About the statistics
Name and topic
Name: Production and consumption of energy, energy balance
Topic: Energy and manufacturing
Division for Energy, Environmental and Transport Statistics
Definitions of the main concepts and variables
Energy products - All products used for the production, conversion and use of energy in the economy (including households). Energy products are used for energy purposes and non-energy purposes (eg natural gas as raw material in the production of chemical raw materials and lubricants). Exceptions are renewable products such as biomass and waste not used for energy purposes.
Primary energy products - products extracted directly from natural resources such as crude oil, natural gas and coal.
Secondary energy products - products that are produced by transformation of other energy fuels or energy, such as petrol produced from crude oil.
Primary production is the capture or extraction of fuels or energy from natural energy flows, the biosphere and natural reserves of fossil fuels within the national territory in a form suitable for use. This applies, for example, to coal, wood, crude oil and natural gas.
Production of secondary energy products - production of energy products with product input of other energy products, either primary or secondary. These are, for example, petroleum products that are produced from crude oil in the oil refineries or district heating produced by the incineration of waste.
Imports of energy products comprise all fuel and other energy products entering the national territory.
Exports of energy products comprise all fuel and other energy products leaving the national territory.
Stock changes - the increase (stock build) or decrease (stock draw) in the quantity of stocks over the reporting period and thus are calculated as a difference between the closing and opening stocks. Calculated as the difference between inventory at the end of the year for two periods (+ = decrease, - = increase).
Bunkers – a term in energy balance that includes amounts of fuel delivered to international ships and aviation regardless of nationality for consumption during international voyages transporting goods or passengers.
Transformation is the process where the movement of part or all of the energy content of an energy product entering a process to one or more different energy products leaving the process (e.g., coking coal to coke, crude oil to petroleum products, and heavy fuel oil to electricity).
Energy sector - mainly industries that use fuels and energy for the direct support of the production, and preparation for use, of fuels and energy, except heat not sold. In EB, this includes crude oil and natural gas extraction, coal extraction, as well as consumption in oil refineries, hydropower plants, thermal power plants, combined heat and power plants and district heating plants.
Own consumption in the energy producing sector - a term in energy balance that includes all consumption of energy products in the energy producing sector, excluding transformation input (energy products used in transformation processes for other energy products).
Final consumption - all domestic energy consumption excluding consumption in the energy producing sector.
Final consumption for energy use - Energy products used for production, light, heating, transport and as a reducing agent in industry.
Reduction agent - some coal, coke and charcoal are used as a reduction agent in the production of metals and chemical raw materials. This consumption is considered as part of energy products used for energy purposes in EB.
Non-energy use - energy products used as a product input in the production of goods. This mainly involves the efforts of petroleum products in the production of chemical raw materials, natural gas used in methanol production and petrol coke used in the production of, for example, coal electrodes.
Transport - in EB, this item includes energy products used for the transport of goods or persons within Norwegian territory irrespective of the industry in which the transport occurs. This post includes the categories road transport, rail transport, air transport, coastal transport and other transport.
Statistical error - the difference between the total energy supply and final energy consumption.
Statistics Norway's classification of energy products and balance posts is in line with the International Standard for Energy Products (SIEC) and the UN's guidelines for comprising energy balances (International Recommendations for Energy Statistics).
Only national figures are published. The figures for consumption of fossil fuels and bio fuel are also distributed by municipality for use as a basis for the calculation of emissions to air, but the distribution by municipality is not published. However, consumption of electricity by municipality and county is published in the annual electricity statistics:
Frequency and timeliness
The annual energy balance and energy sources balance sheet: Publishing in the autumn of figures for year t-2, preliminary figures for year t-1 (year t is the publishing year)
The energy balance sheet is reported annually to the IEA/OECD, Eurostat and the UN.
Background and purpose
The statistics show total production, transformation and consumption of all energy products within Norwegian territory during a reference year and are published annually since 1976. Energy balances are considered the best way to present the flow of energy from production, transformation and the energy industry's own use to final consumption. In the energy balance, all energy products are measured in common energy units (GWh and PJ) to show the link between the amount of energy used as input and the amount of energy produced as a result of transformation in energy sector.
The purpose of the statistics:
- increase the relevance of energy statistics by producing comprehensive information on energy production and consumption in Norway, as well as import and export of energy;
- ensure comparability between different years and different countries;
- provide the opportunity to calculate relative contributions of different energy products or sectors to the country's totals;
- provide a basis for calculating CO2 emissions;
- provide a basis for calculating indicators (for example, energy intensities);
Users and applications
The statistics are used by public and private institutions that work with different types of energy questions and analyses. Internally in Statistics Norway, the Division for Energy and Environmental Statistics, the Research Department and the Division for National Accounts are important users. Schools, the media and various organizations are other users of the statistics. The statistics form the basis for international reporting to the International Energy Agency (IEA), OECD and Eurostat (including recipients of Physical Energy Flow Acocounts - PEFA).
Equal treatment of users
Coherence with other statistics
The statistics on the sale of petroleum products (https://www.ssb.no/energi-ogindustri/statistikker/petroleumsalg) is the data source that sets the framework for consumption of petroleum products in energy balance (EB). The statistics are based on annual reports from oil companies and import data from foreign trade statistics in Statistics Norway. Statistics on industry’s energy use (https://www.ssb.no/energi-ogindustri/statistikker/indenergi) is the main data source for consumption in industry and the mining industry. District heating statistics (https://www.ssb.no/energi-ogindustri/statistikker/jernvarme) is the source of data for the production and consumption of district heating in EB. Annual and monthly electricity statistics (https://www.ssb.no/energy-andindustry/statistikker/elektrisitet) are data sources for production, consumption, import and export of electricity in EB.
Emissions statistics (https://www.ssb.no/natur-og-miljo/statistikker/klimagassn) is the most important user of EB in Statistics Norway, and emissions are calculated annually through international controls for consistency between consumption figures in EB And emissions.
The National Accounts (NR) (https://www.ssb.no/national accounts-and-economics/statistikk/knr) is another important user of EB in Statistics Norway. NR uses selected data to, among other things, distribute total energy costs as inputs in the production of different energy products, and to control the production value of different energy products.
Consistency with the energy accounts
The statistics for energy balance and energy accounts are set up from almost the same data, but accordingto different principles and definitions. The energy balance shows total production, transformation and consumption of all energy products within Norwegian territory. The energy accounts includes energy products produced and used in industries in the Norwegian economy and Norwegian households. This is independent of where in the world it happens. Norwegian consumption abroad is included, while foreign consumption in Norway is excluded. This is called Norwegian economic territory and is the same delimitation that is used in the national accounts.
In the energy balance, all use of energy products for transport purposes is reported separately. The energy account includes consumption of all energy in the industry that has used it, regardless of whether consumption is for transportation, heating or processing purposes.
Energy use in aviation deviates in energy balance and energy accounts because the energy accounts includes Norwegian companies' purchases abroad, but not foreign companies' purchases in Norway, while the opposite is the case in the energy balance. The consumption of jet fuel in the army is not included in aviation in either energy account or balance but is placed under services /public administration.
Deliveries of energy products from Norwegian ports to ships in foreign maritime transport, irrespective of the nationality of the ship, are called bunkers in the energy balance and are excluded from total domestic consumption of energy. It is also placed on the supply side in the energy balance and is treated approximately as the export of energy. The same applies to energy used for aircraft in foreign voyages. In the energy accounts, foreign shipping is its own transport industry, and consumption is therefore included in transport. The energy account shall also include the energy consumption of Norwegian ships abroad.
The Statistics Act §§ 2-1, 2-2 and 2-3. The statistics are mainly based on data from other statistics
The energy balance has territorial delimitation - the statistics cover only activity on Norwegian territory regardless of the user's nationality. The scope of statistics is defined by energy products shown in the energy balance columns, as well as balance sheet items describing the energy flow and appearing in rows in the energy balance.
Data sources and sampling
Primary petroleum products and coal
Annual figures for the production of LPG, ethane, NGL, crude oil and natural gas are collected from the Diskos database to the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (OD). Diskos is a collaboration between OD and oil companies on the Norwegian shelf, where the oil companies themselves report seismic data, well data and production data. Annual figures for produced amounts of coal are collected in Norwegian coal mines in Svalbard. Russian coal mines are not included in the production figures.
Secondary petroleum products
Secondary petroleum products are mainly produced in oil refineries. Annual production amounts are collected directly from the oil companies and the production data includes energy products such as gasoline, gas oils / diesel, kerosene, distillates, heavy oil, LPG, naphtha and petrol coke. Production of gas oils / diesel is collected on the more aggregated level than the requirement for reporting of the statistics. Sales figures from the annual petroleum statistics are used to split production, stock and import / export between light heating oil, off-road diesel, auto diesel and marine gas oil. In addition to energy products mentioned above, the refineries also produce CO gas from petrol coke and refinery gas. We collect these production figures annually directly from the companies.
Production figures are obtained from monthly and annual electricity statistics. The data is based on reporting. Annual electricity statistics are published about 10 months after the end of the year. Figures from the monthly electricity statistics are therefore used for the preliminary EB publication in May. Figures from the annual electricity statistics are used for the publication two years after the end of the year. The differences between annual and monthly electricity statistics are that the annual statistics is more detailed and reliable than the monthly statistics. However, for the production figures, the differences are small.
District heating and cooling
Production figures are obtained from annual district heating statistics. The figures are collected via an annual form-based survey and the population includes all district heating and cooling systems in Norway, which supply heat and/or cooling via a pipeline to external customers from heating plants with capacity of at least 1 MW. Industrial companies that produce heat only for their own use are not included.
The data on production of biogas is collected directly from producers through an annual form-based survey. Statistics Norway also receives files with extraction of landfill gas from landfills from the Norwegian Environmental Directorate. This information complements the production data collected in our own data collection.
Other energy products
For certain energy products in the Norwegian economy, the quantities produced are calculated. This applies to the energy products waste, wood, pellets and briquettes.
Import and export
Import and export of energy products are obtained from the external trade statistics of Statistics Norway, with some exceptions. Foreign trade statistics are based on customs declarations covering physical goods flows that pass the customs border.
Consumption figures for industry and mining industries
are obtained from energy consumption statistics in the industry. The statistics are collected via an annual form-based sample survey, where companies report energy products used for production, light, heat and transport for one or more of their businesses. To cover all energy use in industry and mining, information about energy products used as raw materials is also collected and a special form is sent to a small selection of companies that manufacture or use special energy products. Examples here are businesses in chemical industry companies that use natural gas as raw materials or businesses in the mineral industry as energy generators different types of waste.
The consumption of electricity in the consumer groups outside industry is collected from the electricity statistics.
Consumption of district heating in the consumer groups outside industry is obtained from district heating statistics. This is data reported from district heating plants.
Consumption figures for offshore activity in the crude oil and natural gas extraction industry, as well as services associated with, are obtained from the national database for mandatory reporting on petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Energy consumption and emissions are reported here, and data quality is quality-controlled by the Oil Directorate and the Environment Directorate. The data source contains consumption of diesel oils, crude oil and natural gas.
Consumption in land facilities is obtained from data from Oil Directorate, Gassco, reporting to the Norwegian Environmental Directorate, and Statistics Norway survey on domestic use or natural gas. Several of the land heating plants also produce electric power (gas power). Power plants that produce both power and heat are called CHP, Combined Heat and Power Plants. For these, the shares of natural gas used in power and heat production are calculated on the basis of figures for power generation, total use of natural gas and expected efficiency.
Consumption of natural gas and biogas for road transport is collected through annual survey of companies selling natural gas and biogas for use in Norway. Consumption of petroleum products not mentioned above is covered by the annual sales statistics for petroleum products. In EB, it is assumed that auto diesel, petrol and LPG are used for road transport and that petrol diesel, light fuel oil and heating parafin are used for stationary use in the industry. Consumption of lubricants and bitumen is considered as non-energy consumption.
Consumption of natural gas in shipping is collected through an annual form-based survey for natural gas dealers. Consumption of marine gas oils, heavy distillate and heavy oil in foreign shipping is calculated using fuel costs from Statistics Norway's statistics. For domestic shipping, all consumption figures for petroleum products are collected from sales statistics.
Consumption of kerosene type jet fuel and aviation gasoline in air transport is calculated using three data sources that are updated annually: 1) Statistics on the sale of petroleum products, 2) Air traffic data sets, which are included in air traffic statistics and 3) reported data on the purchase and use of jet kerosene from a Selection of airlines.
Consumption of electricity and district heating in households is collected from Statistics Norway's annual data collections from distributors of these energy products. Statistics Norway also collects data on consumption of natural gas and biogas through its own annual form-based data collections to retailers. Consumption of light fuel oil and household fuel households is calculated using consumption figures collected as part of the consumption survey (FBU) for Statistics Norway.
Stock inventory figures for primary oil and gas products in oil- and gas extraction sector are retrieved from the Oil Directorate through an annual data delivery agreement. Storage at the oil refineries and terminals is retrieved directly from the companies through an annual data collection. This is mainly secondary petroleum products. Statistics Norway also collects stock figures for coal, coke and petrol coke.
Collection of data, editing and estimations
The following calculations are used in the production of the statistics:
Conversion into common units - original values for quantity data are converted to the standard physical unit for each energy product and into the common energy unit.
Imputation - a statistical method of replacing missing data using existing data. This includes figures for stock change, consumption to conversion (eg electricity, blast furnace gas), import / export / production (eg wood, waste, hazardous waste), consumption of fuel abroad / fuel purchased abroad.
Allocation of aggregated amounts – data with insufficient level of detail is divided using a set of allocation keys (shares). Allocation keys are used for splitting aggregated energy products (eg waste, gas oils / diesel), industries, user groups and origin (renewable or non-renewable).
Purchases abroad and import - for some energy products there is information about total purchases (in Norway + abroad) and purchases in Norway. In these cases, the purchase abroad is calculated as the difference between the two quantities. This calculation is made for the foreign shipping industry. At the same time as imputing of purchases abroad, an import amount equal to the amount purchased abroad is imputed.
Comparability over time and space
Comparability over time is requires in energy balance statistics. This is partly due to the requirements in greenhouse gas emission statistics for annual audits, and international requirements for correlation between energy balance and emissions statistics. If Statistics Norway receives new information for previous years (eg new data sources, methods, conversion factors), this will be taken into the production system and published as revised time series. This means that the numbers are not final in the publication even though they are labeled as final on the statistics web pages. The latest version of the figures for a period will always be in the statbank.
Sources of error and uncertainty
Statistical error is an indicator of uncertainty in the statistics and energy balance (EB) statistics has a continuous goal to reduce this type of error.
There are various objectives in EB regarding statistical deviations for the different energy products.
Electricity and district heating should not have statistical differences in final energy balance figures. Production and use are obtained from primary statistics with their own publications. Here the numbers are checked and balanced before they are loaded into EB.
Production and export of crude oil, NGL and natural gas are checked against each other before the figures are loaded into EB and should be balanced as much as possible on the input data.
Energy products that get imputed production or use in the system due to missing data should not have statistical differences. This applies to:
• Waste: The production is equal to the sum of the consumption.
• Liquid biofuel: Missing production numbers are set equal to import. Exceptions are biodiesel. Import / export from foreign trade statistics is collected here.
• Fixed biofuel: Production is equal to the sum of the consumption. Exceptions are charcoal, pellets and wood. For these energy products, import / export is collected from foreign trade statistics.
• Biogas: Lack of production figures is calculated by summing up the consumption corrected for known production.
For light heating oil, auto diesel, off-road diesel and marine gas oils, the statistical difference must be assessed collectively. This is due to the fact that inputs for production, import, export and stock are collected together and split between energy products in the production system using distribution keys.
For the remaining energy products, a certain statistical difference is accepted.
EB require comparability over time. This is partly due to the emission statistics’ requirement for annual audits, and the international requirement for cohesion between EB and the emission statistics. Where new information is received for previous years (e.g. new data sources, methods, conversion factors), this is entered in the production system and revised time series are published.
The most recent version of the figures for a period will always be available in Statbank
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