71532 595-21.9201 834187 024-7.3
 
County of production
Viken.2 622..14 519.
Østfold (-2019)1 256--100.07 151--100.0
Akershus (-2019)669--100.04 048--100.0
Telemark (-2019)1 867-61.19 967--100.0
Oslo6837266.33 1033 89225.4
Innlandet.916..4 462.
Hedmark (-2019)400--100.02 102--100.0
Oppland (-2019)600--100.03 219--100.0
Vestfold og Telemark.2 770..17 452.
Vestfold (-2019)1 692--100.09 708--100.0
Telemark (-2019)1 867--100.09 967--100.0
Agder.3 229..17 894.
Aust-Agder (-2019)279--100.01 369--100.0
Vest-Agder (-2019)3 185--100.014 731--100.0
Rogaland4 0792 591-36.518 69816 644-11.0
Vestland.5 345..31 493.
Hordaland (-2019)7 411--100.033 272--100.0
Sogn og Fjordane (-2019)1 229--100.05 909--100.0
Møre og Romsdal4 0762 732-33.019 75818 153-8.1
Trøndelag - Trööndelage2 3762 171-8.610 81711 97710.7
Sør-Trøndelag (-2017)......
Nord-Trøndelag (-2017)......
Nordland2 5342 6113.012 50412 473-0.2
Troms og Finnmark - Romsa ja Finnmárku.1 334..7 834.
Troms - Romsa (-2019)1 058--100.04 815--100.0
Finnmark - Finnmárku (-2019)656--100.03 394--100.0
Svalbard00.360-100.0
Jan Mayen--.--.
Norwegian goods produced in several counties1 2251 032-15.86 7115 706-15.0
Re-exports of goods produced abroad4 6973 549-24.421 90219 355-11.6
County not stated71796634.73 7205 17039.0

Table 12 
Mainland exports by county of production, commodity groups by the SITC. NOK million

Mainland exports by county of production, commodity groups by the SITC. NOK million
May 2020
Total mainland exportsDistribution by the SITC
Food, beverages and tobacco (SITC 0 and 1)Fish (subgruop 03 of SITC 0)Crude materials, except fuels (SITC 2 and 4)Fuels (SITC 3)Manufactured goods except food, beverages and tobacco (SITC 5-9)
1County of production is defined as the county with the highest value added. Where the export consists of a mix of goods from different counties, and the county of production is difficult to determine, the goods are regarded as originating from several counties. Where the value of an imported intermediate good is more than doubled, the good is considered to be produced in Norway. Otherwise, it is considered to be an export of a good produced abroad.
The whole country32 5958 3407 5901 8773 00919 369
 
County of production1
Viken2 622169528812 164
Oslo726571400628
Innlandet9161741280772
Vestfold og Telemark2 770281853312 326
Agder3 22911763-3 154
Rogaland2 5914253522228421 102
Vestland5 3451 6831 6132761 5101 876
Møre og Romsdal2 7321 3561 20213011 246
Trøndelag - Trööndelage2 1711 4811 466115-576
Nordland2 6111 2921 282100-1 219
Troms og Finnmark - Romsa ja Finnmárku1 3341 1821 179532278
Svalbard00----
Jan Mayen------
Norwegian goods produced in several counties1 03248840029019954
Re-exports of goods produced abroad3 549596421033 345
County not stated9669373451827

Norwegian import and export - all countries and commodity numbers 1988-2019. Complete datasets corresponding to Statbank table 08801 for download as CSV.

About the statistics

The external trade statistics comprise the development in Norway's trade with other countries in terms of value and volume figures. Aggregated as well as detailed imports and exports figures between Norway and partner countries, trade regions and continents are provided.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Imports and exports
Imports comprise mainly foreign manufactured goods entering Norway. This can also include re-importation of originally Norwegian-produced goods and processed goods. Exports comprise domestically produced goods sent out of Norway, i.e. the Norwegian statistical territory as defined in Section of population. Also included are reexportation of originally foreign-produced goods and processed goods.

Trade in goods is based on the physical movement of goods across borders, but for some items, such as ships, oil platforms and aircraft, trading often takes place without the occurrence of such movement. Whether there has been an import or export of such goods is therefore determined based on whether a change in economic ownership has taken place cf. also described in the Section of population. Economic ownership is defined as the person entitled to claim the economic benefit and who has the legal responsibility for the risk of the item.

Mainland exports
As from March 2013, the statistics on external trade in goods will use the term mainland exports on the exportation of goods other than crude oil, natural gas, natural gas condensates, ships and oil platforms. Previously, we also used the term traditional goods for these exports, as well as for imports excluding ships and oil platforms. (Balance of payments and the research department still use the term traditional goods. The balance of payments also includes items such as naphtha, propane and butane in its collective term crude oil and natural gas, external trade in goods does not.)

 

Country
Country of origin is used for imports. With regard to exports, the country of destination is used.

For raw materials, the country of origin is determined according to where the goods are produced. For manufactured goods (processed and refined goods), this is the country in which the goods have obtained the form they have at the time of import. The country of destination is defined as the country, which, on the date of export, is the last known country for which the goods are intended.

For more specific principles in relation to country of origin, the rule for ships, aircraft and oil platforms is that country of origin is the country that previously owned the goods (economic ownership). For Norwegian-produced goods sold abroad and subsequently bought in Norway, the country from which the goods are imported shall be given as the country of origin (manufacturing country).

Mode of transport
Mode of transport is defined as the means of transportation used when goods cross the border, either by import or export (in the Database for Standard Classifications there is a detailed description of mode of transport ).

Quantity
For most goods, the quantity is expressed in kilograms (weight excluding packaging), except for ships and electricity, which are measured by gross tonnes and kWh respectively. However, for many goods, the quantity is also available in a different unit of measurement, such as pieces, barrels, cubic metres, carat, litres, pairs etc.

Statistical value
Statistical value is the value when crossing the Norwegian border. Duties, VAT and other taxes are not included in the statistical value.

Upon import, the value should be set to the CIF (Cost Insurance Freight) value, i.e. the value of the goods at the Norwegian border, including the costs associated with the delivery of goods to the border, transport costs and insurance. Similarly, for exports it is the value at the Norwegian border, including the costs associated with transporting it there, called FOB (Free On Board) value. CIF and FOB are two types of delivery terms called Incoterms. The delivery terms are an agreement between buyer and seller as to who bears the risk, responsibility and cost of transportation of the goods to the agreed place. In the Database for Standard Classifications there is an overview of the different delivery terms .

For crude oil exported by ship directly from installations on the Norwegian continental shelf, the value upon departure from the installation is used. In the case of crude oil and natural gas that is piped abroad, this value is determined based onon when it leaves the Norwegian continental shelf. The value of transport in international waters and into a terminal abroad is regarded as export of services.

The statistical value of exports and imports of ships is the transfer value including takeover of debt. With regard toto fish landed abroad (exported) by Norwegian vessels and caught outside the Norwegian customs border, the statistical value is the value of the fish paid to the fishing operator upon the sale of stock (minus the sales organisation fee).

County of production
The county of production is defined as the county in which the added value is greatest.

Standard classifications

Classification of goods
The classification by HS (the international customs and statistics nomenclature, the Harmonized System) is a 6-digit grouping of goods organised primarily according to the material characteristics of goods at the time of crossing the border. Only in exceptional cases is the later use of the goods of any significance to the classification. The WCO (World Customs Organization) is responsible for this nomenclature.

The Norwegian customs tariff is based on the HS, but has two more digits, which are national codes. The 7th digit reflects national customs divisions/tariff rates (bound in the WTO - World Trade Organization). The 8th digit is used to cover the national statistical needs and and among others the interests of the Norwegian Agricultural Authority and Ministry of Foreign Affairs interests with regard to import and export regulations. In some cases, the 8th digit is also used to distinguish between goods subject to duties and/or fees. The Norwegian version is published annually on our website along with a text version of the nomenclature developed by Statistics Norway. The detailed commodity list, which includes all commodity numbers, also provides information about the validity of each commodity number.

Due to technological developments and changes in international trade, the HS nomenclature is normally updated every 5 years – with the most recent implementation on 1 January 2012. In addition, minor changes are made in the Norwegian customs tariff every year. The EU also uses the nomenclature of the HS in its publication of foreign trade figures. However, the EU version; the Combined Nomenclature (CN) - which also has eight digits - is more detailed than the Norwegian version. As mentioned previously, only the first 6 digits are common internationally.

When publishing external trade figures, the UN Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) is mainly used. Here the goods are grouped by level of processing (raw materials, semi-finished and finished goods). As from 1988 to 2006, the SITC-Rev.3 is used, but as of 2007 the SITC-Rev. 4 is used.

The classification BEC (Broad Economic Categories); the UN classification of commodities by end use, which is based on the SITC, is also used to some extent. This classification is not considered to be a "standard classification" in the same way as for example the SITC, and it is officially acknowledged that countries may have their own version of this grouping in order to satisfy national needs. In the Database for Standard Classifications the Norwegian version of this classification is found.

The various nomenclatures are listed on the UN’s website , as well as correspondence tables between the different nomenclatures HS, SITC and BEC and their different versions.

The product classification CPA divides goods by industry group, and in external trade we use extracts from this. CPA (Statistical Classification of Productivity by Activity in the European Community) is the EU's central Product by Activity classification. It is a product group that is closely linked to industry, i.e. distinctive products within each activity can be linked to the activity classification NACE Rev.2.

Grouping by country
The Norwegian list of countries used follows the international standard ISO-3166. EU countries use the same standard, except for some deviations of less importance.

In the external trade publications these country groupings are frequently used:

Nordic countries - trade with Sweden, Denmark, Greenland, Faroe Islands, Finland, Åland and Iceland
EFTA - trade with Iceland, Switzerland and Liechtenstein
EU – in the Database for standard classifications current member states at any given time is available
OECD - for current member states at any given time see the OECD's website

Developing countries – as from 2007, the figures are according to the OECD’s DAC (DAC stands for Development Assistance Committee) for definitions of countries at any given time that are recognised as recipients of official foreign aid. The DAC list also includes a section on LDCs (Least Developed Countries - defined by the UN) - which we also use in the statistics.
(Until 2006, these countries were defined as developing countries in the Norwegian trade statistics: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), Croatia, Macedonia, Malta, Slovenia - Africa except South Africa - Asia excluding Japan, North and South America except USA, Canada and Greenland - Oceania except Australia and New Zealand.)

 

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: External trade in goods
Topic: External economy

Next release

Responsible division

Division for External Trade Statistics

Regional level

Statistics on imports and exports of goods are published at country level. Export figures are also given by county of production.

Frequency and timeliness

Monthly figures are released on the 15th of the month after the observation period (the previous month), or the first subsequent working day.  With every new release, all the previous monthly figures are updated in every publication.

For more information about Revisions, please see Accuracy and Reliability.

 

International reporting

Reports are sent to the EU statistical office (Eurostat), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization (WTO), International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the United Nations (UN).

Microdata

Non-revised and revised micro data are stored in accordance with Statistics Norway's guidelines for storing computer files (DataDok).

Background

Background and purpose

The purpose of the external trade statistics is to provide information about the commodity flows between Norway and other countries. Exports and imports are important economic indicators both in describing structural changes and in monitoring the economic trends. The monthly statistics of external trade in goods have been published since 1913 (value figures were published for the first time in 1866).

With regard to essential changes in the statistics, the commodity classification in line with the Harmonised System that was introduced in 1988 entailed a comprehensive restructuring of the distribution at a detailed level in relation to the earlier CCCN nomenclature (the Customs Cooperation Council Nomenclature).

The statistics are mainly financed from State assignments, but also rely to some extent on market income.

Users and applications

The external trade statistics are a part of the national and international statistical system, and are used in the compilation of the national accounts and the balance of payment statistics in Statistics Norway. The statistics are aimed at covering the business sector’s need for data in this area for their planning of production, marketing and sales.

The statistics are also intended for prognoses and analyses performed by public authorities, research institutions and private organisations. International organisations such as the UN´s statistical office, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD),  the statistical office of the EU (Eurostat) and others make use of the information provided in the external trade statistics.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 8 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.

Coherence with other statistics

The figures for external trade statistics are an important part of the quarterly balance of payments and national accounts and the annual national accounts .

The balance of payments also collects estimates of trade in goods which are transported directly from abroad to the Norwegian continental shelf, imports of fuel and other oil products to Norwegian ships, aircraft and units abroad. Moreover the external account interprets some of the goods from the external trade statistics in goods as a service, such as computer games, software and licenses.

In the publication of the figures for external trade we give figures for crude oil, natural gas and condensates, while the balance of payments use the collective term “crude oil and natural gas”. Terms in foreign accounts also encompass items such as naphtha, propane and butane, while the external trade statistics do not.

In addition to the statistics mentioned, external trade figures are included in many of the other statistics published by Statistics Norway, for example:

- Exports of salmon ,  weekly figures of salmon exports are published in addition to the regular monthly trade figures
- Indices of volume and price of external trade in goods mainly use external trade data as the basis for calculating figures. In addition, the total number of imports and exports, as well as fish and some selected commodity numbers for waste paper and scrap metal, are used as basic data in the producer price index  and the  price index of first-hand domestic sales
- External trade data are also used as basic data for  statistics on fishery and emissions of greenhouse gases

 

Mirror statistics
Mirror statistics, in the context of external trade statistics, refer to a comparison between the statistics of two or more countries: exports of goods from one country should in principle equal the imports of the same goods in the partner country.

However, discrepancies are often identified in these figures for several reasons. Although there are international guidelines for the production of external trade statistics, there may still be differences in what the countries include. An example is differences in the usage of statistical trade systems, general or special trade, which causes delimitations to the statistics content. Countries may also have different methods for data collecting and processing, which can create distortions. Furthermore, some countries collect data from customs authorities and others directly from companies. 

Basically, there should be a certain difference in value between the countries, as the exporting country provides the FOB-value while the importing country in addition to this adds costs for insurance and freight all the way to the location of delivery, the CIF-value (see Definitions). Some countries collect data from customs authorities, others directly from companies. A common source of error between countries is caused by different information about which is the country of destination. Different threshold-values for inclusion of data can also create distortions, f.ex. in Norwegian external trade statistics, declarations with value less than NOK 1 000 are excluded from the import statistics. Other countries may have other delimitations. Different practise of confidentiality and demands for confidentiality, inaccurate definitions of certain commodities as well as conscious and unconscious misuse of codes can lead to use of different classification codes between countries.

From a Norwegian point of view, there is a need for comparing external trade data with the corresponding statistics of our main trading partners, principally European countries. It is in this context important to have knowledge of the rules practiced by the individual partners.

The Statistical Office of the European Union, Eurostat, publishes external trade data for EU countries, totally for the Union and separate for each member country. This statistics are produced according to EU regulations, which defines external trade as trade between the European Union trade and third countries. As a consequence of this, exports to countries in the EU from a non EU-member state are recorded as imported to EU in the first country where the goods cross the borders of the European Union. When forwarding the goods to the country of destination, the good is recorded as an item dispatched from the EU-country that first received the goods. Information about the country of origin of the commodity is not included in the records. Several of the EU-countries publishes in addition to the data presented in the Eurostat database, Comext ,  separately external trade statistics produced after national methodology. For information about this, consult Eurostat's annual report: Quality report on International trade statistics .

 

Legal authority

The Statistics Act §§ 2-1, 2-2 and 3-2

EEA reference

EU regulations incorporated into the EEA agreement comprise contractual obligations pursuant toto EC regulations onon data collection and distribution of data to the EU’s statistical office, Eurostat. The current regulations are as follows:

Regulation (EC) No. 471/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 on Community statistics relating to external trade with non-member countries and repealing of Council Regulation (EC) No 1172/95

Commission Regulation (EU) No. 92/2010 of 2 February 2010 implementing Regulation (EC) No. 471/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Community statistics relating to external trade with non-member countries, as regards data exchange between customs authorities and national statistical authorities, compilation of statistics and quality assessment

Commission Regulation (EU) No. 113/2010 of 9 February 2010 implementing Regulation (EC) No. 471/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Community statistics relating to external trade with non-member countries, as regards trade coverage, definition of the data, compilation of statistics on trade by business characteristics and by invoicing currency, and specific goods or movements

Commission Regulation (EU) No. 1106/2012 of 27 November 2012 implementing Regulation (EC) No. 471/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Community statistics relating to external trade with non-member countries, as regards the update of the nomenclature of countries and territories

Production

Population

Statistics area and the economic territory
The scope of foreign trade statistics is based on international guidelines from the United Nations Statistical Commission.

The general recommendation is that the statistics should include all goods which add to or subtract from the stock of material resources of a country by entering (imports) or leaving (exports) its economic territory. In addition to the geographical dimension, a country's economic territory also includes ships, aircraft and oil platforms owned by national corporations. These are goods that are not necessarily located within the geographic area, but are still viewed as part of the material resources of a country. For these goods external trade is measured by the change of economic ownership.

There are two different statistical trade systems - the general trade system and the special trade system. UN recommends using the general trade system where a country's statistical area coincides with its economic territory. This implies that goods are recorded at the time they enter or leave the economic territory. The special trade system is used when the statistical area covers only a part of the economic territory. Statistics Norway follows, with a few exceptions, the general trade system.

The Norwegian economic territory consists of mainland Norway, Svalbard, Jan Mayen, Norwegian dependencies, territorial waters, including the airspace above these, the economic zone, the Norwegian part of the continental shelf, territorial enclaves abroad (embassies, consulates, military bases, research stations) and Norwegian ships, aircraft and oil platforms.

External trade statistics is mainly based on information drawn from customs declarations. However, the responsible area of the customs authorities only covers mainland Norway and its territorial waters. As a supplement, data on important trade in goods to and from the remaining areas of the economic territory are collected directly from respondents and registers.

The following are defined as statistical area:

Mainland Norway and its territorial waters
Customs declarations contain information on physical flows of goods crossing the customs border. Imports and export that are exempted from ordinary declaration are referred to in the Customs Act §§ 4-10 and 4-11. According to the recommendations from the UN, some flows of goods should be excluded from the statistics. This includes trade in Norwegian goods between the customs area and other parts of the Norwegian economic territory. To the extent possible, trade in foreign goods to and from foreign enclaves, ships, aircraft and oil platforms located in Norway are omitted. To distinguish this type of transactions customs procedure codes from the declarations are used. In general, trade transactions are recorded at the time when the goods enter or leave the customs territory. However there are some exceptions, cf. the treatment of goods in customs warehouses.

There are four different types of customs warehouses. Goods waiting on declearance,can be stored in either a general or a central warehouse. For imports the time of recording is set when the goods are taken out of the warehouse and not when they arrived in the economic territory. This means that the statistical processing of these data follows the special trade principle. However, in practice the time difference between storage and withdrawals from warehouses is usually so small that the statistical processing is considered to be approximately equal to the general trade principle. For the remaining two types of customs warehouse; duty free and storage for further processing, the statistical treatment is according to the general trade system.

Customs declarations of exports and imports of electric current do not provide enough information for statistical purposes, and data is therefore obtained directly from the respondent.

Svalbard and Jan Mayen
Import transported through the Norwegian mainland to Svalbard and Jan Mayen should be declared by customs. Data on exports of coal transported directly from Svalbard are collected directly from the respondents.

The Norwegian part of the continental shelf
Imports via the Norwegian mainland to Norwegian owned installations and vessels that operate on the continental shelf should be declared by customs. Exports of crude oil and natural gas delivered directly from the continental shelf are based on data from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate and the different operators.

Norwegian owned ships, aircraft and oil platforms
Exports and imports of ships, aircraft and oil platforms are based on information from Norwegian ship registers as well as from different respondents. Export of Norwegian goods (excluding bunkers) to foreign ships and aircraft in Norwegian ports and airports are covered by customs declarations.

Data on exports of fish caught by Norwegian fishing vessels outside the customs area and landed abroad is obtained from the Directorate of Fisheries.

 

In accordance with the UN recommendations the following trade in goods are not included in the statistics:

  • Goods in transit, ie goods attending the Norwegian economic territory to be directly transported to a recipient outside this area
  •  Goods traded through intermediate trade, ie goods transported between two foreign countries without entering the Norwegian economic territory
  • Goods physically crossing the country border, but defined as a service (including newspaper subscriptions, accompanied baggage, household goods)
  • Content delivered electronically (including e-books, downloadable games, etc.), defined purely as a service
  • Issued banknotes, securities and monetary gold
  • Samples, gifts and promotional material etc. with a low value
  •  Goods for repair or return after repair
  •  Goods in unaltered condition in return to vendor (claims etc.) and waste containers, replacement deliveries and free repairs (warranty)
  •  Items for temporary use, that are returned within 12 months (exhibition, demonstration, scientific research, loan, professional equipment, transport vehicles in international traffic, containers, equipment in use for the press, radio and television equipment, etc.)
  •  Change in ownership of non-financial assets
  •  Goods that are damaged on the journey to and from the Norwegian economic territory
  •  Satellites equipment moved to and launched in other countries without any change of ownership
  •  Goods functioning as means of transport (ship, aircraft, packaging, etc.)
  • Waste and scrap without any commercial value

 Furthermore goods totalling less than NOK 1 000 are omitted, these goods amounts to less than one per cent of the import and about 0.04 per cent of the export. Imports of goods for less than NOK 200 and exports of goods less than NOK 5.000 (except from goods that are subject to taxes and restrictions) are not subject to declaration by the Customs.

Data sources and sampling

The statistics are mainly based on administrative information obtained from TVINN, which is the Norwegian Customs’ electronic information system for the exchange of customs declarations between businesses and Norwegian Customs. Some data is, however, obtained from other sources, and more information on this can be found in the paragraph on data collection.

Sampling is not not relevant as external trade is a total count of the goods defined in the population.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Data collection

The vast majority of the data is, as mentioned, collected through the Customs’ TVINN register and transmitted electronically to Statistics Norway. However, some additional data, as shown below, is obtained separately.

Exports of crude oil and natural gas in gaseous state
Preliminary and final figures for exported volumes of crude oil and natural gas in gaseous state are collected through monthly reports from the operators and the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The prices, however, are obtained via various sources depending on whether they relate to crude oil or natural gas, and whether the data is being collected to compile preliminary or final figures.

From 2013 on, the development in the in gas prices from the producer price index (PPI) used to calculate the preliminary gas prices for foreign trade, while the level will be based on the value determined from the last registered price. PPI obtain figures for natural gas from the journal World Gas Intelligence (WGI).

Preliminary oil prices are based on the reference price of  Brent Blend for the current month.

For crude oil, the final prices: quarterly surveys from the licensees, as well as information from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy and the operators.

For natural gas, final prices: a quarterly average price based on information from a selection of licensees and operators.

Due to insufficient information about country of destination there are from 2013 on changes in the dissemination of the figures of exports of natural gas in gaseous state. From 2013, country of destination according to these figures will be based on the landing point of the pipelines with natural gas from the Norwegian continental shelf.

Exports of crude oil in pipelines to Great Britain


All exports of Norwegian crude oil that are transported by pipeline to Teeside are registered in the official statistics with the UK as the country of destination. The ownership is Norwegian until the oil is processed in Great Britain, but because a commodity is registered as exported when it physically has crossed the Norwegian border.
After this unstabilized crude oil has gone through a fractionation process, where it is separated into the components of stabilized crude oil, ethane, propane and butane, it is shipped onwards, thus giving a new country distribution. Crude oil has to be stabilized in order to be transported by ship.
Only those shipments regarded as genuine importation into Great Britain is regarded are included in the statistics of Great Britain. All other flows are regarded as being in transit, and therefore excluded.

The figures by country in Statbank table 12780 for “Crude oil, incl. oil by pipelines after processing in Great Britain” shows reallocated figures after country of destination for oil exports by pipe lines (to Great Britain) and by ship to all countries.
Only those shipments regarded as genuine importation into Great Britain is regarded are included in the statistics of Great Britain. All other flows are regarded as being in transit, and therefore excluded.
The fractionation process implies that some of the crude oil disappears, thereby different total figures.

 

Imports and exports of ships and oil platforms
The data collection for vessels is based on current information from the Norwegian ship registers the Norwegian Ordinary Ship Register (NOR) and the Norwegian International Ship Register (NIS).

When it comes to oil platforms, information is collected from the Norwegian ship registers, the Customs’ TVINN register and importer/exporter.

Imports and exports of electricity

Information is received from Statnett. The volume of imports and exports of electricity is measured by the net transfer of the power grid junction point towards foreign countries and is registered every hour and aggregated at a monthly level. The monthly price from Nord Pool is applied for imports and exports with all countries Norway has transmission of electricity with.

 

Imports and exports of aircraft
For some aircrafts, monthly reports are received from Statistics Sweden, while the rest are obtained through regular declarations in the TVINN system.

Exports of coal from Svalbard
Reports on the export of coal from Svalbard are received monthly from the exporter. 

Exports of fish caught by Norwegian vessels outside the Norwegian customs border
Since July 2010, the figures have been obtained from the Directorate of Fisheries (FDIR). Prior to that, the information was gathered through TVINN.

 

Data editing

Information from customs declarations is subject to statistical controls in the Customs declaration system (TVINN). The controls to check the estimated price, quantity and country were developed by the Customs in cooperation with Statistics Norway.

Data controls at Statistics Norway take place at different levels - some as soon as the data is loaded into the system (automatic recoding of variables). The manual part of the revision consists of different types of validity and probability tests. The former are controls of absolute errors, such as missing transport code, while the other type of test may check unlikely country codes or unreasonably high quantities for a specific type of good. The system aims to intercept the most serious errors in the data. Data collected from sources other than the Customs also undergo similar checks.

 

Estimations

External trade is based on a total count but some items are excluded, cf. section of population. There is no need for any statistical estimations of current figures, only aggregations, in order to enable us to publish in a timely manner.

 

Seasonal adjustment

 The seasonal adjustment method, which is used for the foreign trade monthly value series and the quarterly volume series, consists of pre-treatment of the values for the individual series using the seasonal adjustment programme X12-ARIMA. It was developed by the US Bureau of the Census, and is one of the most internationally known methods for seasonal adjustment. The purpose of the seasonally-adjusted figures is to show the real economic trends by eliminating interference caused by seasonal variations. There are two important corrections: one method adjusts for the number of weekdays of different kinds in each month. This can be important, since it is probable that exports and imports are distributed unevenly throughout the week. The second important correction is for the Easter holidays, since Easter can fall in different months and different quarters of the year. We assume that both imports and exports are affected the week before Easter, in the Easter week itself and the week after Easter. No special corrections are made for other holidays in the year.

Confidentiality

The Statistics Act § 2-6 covers the disclosure of information.

The requirements for confidentiality in external trade of goods are practised so that data is suppressed only when the establishment/enterprise has a valid reason for confidential treatment and actively asks for it. Exporters/importers can demand suppression when there are 3 or fewer companies that import or export an item type to a given country, or when a company has a market share of over 90 per cent, or if two firms have a market share of over 95 per cent.This is called "passive confidentiality" and is in line with UN recommendations. This method is used by most countries..

Since Norway has a number of major manufacturers that are dominant in some product areas, some suppression of information exists on the export side. Between 5 and 10 per cent of mainland exports are affected by confidentiality. For imports, it is far less; around 1 per cent. Some commodity areas are more problematic with regard to dissemination, since suppression on highly aggregated levels must be carried out.

 

Comparability over time and space

The six-digit HS-based commodity classification is subject to revisions due to technological development and also development in the commodity spectres of the international trade. These adjustments are normally made every five years. The most recent HS revision was implemented on 1 January 2012. Furthermore, national adjustments are made every year at the national eight-digit level. These revisions can create breaks in the time series for some commodity numbers. Detailed information about this is available in the yearly Commodity List External Trade. Correspondence tables between the different editions of the HS are available on the UN website .

With regard to the divisions according to the SITC, the current SITC-Rev.4 was introduced in January 2007, when it replaced the previous SITC-Rev.3 (1988-2006). The relation between the figures for the years before and after 2007 can be misleading for some commodity numbers. The degree of influence depends on the value of the commodity numbers that now have a different group affiliation. Correspondence tables between the different editions of the SITC are also available on the UN website .

For the tables that use the CPA nomenclature, the 2008 edition is used for the whole series.

Other elements influencing the comparability over time: The imports and exports of ships and oil platforms in the statistics were extended in 1991 to include transactions that concern vessels under a foreign flag with a Norwegian-registered holding company. Furthermore, the definition of developing countries was changed in 2007, which affects the figures slightly.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

Collection errors can occur from incorrect values, incomplete information or misinterpretation of data on customs declarations. Examples of this are use of wrong commodity number, country code, county of production or incorrect quantity.

Other sources of error include late updates, which sometimes occur for the trade with ships and oil platforms.It is also difficult to intercept the transit trade, i.e. the buying and selling of commodities in foreign territory where a Norwegian company is one of the partners. Neither do we have a good data basis to estimate the processing exports for the preparation of goods abroad or imports for processing in Norway.
The rules for customs clearance, which entail exemption from the duty to declare for exports of goods when the value is below NOK 5 000 and exemption for imports of goods when the value is below NOK 200, lead to lower figures than the real trade. This is not the best solution for preparation of the national accounts, where these lacking figures are estimated separately.
The calculation of seasonally-adjusted data beyond the usual seasonal effects is adjusted for the fact that trade is distributed unevenly across the week and taking into account the effect of Easter, as described in the section of estimations. However, beyond this nothing in particular is done. Therefore it would be natural to assume that the seasonally-adjusted December figures should be interpreted more cautiously because of the Christmas holidays.

The export trade statistics is a full count, so there are therefore no non-response errors or sampling errors .

Revision

When publishing statistics for a new month of measurement, figures for the previous months in the same year are also revised. Furthermore, the figures for all months of the year are revised twice more: First time in May the following year (year t + 1), before final figures are published in May one year later (year t + 2). See https://www.ssb.no/en/statbank/list/muh in the Statbank for more information about the size of the revisions.

At the aggregate level, the difference between preliminary monthly figures and revised figures published in May year t + 1 will normally be small for imports and mainland exports. At a detailed level and for individual months, the revisions can be of greater importance, relatively speaking. For oil and gas, larger audits can be experienced, in particular, related to the calculation of oil and gas prices. The revisions of the final publication in year t + 2 will normally be of minor importance, but in some cases relatively significant corrections can also be uncovered in this time perspective.