285933
/en/nasjonalregnskap-og-konjunkturer/statistikker/turismesat/aar
285933
Strong growth in consumption from foreign tourists
statistikk
2017-03-28T08:00:00.000Z
National accounts and business cycles;Transport and tourism
en
turismesat, Tourism satellite accounts, tourism consumption, tourism by activity (for example hotels and restaurants, travel agencies, car rental), foreign tourists, Norwegian tourists, business trips, travel agency services, employees, gross investments, gross productTourism , National accounts , Transport and tourism, National accounts and business cycles
true
The tourism satellite accounts include figures on tourists’ expenditures in Norway, as well as the scope of the tourism industries in terms of output and employment.

Tourism satellite accounts

Updated

Next update

Key figures

45

billion NOK spent by foreign tourists in Norway in 2015

Tourism satellite accounts
2013201420151
1Preliminary figures
Total tourism consumption in Norway. NOK million145 156151 416158 993
Non-residents' share of total tourism consumption in Norway. Per cent26.326.828.6
Annual volume change in total tourism consumption. Per cent3.52.12.1
Resident households' tourism consumption in Norway as share of households' final consumption expenditure. Per cent7.27.17.1
Value added in the tourism industries as share of GDP Mainland Norway. Per cent4.24.14.2
Annual volume change in value added in the tourism industries.Per cent2.7-2.32.6
Employment in the tourism industries' share of total employment in Mainland Norway. Man year, full time equivalents, employees and self-employed. Per cent6.66.66.7

See more tables on this subject

Table 1 
Total tourism consumption in Norway, by product (NOK million)

Total tourism consumption in Norway, by product (NOK million)1
20112012201320142015
1Includes tourism consumption in Norway by resident households, resident industries and non-residents.
01 Total tourism consumption of tourism products84 90190 75095 900100 000103 280
01.01 Accommodation services13 05713 98814 73015 22716 049
01.02 Food and beverage serving services16 57417 32018 11619 25820 176
01.03 Rail transport services2 4132 4832 6942 8122 998
01.04 Road transport services4 1794 4024 3894 5724 683
01.05 Water transport services7 4327 5057 7048 1948 718
01.06 Air transport services20 82222 66424 80726 76227 925
01.07 Transport equipment rental services509546559598634
01.08 Travel agency and tour operator reservation services16 62718 43719 18818 66317 890
01.09 Cultural services1 5061 5891 6581 7441 845
01.10 Sports and recreational services1 7821 8162 0552 1702 362
02 Total tourism consumption of other products43 62546 13249 25651 41655 713
0 Total consumption expenditures by tourists128 526136 882145 156151 416158 993

Table 2 
Tourism consumption in Norway by non-residents, by product (NOK million)

Tourism consumption in Norway by non-residents, by product (NOK million)
20112012201320142015
01 Total tourism consumption of tourism products19 00420 13621 02722 62625 168
01.01 Accommodation services5 1225 5025 9036 1956 856
01.02 Food and beverage serving services5 2955 6285 8766 3887 070
01.03 Rail transport services508513526578649
01.04 Road transport services494517508555617
01.05 Water transport services2 1992 1772 2102 3402 568
01.06 Air transport services3 9664 3144 4224 8425 559
01.07 Transport equipment rental services207224222242267
01.08 Travel agency and tour operator reservation services225240252270294
01.09 Cultural services440461486533554
01.10 Sports and recreational services548560622683734
02 Total tourism consumption of other products15 42616 43817 18718 00320 348
0 Total consumption expenditures by tourists34 43036 57438 21440 62945 516

Table 3 
Tourism consumption in Norway by resident households, by product (NOK million)

Tourism consumption in Norway by resident households, by product (NOK million)
20112012201320142015
01 Total tourism consumption of tourism products44 36148 31452 08953 52654 410
01.01 Accommodation services4 5404 9545 2675 3765 569
01.02 Food and beverage serving services6 5537 0067 4007 7808 060
01.03 Rail transport services1 1841 2481 3601 4261 521
01.04 Road transport services2 5792 6872 7262 8312 916
01.05 Water transport services3 7383 8284 0164 2964 561
01.06 Air transport services8 2329 35011 07111 93512 481
01.07 Transport equipment rental services176189199210220
01.08 Travel agency and tour operator reservation services15 05916 66817 44516 97416 163
01.09 Cultural services1 0661 1281 1721 2111 291
01.10 Sports and recreational services1 2341 2561 4331 4871 628
02 Total tourism consumption of other products28 19929 69432 06933 41335 365
0 Total consumption expenditures by tourists72 56078 00884 15886 93989 775
 
Memo
Final consumption expenditure of households1 072 2951 121 0811 173 9711 220 0521 272 611
Tourism consumption' share of final consumption exp. of households. Per cent6.87.07.27.17.1

Table 4 
Tourism consumption in Norway by resident industries, by product (NOK million)

Tourism consumption in Norway by resident industries, by product (NOK million)
20112012201320142015
01 Total tourism consumption of tourism products21 53622 30022 78423 84823 702
01.01 Accommodation services3 3953 5323 5603 6563 624
01.02 Food and beverage serving services4 7264 6864 8405 0905 046
01.03 Rail transport services721722808808828
01.04 Road transport services1 1061 1981 1551 1861 150
01.05 Water transport services1 4951 5001 4781 5581 589
01.06 Air transport services8 6249 0009 3149 9859 885
01.07 Transport equipment rental services126133138146147
01.08 Travel agency and tour operator reservation services1 3431 5291 4911 4191 433
01.09 Cultural services----0
01.10 Sports and recreational services----0
02 Total tourism consumption of other products----0
0 Total consumption expenditures by tourists21 53622 30022 78423 84823 702

Table 5 
Total tourism consumption in Norway, by product. Annual volume change, per cent

Total tourism consumption in Norway, by product. Annual volume change, per cent1
2012201320142015
1Includes tourism consumption in Norway by resident households, resident industries and non-residents.
01 Total tourism consumption of tourism products4.72.81.90.0
01.01 Accommodation services11.86.43.85.7
01.02 Food and beverage serving services0.81.43.61.9
01.03 Rail transport services4.97.62.73.5
01.04 Road transport services0.4-3.9-0.1-2.4
01.05 Water transport services-3.9-1.32.6-1.2
01.06 Air transport services3.72.53.7-0.9
01.07 Transport equipment rental services5.3-0.81.04.0
01.08 Travel agency and tour operator reservation services9.73.6-3.8-5.6
01.09 Cultural services3.90.92.02.7
01.10 Sports and recreational services-0.112.84.25.8
02 Total tourism consumption of other products4.74.92.56.1
0 Total consumption expenditures by tourists4.73.52.12.1

Table 6 
Tourism consumption in Norway by non-residents, by product. Annual volume change, per cent

Tourism consumption in Norway by non-residents, by product. Annual volume change, per cent
2012201320142015
01 Total tourism consumption of tourism products3.82.35.78.0
01.01 Accommodation services12.18.45.411.0
01.02 Food and beverage serving services2.51.25.87.7
01.03 Rail transport services2.91.77.49.0
01.04 Road transport services0.0-5.24.55.9
01.05 Water transport services-5.6-0.92.11.9
01.06 Air transport services1.2-2.37.29.0
01.07 Transport equipment rental services6.3-7.13.08.3
01.08 Travel agency and tour operator reservation services3.95.85.97.0
01.09 Cultural services3.22.06.40.9
01.10 Sports and recreational services0.410.78.24.5
02 Total tourism consumption of other products5.52.72.910.6
0 Total consumption expenditures by tourists4.62.54.49.2

Table 7 
Tourism consumption in Norway by resident households, by product. Annual volume change, per cent

Tourism consumption in Norway by resident households, by product. Annual volume change, per cent
2012201320142015
01 Total tourism consumption of tourism products7.05.50.3-1.5
01.01 Accommodation services13.97.42.53.9
01.02 Food and beverage serving services3.12.32.40.8
01.03 Rail transport services7.48.02.53.6
01.04 Road transport services0.2-2.5-0.6-1.9
01.05 Water transport services-2.4-0.32.4-1.4
01.06 Air transport services8.512.63.3-0.7
01.07 Transport equipment rental services5.4-0.9-0.52.9
01.08 Travel agency and tour operator reservation services10.24.5-3.7-6.2
01.09 Cultural services4.10.50.23.5
01.10 Sports and recreational services-0.213.82.36.4
02 Total tourism consumption of other products4.26.12.33.6
0 Total consumption expenditures by tourists5.95.71.10.5

Table 8 
Tourism consumption in Norway by resident industries, by product. Annual volume change, per cent

Tourism consumption in Norway by resident industries, by product. Annual volume change, per cent
2012201320142015
01 Total tourism consumption of tourism products0.6-2.71.8-4.1
01.01 Accommodation services8.61.83.1-0.6
01.02 Food and beverage serving services-4.20.22.6-3.6
01.03 Rail transport services2.111.00.0-0.5
01.04 Road transport services1.2-6.6-0.9-7.6
01.05 Water transport services-5.1-4.64.1-5.3
01.06 Air transport services0.2-5.82.4-6.0
01.07 Transport equipment rental services3.99.80.0-1.4
01.08 Travel agency and tour operator reservation services5.6-6.3-6.2-0.6
01.09 Cultural services....
01.10 Sports and recreational services....
02 Total tourism consumption of other products....
0 Total consumption expenditures by tourists0.6-2.71.8-4.1

Table 9 
Output in tourism industries at basic prices (NOK million)

Output in tourism industries at basic prices (NOK million)
2012201320142015
Accommodation services25 13125 97027 12528 590
Food and beverage service activities46 22649 14351 37154 145
Rail transport5 5766 1006 3696 791
Road transport23 25424 59726 36827 607
Water transport15 81316 37717 61818 156
Air transport28 27432 34437 61839 253
Rental and leasing activities37 46438 84742 11443 883
Travel agency and tour operator reservation services18 77719 58919 05918 270
Cultural activities21 02120 45821 55522 808
Sport and other recreation activities9 51610 24510 60511 403
 
TOURISM INDUSTRIES IN TOTAL231 052243 670259 802270 906
Mainland Norway4 039 1944 251 5444 466 8584 587 182
Tourism industries' share of total output, Mainland Norway. Per cent5.75.75.85.9
 
Total industry4 841 4665 038 5855 223 6155 231 460
Tourism industries' share of total output. Per cent4.84.85.05.2

Table 10 
Output in tourism industries at basic prices. Annual volume change, per cent

Output in tourism industries at basic prices. Annual volume change, per cent
201320142015
Accommodation services2.93.53.1
Food and beverage service activities2.91.63.1
Rail transport8.12.51.8
Road transport2.12.80.0
Water transport3.54.4-0.3
Air transport9.810.2-1.0
Rental and leasing activities4.73.53.0
Travel agency and tour operator reservation services3.9-3.6-5.3
Cultural activities-6.02.22.8
Sport and other recreation activities6.81.84.4
 
TOURISM INDUSTRIES IN TOTAL3.63.21.3
Mainland Norway2.22.30.9

Table 11 
Value added in tourism industries at basic prices (NOK million)

Value added in tourism industries at basic prices (NOK million)
2012201320142015
Accommodation services10 85311 13411 77012 284
Food and beverage service activities22 44024 15125 38526 494
Rail transport2 2342 3802 2102 444
Road transport13 53814 32514 68915 962
Water transport5 2845 4454 9375 519
Air transport7 9647 9716 3978 634
Rental and leasing activities16 06016 07717 12417 456
Travel agency and tour operator reservation services3 3803 2423 2353 484
Cultural activities11 73611 57812 04412 910
Sport and other recreation activities4 3604 6655 1675 604
 
TOURISM INDUSTRIES IN TOTAL97 849100 968102 958110 791
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, market values2 295 3952 418 8012 533 3022 620 035
Tourism industries' share of GDP Mainland Norway. Per cent4.34.24.14.2
 
Gross domestic product, market values2 965 2083 071 1343 140 3713 117 433
Tourism industries' share of GDP. Per cent3.33.33.33.6

Table 12 
Value added in tourism industries at basic prices. Annual volume change, per cent

Value added in tourism industries at basic prices. Annual volume change, per cent
201320142015
Accommodation services5.07.03.1
Food and beverage service activities5.13.73.1
Rail transport8.9-8.61.8
Road transport0.5-3.10.0
Water transport4.3-32.8-0.1
Air transport-9.6-32.5-1.3
Rental and leasing activities4.9-0.53.0
Travel agency and tour operator reservation services21.114.39.1
Cultural activities-5.20.94.2
Sport and other recreation activities8.011.04.3
 
TOURISM INDUSTRIES IN TOTAL2.7-2.32.6
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, market values2.32.21.1

Table 13 
Gross fixed capital formation in tourism industries (NOK million)

Gross fixed capital formation in tourism industries (NOK million)
2012201320142015
Accommodation services1 4181 1521 447...
Food and beverage service activities7931 0681 136...
Rail transport2 6011 7391 242...
Road transport1 4112 0301 308...
Water transport6741 2632 926...
Air transport5 1183 7211 104...
Rental and leasing activities5 4284 3374 008...
Travel agency and tour operator reservation services121185316...
Cultural activities1 4911 5001 526...
Sport and other recreation activities840821931...
 
TOURISM INDUSTRIES IN TOTAL19 89517 81615 944...
Mainland Norway477 931502 744523 036
Tourism industries' share of gross fixed capital formation, Mainland Norway. Per cent4.23.53.0
 
Total industry659 479717 132739 271
Gross fixed capital formation in tourism industries. NOK million3.02.52.2

Table 14 
Gross fixed capital formation in tourism industries. Annual volume change, per cent

Gross fixed capital formation in tourism industries. Annual volume change, per cent
201320142015
Accommodation services-20.122.0...
Food and beverage service activities33.83.6...
Rail transport-33.7-28.2...
Road transport48.8-36.2...
Water transport72.5121.7...
Air transport-29.1-71.6...
Rental and leasing activities-20.3-10.4...
Travel agency and tour operator reservation services52.467.2...
Cultural activities0.6-3.5...
Sport and other recreation activities3.810.4...
 
TOURISM INDUSTRIES IN TOTAL-11.4-13.2...
Mainland Norway2.90.4

Table 15 
Employment in tourism industries. Full-time equivalent persons (1 000), employees and self-employed

Employment in tourism industries. Full-time equivalent persons (1 000), employees and self-employed
2012201320142015
Accommodation services23.323.424.224.7
Food and beverage service activities42.143.845.546.5
Rail transport4.54.64.64.6
Road transport28.528.628.829.0
Water transport9.69.79.99.8
Air transport7.27.27.07.2
Rental and leasing activities7.27.07.27.2
Travel agency and tour operator reservation services5.35.35.25.2
Cultural activities18.617.517.617.7
Sport and other recreation activities6.76.86.86.6
 
TOURISM INDUSTRIES IN TOTAL153.0153.7156.8158.4
Mainland Norway2 304.32 330.92 358.22 367.3
Tourism industries' share of total employment in Mainland Norway. Per cent6.66.66.66.7
 
Total industry2 369.22 397.42 425.22 432.0
Tourism industries' share of total employment. Per cent6.56.46.56.5

Table 16 
Output of tourism characteristic products at basic prices (NOK million)

Output of tourism characteristic products at basic prices (NOK million)
2012201320142015
Accommodation services14 49615 20315 448...
Food and beverage serving services46 28348 48151 146...
Rail transport3 8144 2004 550...
Road transport21 16122 26723 856...
Water transport10 01710 17610 671...
Air transport22 18625 99529 464...
Transport equipment rental services5 2105 5075 828...
Travel agency and tour operator reservation activities18 64019 39818 887...
Cultural services15 85615 12515 967...
Sports and recreational services5 4325 8506 124...
 
TOTAL OUTPUT OF TOURISM PRODUCTS163 095172 202181 941...
Mainland Norway4 039 1944 251 5444 466 858
Characteristic products output's share of total output, Mainland Norway. Per cent4.04.14.1...
 
Total industry4 841 4665 038 5855 223 615
Characteristic products output's share of total output. Per cent3.43.43.5...

Table 17 
Output of tourism characteristic products at basic prices. Annual volume change, per cent

Output of tourism characteristic products at basic prices. Annual volume change, per cent
201320142015
Accommodation services5.92.0...
Food and beverage serving services1.52.7...
Rail transport9.26.6...
Road transport1.62.7...
Water transport1.52.4...
Air transport8.58.6...
Transport equipment rental services11.90.3...
Travel agency and tour operator reservation activities3.7-3.5...
Cultural services-7.92.3...
Sports and recreational services7.73.0...
 
TOTAL OUTPUT OF TOURISM PRODUCTS2.92.8...
Mainland Norway2.22.3

Table 18 
Output in tourism industries by region at basic prices (NOK million)

Output in tourism industries by region at basic prices (NOK million)
2014
Accommodation and food service activitiesTransportCulture and entertainmentTOURISM INDUSTRIES IN TOTALTourism industries' share of total production
Østfold2 2873 4341 0756 7963.9
Akershus8 00627 8912 22938 1267.8
Oslo18 60336 6608 82764 0906.9
Hedmark1 8852 0151 2865 1864.4
Oppland2 8841 2241 1675 2754.8
Buskerud3 7633 9381 3979 0984.7
Vestfold2 5294 5071 0348 0704.5
Telemark1 7921 9039514 6464.0
Aust-Agder1 1911 4665303 1874.8
Vest-Agder2 4823 4691 2887 2394.1
Rogaland7 17318 7432 09128 0075.8
Hordaland7 94012 4673 64824 0554.6
Sogn og Fjordane1 5592 7234874 7695.3
Møre og Romsdal2 7575 0928298 6783.5
Sør-Trøndelag5 2924 4872 09711 8764.8
Nord-Trøndelag1 3685 7504797 5978.7
Nordland2 9634 7781 0778 8185.0
Troms - Romsa2 6266 8541 01910 4998.9
Finnmark - Finnmárku1 1171 5055773 1996.1
Svalbard2792407259117.7

Table 19 
Employed persons in tourism industries by region. Number of people in 1 000

Employed persons in tourism industries by region. Number of people in 1 000
2014
Accommodation and food service activitiesTransportCulture and entertainmentTOURISM INDUSTRIES IN TOTALTourism industries' share of all employed persons
Østfold3.22.00.96.15.0
Akershus8.98.32.219.37.0
Oslo18.512.48.239.18.2
Hedmark2.21.41.24.85.3
Oppland3.41.51.15.96.5
Buskerud4.52.41.38.26.3
Vestfold3.21.80.85.75.2
Telemark2.31.40.94.65.9
Aust-Agder1.40.90.42.85.7
Vest-Agder3.11.71.05.86.4
Rogaland7.97.32.217.46.5
Hordaland9.57.33.420.27.2
Sogn og Fjordane1.92.80.55.18.8
Møre og Romsdal3.32.60.86.84.9
Sør-Trøndelag5.93.92.112.07.3
Nord-Trøndelag1.71.80.43.86.0
Nordland3.62.81.07.46.3
Troms - Romsa3.12.60.96.67.8
Finnmark - Finnmárku1.31.20.53.07.6
Svalbard0.20.10.10.423.5

Table 20 
Value added in tourism industries by region at basic prices (NOK million)

Value added in tourism industries by region at basic prices (NOK million)
2014
Accommodation and food service activitiesTransportCulture and entertainmentTOURISM INDUSTRIES IN TOTALTourism industries' share of total value added
Østfold1 0731 3225872 9823.5
Akershus3 8587 4391 20612 5035.3
Oslo8 71712 6424 67126 0305.4
Hedmark8418756482 3643.8
Oppland1 2855356082 4284.1
Buskerud1 7781 7727434 2934.3
Vestfold1 2351 7675613 5634.7
Telemark8869515012 3384.1
Aust-Agder5894212821 2923.7
Vest-Agder1 1241 4207293 2734.4
Rogaland3 4025 2031 1879 7924.2
Hordaland3 7974 9151 86410 5764.5
Sogn og Fjordane7689182611 9474.5
Møre og Romsdal1 3202 0884623 8703.4
Sør-Trøndelag2 5101 9361 1505 5964.3
Nord-Trøndelag6651 1412632 0694.8
Nordland1 3661 7556343 7554.2
Troms - Romsa1 2691 1255222 9164.7
Finnmark - Finnmárku5163092961 1214.0
Svalbard156583625023.7

About the statistics

The Tourism Satellite Accounts (TSA) measure the impact of tourism for the Norwegian economy from different angles. The TSA show how much is produced in typical tourism industries and of products that tourists spend a lot on. The TSA also show how much Norwegian and foreign tourists spend in Norway.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

All the concepts regarding tourism are defined in the International recommendations for tourism statistics (UN and UNWTO, 2010) and the 2008 Tourism Satellite Accounts: Recommended Methodological Framework" (OECD, Eurostat, UNWTO and UN, 2008). Some of the key definitions are as follows:

Visitors are people travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment, for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business or other purposes. Overnight visitors are called tourists. Same-day visitors will usually be treated as short-time tourists. In relation to TSA, the term tourist is therefore used instead of the term visitor. Travellers other than tourists may be people travelling to or from work, to visit friends or relatives who live in the same area, to do shopping etc. Some categories of travellers like refugees, migrants and seasonal workers are excluded from the tourist concept.

Tourism consumption is defined as the total consumption expenditures made by a visitor, or on behalf of a visitor, before and during his/her trip and stay at a destination. Total tourism consumption in the Norwegian TSA includes all non-residents’ expenditures in Norway and residents’ expenditures on journeys in Norway. To some extent, residents travelling abroad may increase the tourism expenditures in Norway and therefore contribute to increased income for the Norwegian economy. This is the case when for instance residents on their way to a foreign country travel by air with an aircraft operated by a Norwegian company or buy a package tour to a foreign country through a resident tour operator.

Products that are typical or principal products of the activities defined as tourist-related are classified as products characteristic for tourism industries tourism products in short).

Characteristic tourism industries are identified on the basis of their dependence on and/or importance for tourism. The industries defined as tourism industries in the Norwegian tourism satellite account and their link to the Standard Industrial Classification (SN2007) is given below.

Industries classified as tourism industries in the TSA

* Standard Industrial Classification 2007.

Industry Code in SN2007*
Accommodation services 55
Food and beverage service activities 56
Rail transport 49.1+49.2
Road transport 49.3
Water transport 50.1, 50.202, 50.203, 50.3, 50.4
Air transport 51
Rental and leasing activities 77
Travel agency and tour operator reservation services 79
Cultural activities Part 90 + 91
Sport and other recreation activities 93

 

Tourism products are defined as goods and services that are characteristic for the tourism industries and that are in particular relevant in a tourism context, like hotel services and passenger transport services. The list of characteristic tourism products in the Norwegian National Accounts follows below.

 

 
Product code Product specification
491000 Passenger rail transport services
493200 Taxi operation services
493900 Scheduled passenger land transport services
493930 Non-scheduled passenger land transport services
501010 Sea and coastal passenger water transport services
503010 Inland passenger water transport services
511010 Passenger air transport services
551000 Hotel and similar accommodation services
553000 Camping ground and chalet services
559090 Other accommodation services
561010 Restaurant services
561020 Mobile food serving services
563000 Beverage serving services
771100 Rental and leasing services of cars and light motor vehicles
772000 Rental and leasing services of recreational and sports goods
791100 Travel agency services
791200 Tour operator services
799000 Other reservation services and related services
900100, 900102, 900103, 900104, 900105 Creative, arts and entertainment services
900200 Support services to performing arts
910000, 910202, 910203, 910204, 910205 Library, archive, museum and other cultural services
931100 Sports facility operation services
931900 Other sporting services
932100 Amusement park and theme park services
932900 Other recreational services n.e.c.

 

See Concepts and definitions for definitions and explanations of concepts and variables used in the national accounts.

Standard classifications

The most important classifications regarding the TSA are pointed out in the TSA manual (OECD, Eurostat, UNWTO and UN, 2008). It also includes lists of characteristic tourism products and characteristic tourism industries.

The standards for the grouping of industries, products, consumption and gross fixed capital formation are the same as for the national accounts. See " About the statistics " for the annual national accounts.

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Tourism satellite accounts
Topic: National accounts and business cycles

Next release

Responsible division

Division for National Accounts

Regional level

National level

Parts of the Tourism satellite accounts (TSA) are published on a region level for some years. Regional figures for output, value added and employment in the tourism industries are then published. For the years 2007 and 1997 tourism consumption was also computed and disseminated by region.

Frequency and timeliness

Annual. Normally in year t, with final figures for the year t-3 and updated preliminary figures for the years t-2.

International reporting

Eurostat, OECD and the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO).

Microdata

Not relevant

Background

Background and purpose

The national accounts (NA) statistics are designed to provide a consistent and comprehensive survey of the overall national economy. However, within the standardised concepts and classification standards in the national accounts, there are some economic transactions that cannot easily be recognised. This is the case for transactions related to tourism. A Tourism Satellite Accounts (TSA) is an account based on, and consistent with, the national accounts, which have been especially established for the purpose of throwing light on transactions related to tourism.

The economic effect related to people travelling cannot be analysed by studying one single industry or one single group of goods and services. The increased use of goods and services generated by the fact that people travel for the purpose of leisure, business or other purposes is directed at a broad range of goods and services. Measuring the economic effect related to tourism, what should be included? This question has been discussed over a long period of time, both nationally and internationally. Some studies on impacts of tourism have been restricted to measuring effects for hotels and other accommodation establishments, while other studies have included almost all kinds of effects, including significant parts of households' consumption of automobiles and gross fixed capital formation in industries supplying tourism industries with goods and services.

Ideas and plans at an international level related to the development of an international framework for a TSA, started in the 1980s. In 1991, OECD published a manual for an economic account for tourism (TEA), based on national accounts (OECD, 1991). The recommended setting up of the accounts in this manual did not give a complete harmonised TSA consistent with the national accounts, but the TEA was a solid stepping-stone for later work with an international framework for a TSA. In 1993, the United Nations Statistical Commission (UN) adapted recommendations regarding definitions of tourism and tourism statistics (UN and World Tourism Organization - UNWTO, 1993). Thereafter the OECD and UNWTO worked in parallel to establish an international framework for a TSA, based on the updated international framework for national accounts in the SNA93. UNWTO published the final version of a manual for a TSA in 1999 (UNWTO, 1999), while OECD published their version immediately afterwards (OECD, 2000). However, the member countries in these organisations demanded a common manual, and in 2001, the international organisations UNWTO, OECD, EU and UN published a common international manual: ' Tourism Satellite Accounts: Recommended Methodological Framework' (OECD; EU, UNWTO and UN, 2001).

The starting point of this manual is that the economic effect of tourism must be related to the increased demand of goods and services created by tourism. The manual defines what kind of travel should be recorded as tourism, defines limits for what kind of demand should be recorded as tourism consumption and/or tourism demand, and how the economic effects of tourism should be measured and presented.

When the work related to establishing a TSA for Norway started, it was only the version of the OECD manual for a TEA that was available, in addition to the international definitions regarding tourism and recommendations for tourism statistics in UN and UNWTO (1993) . Norway implemented the new international guidelines SNA93 in the Norwegian national accounts very early in relation to most other countries, and had the revised national accounts adapted to the SNA93 guidelines as a basis for the work related to establishing a TSA for Norway. In addition, Norway contributed actively in the international work to establish an international framework for a TSA. The Norwegian TSA is therefore, aligned with the later adopted international manuals for a TSA.

Users and applications

Figures from the Norwegian TSA are used by the Norwegian Ministry of Trade, Industry and Fisheries and other public and private bodies, as well as individuals analysing economic structures or the development of tourism.

Since the Norwegian TSA is based on international recommendations and guidelines, it is also possible to do make comparisons between countries. The Norwegian TSA figures are also used by international organisations like the EU, OECD and World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), and may also be of interest to tourist authorities etc. in other countries.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 08.00 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.

Coherence with other statistics

The TSA is an integrated part of the annual national accounts , and published TSA figures are therefore consistent with national accounts figures. Further, the TSA figures are also consistent with other accounts which are consistent with the national accounts: the quarterly national accounts (QNA), the Norwegian Balance of Payments (BoP), the institutional sector accounts and other established satellite accounts (health, environment, regional accounts ).

When comparing figures from the TSA (for example figures for tourism industries) with other parts of the economy as given in the ordinary national accounts (for example other industries), it is important to remember that tourism-related figures are integrated in the ordinary classifications in the national accounts.

Legal authority

Not relevant

EEA reference

Not relevant

Production

Population

The scope of the national accounts is defined by the international guidelines The System of National Accounts (SNA 2008) and The European System of National and Regional Accounts (ESA2010). The national accounts consist of two main sets of tables; the supply and use tables (SUT), also described as the real accounts, and the institutional sector accounts. The real accounts are based on local kind-of-activity units, while the institutional sector accounts are based on institutional units. The TSA is based on the annual SUT (the real accounts). See also " about the statistics " for the annual national accounts for further information.

Definitions regarding tourism are given in the International recommendations for tourism statistics 2008 by the UN and UNWTO (2010) . The structures for the TSA, including concepts regarding tourism supply and demand, are given in the 2008 Tourism Satellite Account: Recommended Methodological Framework (TSA: RMF 2008) (OECD; Eurostat, UNWTO and UN, 2008).

The demand side comprises figures for internal tourism consumption expenditures in Norway, i.e. both domestic tourism consumption (by residents in Norway) and inbound tourism (by non-residents in Norway). The consumption expenditures are divided into expenditures for different goods and services. We further distinguish between tourism consumption by resident households, consumption expenditures by non-residents and resident industries' outlays due to business travel.

Tourism consumption by resident households, is a part of the households' total consumption expenditures, while non-residents' expenditures in Norway form a part of Norway's export revenues. Expenditures on business travel by resident industries are a part of the industries' intermediate consumption. Households' consumption and export contribute directly to the gross domestic product (GDP), while intermediate consumption is subtracted from the output when calculating the value of various industries, and subsequently the GDP.

The supply side in the Norwegian TSA shows the supply of different characteristic tourism products, as well as output, value added, gross fixed capital formation and employment in characteristic tourism industries. The identification of characteristic tourism industries and characteristic tourism products, respectively, follows international standards.

Data sources and sampling

The calculation of the annual national accounts is based on statistics from several different sources, such as the Structural Business Statistics for manufacturing and other industries, accounting statistics for general government and enterprises, statistics for wages and earnings, external trade statistics, household consumer surveys and labour statistics. Since the TSA is structured as a satellite to the national accounts, this means that the calculation of TSA figures is based on all the information used to establish the national accounts figures. The TSA is also, with its connection to the annual national accounts, a part of a system that secures a balance between the supply and use of all detailed products and for the total economy.

All figures for tourism are included in the ordinary national accounts figures; however the figures are not presented in such a way that they can shed light on tourism. For some parts of the economy it is necessary to break down the national accounts figures into more detailed specifications. To do these calculations all kinds of available data sources are used, as well as some sources that are not used in the ordinary national accounts. For example, surveys of tourists' expenditures are used as a main source to calculate tourism consumption.

Some parts of the national accounts are constructed more or less directly from other statistics, while other parts are based on calculations and estimates. This is also the case with the figures in the TSA.

Likewise, preliminary TSA figures are based on quarterly national figures. More detailed calculations are essentially based on the same sources that are used to establish the QNA figures, but generally the TSA calculations make use of more detailed information in the statistical sources.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

The TSA are mainly based on statistics collected by other divisions in Statistics Norway. To some extent, data produced by external suppliers are used.

The source data are critically evaluated and compared with alternative sources where available. In some areas, the statistics have to be adjusted in order to meet the requirements of the national accounts and the TSA. In areas where the statistics are incomplete, assessments are essential. In the process of estimating national accounts data, as well as TSA figures, estimated figures are critically evaluated and controlled in several steps.

The process of estimating data in the national accounts and the TSA starts with the calculation of supply and demand estimates for all goods and services at current prices separately. To some extent, source data are extracted directly from the databases and converted into national accounts codes and format. Other parts of the economy are based on more complex calculations, based on different statistical sources and/or assessments. Finally, supply and demand for each of these goods and services are balanced in the system by using supplementary information and quality assessments from various sources. The TSA figures are then established by extracting data from the national accounts and further split into tourism relevant categories. Finally, the TSA figures, including figures for the rest of the economy, are presented in a way that is suitable for analysing tourism.

As for the annual and quarterly national accounts, the TSA figures are calculated and disseminated in both current and constant prices.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant

Confidentiality

The Statistics Act states that data under no circumstances shall be disseminated in such a way that it may be traced back to the supplier. This means that the general rule is not to publish data if there are fewer than three enterprises in an industry. In cases with less than three enterprises in an industry group, data is confidential and aggregated up to a more aggregated industry group before dissemination.

Comparability over time and space

One of the main objectives of the TSA is to obtain comparable figures from year to year and between different countries. The Norwegian TSA is therefore principally comparable with TSA for other countries based on the same recommendations and definitions.

There has been several revisions of the national accounts since the Norwegian TSA was first published for the years 1998-2001. This has lead to breaks in the TSA time series.

Further, the international recommendations for TSA were altered in 2008. These changes were incorporated simultaneously  as the main revision 2011 for the national accounts.

For 2007 and 2011 revised versions were made to allow for comparison before and after the main revisions 2011 and 2014 respectively.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

The national accounts and the TSA are based on various statistical sources. The sources are either survey data from establishments, enterprises or households, or data from registers. The TSA figures reflect the uncertainty in the statistical sources and the methods of compilation. Weaknesses and inaccuracies in the statistical sources are normally described in the documentation of the relevant sources. Several of the sources that are used in the national accounts take a long time to produce. Consequently, preliminary figures are more inaccurate than final figures.

Since the TSA, as an incorporated part of the national accounts, is an integrated system with balancing methods and consistency checks, the national accounts may reduce some of the inaccuracies in the statistical sources. On the other hand, TSA and national accounts require the compilation of statistics in areas where the sources are unsatisfactory, and the inaccuracy in such areas may therefore be significant. Some of the figures in the TSA and the national accounts are estimated as residuals, and the uncertainty may be substantial in these areas.

Revision

Since the TSA figures are based on national accounts data, the preliminary TSA figures will be revised annually after an up-to-date revision of the preliminary national accounts data (until final figures are established).

The series with final national accounts figures are revised frequently in order to incorporate new international definitions or standards in the accounts, and/or to incorporate new statistics for parts of the economy that would eventually give significant changes in the level. International recommendations for national accounts recommend such main revisions every 5 years. Main revisions of the national accounts generate a need for a corresponding revision of the TSA figures to make sure that the national accounts figures and the TSA figures are still consistent.

Updates of the international guidelines for satellite tourism accounts do also take place. Normally, already published final figures are not revised. This was exceptionally done for the reference year 2007 as part of the national accounts' main revision 2011, where UNs Tourism Satellite Account: Recommended Methodological Framework 2008 also was incorporated.

Contact