281728
/en/nasjonalregnskap-og-konjunkturer/statistikker/knr/kvartal
281728
statistikk
2017-08-24T08:00:00.000Z
National accounts and business cycles
en
knr, National accounts, gross domestic product, GDP, value added, gross product by industry, gross investments, household consumption, consumption in non-profit organisations, public consumption, material production, service production, export, import, wage costs, employment, man-hours, oil investments, mainland NorwayNational accounts , National accounts and business cycles
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National accounts

Updated

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Key figures

0.7 %

Seasonally adjusted volume growth for GDP mainland Norway

Quarterly National Accounts. Seasonally adjusted change in volume from the previous period. Per cent1
201520164th quarter 20161st quarter 20172nd quarter 2017
1Figures from 2016 onwards are preliminary.
Gross domestic product2.01.11.30.21.1
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway1.41.00.30.70.7
Petroleum activities and ocean transport4.31.86.7-2.33.7
Final domestic use of goods and services-0.12.71.02.00.6
Final consumption expenditure of households and NPISH2.61.50.60.61.0
Final consumption expenditure of general government2.42.10.20.80.4
Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF)-4.0-0.2-1.0-0.63.2
Total exports4.7-1.81.2-0.91.0
Total imports1.62.30.54.3-0.4
 
Employed persons0.40.30.20.10.4
Total hours worked0.60.70.4-0.20.2

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Table 1 
Final expenditure and gross domestic product. At current prices. NOK million

Final expenditure and gross domestic product. At current prices. NOK million1
201520162nd quarter 20163rd quarter 20164th quarter 20161st quarter 20172nd quarter 2017
1Figures from 2016 onwards are preliminary.
2Gross domestic product is measured at market prices, while value added by industry is measured at basic prices
3
Final consumption expenditure of households and NPISHs1 353 7231 418 680355 735357 121365 695353 643370 372
¬ Household final consumption expenditure1 281 1711 342 768336 423339 111345 865333 670351 022
¬¬ Goods592 469615 478154 773151 067168 182147 200157 821
¬¬ Services621 993657 190164 424166 135165 558169 010174 544
¬¬ Direct purchases abroad by resident households106 006113 81529 10235 19223 06125 10030 299
¬¬ Direct purchases by non-residents-39 297-43 715-11 876-13 283-10 937-7 641-11 641
¬ Final consumption expenditure of NPISHs72 55275 91219 31218 01119 83019 97319 350
Final consumption expenditure of general governmen729 267757 571192 788188 121192 804195 483204 626
¬ Final consumption expenditure of central government368 749382 63196 88694 03399 10398 720103 123
¬¬¬ Central government, civilian325 138337 96785 30583 24087 68887 51990 974
¬¬¬ Central government, defence43 61144 66411 58110 79311 41611 20112 149
¬ Final consumption expenditure of local government360 518374 94095 90294 08893 70196 763101 503
 
Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF)741 413750 491189 005189 993196 481182 754201 368
¬ Extraction and transport via pipelines (GFCF)201 658164 89043 29841 40740 51636 22841 381
¬ Ocean transport (GFCF)-867-1 775-643-277-611-1 823-248
¬ Mainland Norway (GFCF)540 622587 375146 350148 863156 576148 349160 234
¬¬ Industries (GFCF)223 056237 93760 56859 06864 93758 56563 970
¬¬¬ Services activities incidential to extraction (GFCF)4 7852 0523962365081 071592
¬¬¬ Other services (GFCF)131 832142 07036 64636 12437 33536 62240 106
¬¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GFCF)31 26234 7318 5457 57910 7327 5277 461
¬¬¬ Production of other goods (GFCF)55 17759 08514 98015 12916 36113 34615 811
¬¬ welling service (households) (GFCF)165 708184 82945 59646 45449 65249 75251 664
¬¬ General government (GFCF)151 858164 60940 18743 34141 98740 03144 600
Acquisitions less disposals of valuables3483669583999694
Changes in stocks and statistical discrepancies117 955163 01847 72429 36039 02567 22436 098
Gross capital formation859 716913 874236 824219 436235 605250 074237 560
 
Final domestic use of goods and services2 942 7063 090 126785 348764 679794 104799 200812 557
Final demand from Mainland Norway (excl. changes in stocks)2 623 6122 763 627694 873694 105715 075697 475735 232
Final demand from general government881 125922 180232 975231 463234 791235 515249 226
 
Total exports1 176 0781 064 050257 610253 273294 266294 061276 573
¬ Traditional goods (export)374 196355 72790 56188 06889 37293 06594 376
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (export)445 209373 37585 30484 286111 861119 841100 987
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (export)11 50817 3232 8433 0669 2017 5232 354
¬ Services (export)345 165317 62578 90277 85383 83273 63278 856
 
Total use of goods and services4 118 7844 154 1761 042 9581 017 9521 088 3701 093 2611 089 130
 
Total imports1 000 6681 037 136261 903264 550261 547269 209284 066
¬ Tradisjonelle varer (import)587 771593 783151 168145 929154 078159 517164 218
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (import)10 9088 6082 0442 6271 8182 6843 704
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (import)34 89545 44010 66913 33712 45713 73312 186
¬ Services (import)367 094389 30598 022102 65793 19493 275103 958
 
Gross domestic product, market values23 118 1163 117 040781 055753 402826 823824 052805 064
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, market values22 621 0322 717 317687 985666 856705 929694 335697 525
 
Petroleum activities and ocean transport3497 084399 72393 07086 546120 894129 717107 539
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, basic values2 278 4222 358 784597 350576 997611 654606 788603 673
¬ Mainland Norway excluding general government (GDP)1 711 8381 772 347447 244431 791461 694455 053442 693
¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GDP)219 267215 26256 20152 01053 77757 58654 557
¬¬ Production of other goods (GDP)276 957318 78772 58379 83988 97486 69473 924
¬¬ Service activities (GDP)1 215 6141 238 298318 459299 942318 943310 774314 212
¬ General government (GDP)566 584586 437150 106145 206149 959151 735160 980
Taxes and subsidies products342 610358 53390 63589 85994 27587 54793 852

Table 2 
Final expenditure and gross domestic product. At constant 2015-prices. NOK million

Final expenditure and gross domestic product. At constant 2015-prices. NOK million1
201520162nd quarter 20163rd quarter 20164th quarter 20161st quarter 20172nd quarter 2017
1Figures from 2016 onwards are preliminary
2Gross domestic product is measured at market prices, while value added by industry is measured at basic prices
Final consumption expenditure of households and NPISHs1 353 7231 374 049344 646349 007352 253335 109351 164
¬ Household final consumption expenditure1 281 1711 300 106326 134330 906333 519315 619333 135
¬¬ Goods592 469591 644149 557144 911158 967139 420150 009
¬¬ Services621 993641 123160 392164 723162 066158 729165 507
¬¬ Direct purchases abroad by resident households106 006109 81527 77234 07723 03824 80428 715
¬¬ Direct purchases by non-residents-39 297-42 476-11 586-12 805-10 552-7 334-11 095
¬ Final consumption expenditure of NPISHs72 55273 94318 51218 10118 73419 49018 029
Final consumption expenditure of general governmen729 267744 879185 879187 581187 385187 576188 765
¬ Final consumption expenditure of central government368 749377 09993 92494 80594 85094 53794 788
¬¬¬ Central government, civilian325 138333 55383 03483 94984 00583 70384 168
¬¬¬ Central government, defence43 61143 54610 89010 85610 84510 83410 620
¬ Final consumption expenditure of local government360 518367 78091 95592 77692 53593 03993 977
 
Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF)741 413739 701185 249188 127192 750180 244195 511
¬ Extraction and transport via pipelines (GFCF)201 658167 62443 01343 01841 95538 49743 633
¬ Ocean transport (GFCF)-867-1 698-619-257-601-1 777-249
¬ Mainland Norway (GFCF)540 622573 776142 855145 366151 396143 524152 127
¬¬Næringer (bruttoinvestering)223 056232 30559 12257 87462 77156 87561 288
¬¬¬ Services activities incidential to extraction (GFCF)4 7852 0103872344981 057575
¬¬¬ Other services (GFCF)131 832138 85935 84635 38436 02735 54638 987
¬¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GFCF)31 26233 7948 2917 42810 3707 2607 087
¬¬¬ Production of other goods (GFCF)55 17757 64214 59814 82915 87613 01114 638
¬¬ Dwelling service (households) (GFCF)165 708180 68944 55245 20248 05648 04348 680
¬¬ General government (GFCF)151 858160 78339 18142 29040 57038 60542 159
Acquisitions less disposals of valuables3483589285949490
Changes in stocks and statistical discrepancies117 955162 32347 38029 95239 33064 80336 325
Gross capital formation859 716902 382232 721218 163232 174245 141231 926
 
Final domestic use of goods and services2 942 7063 021 310763 246754 751771 812767 826771 855
Final demand from Mainland Norway (excl. changes in stocks)2 623 6122 692 704673 380681 954691 034666 209692 056
Final demand from general government881 125905 662225 060229 871227 955226 182230 924
 
Total exports1 176 0781 154 856283 597277 313304 239292 547287 892
¬ Traditional goods (export)374 196343 69588 22984 94383 79186 08686 929
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (export)445 209464 491109 840106 484124 459124 628115 953
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (export)11 50816 7552 7462 9358 9867 3192 262
¬ Services (export)345 165329 91482 78282 95287 00474 51482 748
 
Total use of goods and services4 118 7844 176 1661 046 8431 032 0651 076 0511 060 3731 059 747
 
Total imports1 000 6681 024 017258 371263 871257 043264 720270 046
¬ Tradisjonelle varer (import)587 771585 418149 320145 353150 471154 307152 205
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (import)10 9089 7932 3872 8681 8572 5523 517
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (import)34 89544 12210 35513 32111 91814 10411 503
¬ Services (import)367 094384 68596 309102 32992 79793 757102 820
 
Gross domestic product, market values23 118 1163 152 149788 472768 194819 008795 653789 701
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, market values22 621 0322 646 220665 604655 301682 521661 808664 457
 
Petroleum activities and ocean transport497 084505 929122 867112 892136 487133 845125 244
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, basic values2 278 4222 295 067576 633567 366591 498575 819573 924
¬ Mainland Norway excluding general government (GDP)1 711 8381 715 599432 456421 270445 507430 120427 186
¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GDP)219 267210 21854 74949 73553 25854 92751 916
¬¬ Production of other goods (GDP)276 957284 35866 29671 39275 51774 10866 166
¬¬ Service activities (GDP)1 215 6141 221 022311 412300 143316 732301 085309 103
¬ General government (GDP)566 584579 468144 177146 096145 991145 699146 738
Taxes and subsidies products342 610351 15488 97187 93591 02385 98990 533

Table 3 
Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Percentage change in volume from the same period in the previous year

Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Percentage change in volume from the same period in the previous year1
201520162nd quarter 20163rd quarter 20164th quarter 20161st quarter 20172nd quarter 2017
1Figures from 2016 onwards are preliminary
2Gross domestic product is measured at market prices, while value added by industry is measured at basic prices.
3Includes oil and gas extraction, transport via pipelines and ocean transport.
Final consumption expenditure of households and NPISHs2.61.52.31.31.12.11.9
¬ Household final consumption expenditure2.31.52.21.21.12.02.1
¬¬ Goods1.2-0.11.7-1.1-0.50.90.3
¬¬ Services3.93.12.93.22.93.13.2
¬¬ Direct purchases abroad by resident households1.53.63.14.72.2-0.53.4
¬¬ Direct purchases by non-residents9.88.17.610.05.2-2.7-4.2
¬ Final consumption expenditure of NPISHs9.01.93.73.40.94.8-2.6
Final consumption expenditure of general governmen2.42.12.22.42.21.91.6
¬ Final consumption expenditure of central government3.12.32.22.62.41.10.9
¬¬¬ Central government, civilian3.12.62.53.02.81.41.4
¬¬¬ Central government, defence3.5-0.1-0.1-0.3-0.6-1.1-2.5
¬ Final consumption expenditure of local government1.62.02.22.22.12.82.2
 
Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF)-4.0-0.2-2.22.72.13.85.5
¬ Extraction and transport via pipelines (GFCF)-12.2-16.9-19.7-14.0-11.4-2.91.4
¬ Ocean transport (GFCF)..............
¬ Mainland Norway (GFCF)-0.26.15.18.96.87.06.5
¬¬ Industries (GFCF)-2.84.10.08.36.98.33.7
¬¬¬ Services activities incidential to extraction (GFCF)3.8-58.0-76.5-74.3-33.418.648.5
¬¬¬ Other services (GFCF)-5.15.32.513.95.612.58.8
¬¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GFCF)-11.98.16.60.410.8-5.8-14.5
¬¬¬ Production of other goods (GFCF)9.54.5-0.85.49.55.40.3
¬¬ Dwelling service (households) (GFCF)3.29.08.411.09.512.09.3
¬¬ General government (GFCF)0.25.99.77.73.6-0.47.6
Acquisitions less disposals of valuables-14.12.87.70.84.07.5-1.6
Changes in stocks and statistical discrepancies-16.837.672.529.934.341.9-23.3
Gross capital formation-5.95.07.35.76.411.8-0.3
 
Final domestic use of goods and services-0.12.73.72.82.95.01.1
Final demand from Mainland Norway (excl. changes in stocks)2.02.62.83.22.63.12.8
Final demand from general government2.02.83.43.42.51.52.6
 
Total exports4.7-1.80.3-5.1-1.81.01.5
¬ Traditional goods (export)6.9-8.2-4.7-7.4-13.4-0.7-1.5
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (export)2.14.37.4-2.74.90.75.6
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (export)0.045.67.6-5.1215.3250.4-17.6
¬ Services (export)7.1-4.4-3.1-5.6-4.9-3.40.0
 
Total use of goods and services1.41.42.80.61.63.81.2
 
Total imports1.62.33.24.21.48.24.5
¬ Tradisjonelle varer (import)3.2-0.41.02.0-0.810.01.9
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (import)-0.1-10.2-13.25.8-27.9-4.847.3
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (import)-6.726.415.636.363.165.411.1
¬ Services (import)0.14.86.14.21.00.56.8
 
Gross domestic product, market values22.01.12.6-0.61.62.50.2
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, market values21.41.02.20.90.93.0-0.2
 
Petroleum activities and ocean transport34.31.84.8-8.55.10.11.9
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, basic values1.30.72.00.70.82.9-0.5
¬ Mainland Norway excluding general government (GDP)0.90.21.9-0.10.33.3-1.2
¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GDP)-4.6-4.1-1.5-4.0-2.64.7-5.2
¬¬ Production of other goods (GDP)0.92.74.20.63.14.2-0.2
¬¬ Service activities (GDP)2.00.42.10.40.22.9-0.7
¬ General government (GDP)2.32.32.13.02.21.71.8
Taxes and subsidies products2.32.53.82.42.03.31.8

Table 4 
Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Percentage change in prices from the same period in the previous year

Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Percentage change in prices from the same period in the previous year1
201520162nd quarter 20163rd quarter 20164th quarter 20161st quarter 20172nd quarter 2017
1Figures from 2016 onwards are preliminary
2Gross domestic product is measured at market prices, while value added by industry is measured at basic prices.
3Includes oil and gas extraction, transport via pipelines and ocean transport.
Final consumption expenditure of households and NPISHs2.43.23.83.02.91.82.2
¬ Household final consumption expenditure2.43.33.73.22.81.82.1
¬¬ Goods1.94.03.84.34.63.21.7
¬¬ Services1.92.52.82.72.01.82.9
¬¬ Direct purchases abroad by resident households7.73.68.91.1-4.6-4.70.7
¬¬ Direct purchases by non-residents1.92.92.73.22.93.02.4
¬ Final consumption expenditure of NPISHs2.72.74.7-0.64.61.62.9
Final consumption expenditure of general governmen3.01.73.90.21.94.34.5
¬ Final consumption expenditure of central government3.21.53.3-1.03.45.55.5
¬¬¬ Central government, civilian3.61.32.8-1.13.45.65.2
¬¬¬ Central government, defence0.12.67.2-0.53.34.17.6
¬ Final consumption expenditure of local government2.71.94.41.60.33.23.6
 
Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF)3.01.51.82.60.10.60.9
¬ Extraction and transport via pipelines (GFCF)1.8-1.6-0.31.7-6.3-6.0-5.8
¬ Ocean transport (GFCF)-20.54.5358.3-27.817.6-6.6-4.2
¬ Mainland Norway (GFCF)3.52.42.62.52.02.32.8
¬¬ Industries (GFCF)2.92.43.12.51.21.41.9
¬¬¬ Services activities incidential to extraction (GFCF)-5.82.12.12.12.4-1.00.6
¬¬¬ Other services (GFCF)2.52.32.72.71.31.90.6
¬¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GFCF)4.12.84.02.11.11.42.1
¬¬¬ Production of other goods (GFCF)3.82.53.62.31.00.35.3
¬¬ Dwelling service (households) (GFCF)3.22.31.92.52.83.03.7
¬¬ General government (GFCF)4.92.42.62.42.22.83.1
Acquisitions less disposals of valuables21.72.14.2-2.95.20.3-0.1
Changes in stocks and statistical discrepancies6.30.4-19.711.033.71.0-1.3
Gross capital formation3.51.3-1.63.43.40.80.7
 
Final domestic use of goods and services2.82.32.22.42.82.12.3
Final demand from Mainland Norway (excl. changes in stocks)2.82.63.62.12.42.63.0
Final demand from general government3.31.83.70.61.94.04.3
 
Total exports-8.0-7.9-10.3-8.60.012.55.8
¬ Traditional goods (export)2.03.53.24.06.86.95.8
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (export)-20.9-19.6-27.0-19.7-1.429.412.1
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (export)15.53.466.9-42.635.3-3.00.5
¬ Services (export)2.0-3.7-3.2-5.3-4.8-1.00.0
 
Total use of goods and services-0.5-0.5-1.2-0.62.04.83.2
 
Total imports5.11.32.90.3-0.4-0.13.8
¬ Tradisjonelle varer (import)4.71.42.70.80.21.76.6
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (import)-20.0-12.1-23.2-5.613.533.123.0
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (import)12.43.07.40.0-3.4-7.52.8
¬ Services (import)6.01.23.7-0.1-1.6-2.8-0.7
 
Gross domestic product, market values2-2.8-1.1-2.5-0.92.86.42.9
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, market values21.82.72.32.64.02.71.6
 
Petroleum activities and ocean transport3-21.5-21.0-28.0-21.9-3.430.613.4
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, basic values1.92.82.42.74.22.91.5
¬ Mainland Norway excluding general government (GDP)1.63.33.33.74.02.10.2
¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GDP)5.12.42.72.72.13.32.4
¬¬ Production of other goods (GDP)2.112.111.513.915.37.62.0
¬¬ Service activities (GDP)0.81.41.81.61.50.4-0.6
¬ General government (GDP)3.01.2-0.4-0.35.05.65.4
Taxes and subsidies products0.72.12.12.12.91.21.8

Table 5 
Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Seasonally adjusted figures. At current prices. NOK million

Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Seasonally adjusted figures. At current prices. NOK million1
201520162nd quarter 20163rd quarter 20164th quarter 20161st quarter 20172nd quarter 2017
1Figures from 2016 onwards are preliminary
2Includes oil and gas extraction, transport via pipelines and ocean transport.
Final consumption expenditure of households and NPISHs1 353 7231 418 680353 744354 811358 623362 758369 770
¬ Household final consumption expenditure1 281 1711 342 768334 293335 929339 150343 479350 293
¬¬ Goods592 469615 478154 004154 163155 687156 231158 147
¬¬ Services621 993657 190162 516164 920166 967169 904172 973
¬¬ Direct purchases abroad by resident households106 006113 81528 59628 55727 46527 62329 736
¬¬ Direct purchases by non-residents-39 297-43 715-10 823-11 711-10 969-10 279-10 562
¬ Final consumption expenditure of NPISHs72 55275 91219 45118 88219 47319 28019 477
Final consumption expenditure of general governmen729 267757 571186 621189 384195 670198 596197 511
¬ Final consumption expenditure of central government368 749382 63194 52495 50098 199100 383100 464
¬¬¬ Central government, civilian325 138337 96783 41584 42186 90488 82988 840
¬¬¬ Central government, defence43 61144 66411 10911 07911 29511 55411 624
¬ Final consumption expenditure of local government360 518374 94092 09793 88497 47198 21397 047
 
Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF)741 413750 491185 526191 921190 557188 705198 211
¬ Extraction and transport via pipelines (GFCF)201 658164 89042 30140 34439 53438 79140 843
¬ Ocean transport (GFCF)-867-1 775-654-525-758-1 440-239
¬ Mainland Norway (GFCF)540 622587 375143 879152 102151 782151 355157 606
¬¬ Industries (GFCF)223 056237 93758 65060 84461 85361 30061 688
¬¬¬ Services activities incidential to extraction (GFCF)4 7852 0523962365081 071592
¬¬¬ Other services (GFCF)131 832142 07035 97136 97436 43436 86238 838
¬¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GFCF)31 26234 7318 3438 4969 3298 1697 279
¬¬¬ Production of other goods (GFCF)55 17759 08513 94115 13815 58215 19814 979
¬¬ Dwelling service (households) (GFCF)165 708184 82945 13046 86548 72449 99351 543
¬¬ General government (GFCF)151 858164 60940 09844 39341 20440 06244 375
Acquisitions less disposals of valuables3483669583999694
Changes in stocks and statistical discrepancies117 955163 01839 95435 12440 22752 12445 998
Gross capital formation859 716913 874225 480227 044230 784240 829244 209
 
Final domestic use of goods and services2 942 7063 090 126765 845771 239785 077802 184811 490
Final demand from Mainland Norway (excl. changes in stocks)2 623 6122 763 627684 244696 297706 075712 709724 888
Final demand from general government881 125922 180226 719233 777236 874238 658241 886
 
Total exports1 176 0781 064 050261 785264 245280 186290 503283 353
¬ Traditional goods (export)374 196355 72790 63990 92086 20792 43895 517
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (export)445 209373 37590 74091 961104 226113 895107 021
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (export)11 50817 3232 8152 9009 1827 7312 342
¬ Services (export)345 165317 62577 59078 46580 57276 43978 474
 
Total use of goods and services4 118 7844 154 1761 027 6311 035 4841 065 2631 092 6871 094 844
 
Total imports1 000 6681 037 136254 882261 043262 958275 451282 284
¬ Tradisjonelle varer (import)587 771593 783145 947149 020150 938159 489164 600
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (import)10 9088 6081 8842 3681 9512 8663 571
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (import)34 89545 44011 10112 02612 71414 35412 636
¬ Services (import)367 094389 30595 95197 63097 35598 743101 478
 
Gross domestic product, market values3 118 1163 117 040772 748774 441802 305817 236812 559
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, market values2 621 0322 717 317675 426681 927690 865695 454694 897
 
Petroleum activities and ocean transport2497 084399 72397 32392 514111 440121 782117 663
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, basic values2 278 4222 358 784585 165592 370599 981603 493602 001
¬ Mainland Norway excluding general government (GDP)1 711 8381 772 347441 162445 943447 141448 706448 056
¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GDP)219 267215 26253 99054 12153 74955 15554 684
¬¬ Production of other goods (GDP)276 957318 78777 42083 57083 19381 46880 848
¬¬ Service activities (GDP)1 215 6141 238 298309 751308 253310 199312 084312 525
¬ General government (GDP)566 584586 437144 003146 427152 840154 787153 945
Taxes and subsidies products342 610358 53390 26189 55890 88491 96092 896

Table 6 
Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Seasonally adjusted figures. At constant 2015-prices. NOK million

Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Seasonally adjusted figures. At constant 2015-prices. NOK million1
201520162nd quarter 20163rd quarter 20164th quarter 20161st quarter 20172nd quarter 2017
1Figures from 2016 onwards are preliminary
2Gross domestic product is measured at market prices, while value added by industry is measured at basic prices.
3Includes oil and gas extraction, transport via pipelines and ocean transport.
Final consumption expenditure of households and NPISHs1 353 7231 374 049342 206343 934346 166348 216351 857
¬ Household final consumption expenditure1 281 1711 300 106323 487325 093327 549329 594333 611
¬¬ Goods592 469591 644147 772147 497148 485148 947150 979
¬¬ Services621 993641 123159 196161 096162 018163 395164 683
¬¬ Direct purchases abroad by resident households106 006109 81527 12527 73527 46027 31228 056
¬¬ Direct purchases by non-residents-39 297-42 476-10 606-11 234-10 414-10 061-10 107
¬ Final consumption expenditure of NPISHs72 55273 94318 71918 84118 61818 62218 246
Final consumption expenditure of general governmen729 267744 879186 292186 682187 026188 460189 193
¬ Final consumption expenditure of central government368 749377 09994 23294 46094 41895 04195 098
¬¬¬ Central government, civilian325 138333 55383 31883 62483 58384 20184 453
¬¬¬ Central government, defence43 61143 54610 91410 83610 83510 84010 645
¬ Final consumption expenditure of local government360 518367 78092 06092 22292 60893 41994 096
 
Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF)741 413739 701182 085189 377187 543186 356192 263
¬ Extraction and transport via pipelines (GFCF)201 658167 62441 83241 67341 30541 67242 433
¬ Ocean transport (GFCF)-867-1 698-634-486-679-1 487-233
¬ Mainland Norway (GFCF)540 622573 776140 887148 191146 917146 171150 063
¬¬ Industries (GFCF)223 056232 30557 18359 34460 00059 51259 059
¬¬¬ Services activities incidential to extraction (GFCF)4 7852 0103872344981 057575
¬¬¬ Other services (GFCF)131 832138 85935 04436 12235 39535 77037 617
¬¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GFCF)31 26233 7948 1138 2408 9657 9526 929
¬¬¬ Production of other goods (GFCF)55 17757 64213 64014 74915 14214 73313 937
¬¬ Dwelling service (households) (GFCF)165 708180 68944 39045 61646 90548 07748 941
¬¬ General government (GFCF)151 858160 78339 31443 23140 01138 58242 064
Acquisitions less disposals of valuables3483589285949490
Changes in stocks and statistical discrepancies117 955162 32343 22532 59039 66452 63947 292
Gross capital formation859 716902 382225 310221 968227 207238 996239 556
 
Final domestic use of goods and services2 942 7063 021 310753 808752 584760 399775 671780 606
Final demand from Mainland Norway (excl. changes in stocks)2 623 6122 692 704669 385678 807680 109682 847691 113
Final demand from general government881 125905 662225 605229 913227 037227 042231 258
 
Total exports1 176 0781 154 856284 945288 579291 899289 153292 144
¬ Traditional goods (export)374 196343 69587 57287 29080 89585 72088 309
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (export)445 209464 491114 034115 464117 735117 579120 278
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (export)11 50816 7552 7332 9279 0237 2942 266
¬ Services (export)345 165329 91480 60682 89984 24778 56081 291
 
Total use of goods and services4 118 7844 176 1661 038 7531 041 1631 052 2981 064 8251 072 750
 
Total imports1 000 6681 024 017251 589257 907259 235270 346269 191
¬ Tradisjonelle varer (import)587 771585 418143 645147 063148 235155 219152 376
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (import)10 9089 7932 2382 6031 9502 6583 507
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (import)34 89544 12210 74612 05612 14314 74711 906
¬ Services (import)367 094384 68594 95996 18696 90797 722101 402
 
Gross domestic product, market values23 118 1163 152 149787 164783 256793 063794 479803 559
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, market values22 621 0322 646 220661 490662 004663 715668 076672 452
 
Petroleum activities and ocean transport3497 084505 929125 675121 252129 348126 402131 107
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, basic values2 278 4222 295 067573 522574 190575 522578 988582 248
¬ Mainland Norway excluding general government (GDP)1 711 8381 715 599428 932429 002429 929432 385435 081
¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GDP)219 267210 21852 75852 08552 31552 73852 894
¬¬ Production of other goods (GDP)276 957284 35870 60170 95371 46572 07672 696
¬¬ Service activities (GDP)1 215 6141 221 022305 574305 964306 148307 571309 491
¬ General government (GDP)566 584579 468144 589145 187145 593146 604147 167
Taxes and subsidies products342 610351 15487 96887 81488 19389 08890 203

Table 7 
Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Seasonally adjusted figures. Percentage change in volume from the previous period.

Final expenditure and gross domestic product. Seasonally adjusted figures. Percentage change in volume from the previous period.1
201520162nd quarter 20163rd quarter 20164th quarter 20161st quarter 20172nd quarter 2017
1Figures from 2016 onwards are preliminary
2Gross domestic product is measured at market prices, while value added by industry is measured at basic prices.
3Includes oil and gas extraction, transport via pipelines and ocean transport.
Final consumption expenditure of households and NPISHs2.61.5-0.10.50.60.61.0
¬ Household final consumption expenditure2.31.5-0.40.50.80.61.2
¬¬ Goods1.2-0.1-0.8-0.20.70.31.4
¬¬ Services3.93.10.51.20.60.90.8
¬¬ Direct purchases abroad by resident households1.53.6-1.12.2-1.0-0.52.7
¬¬ Direct purchases by non-residents9.88.14.35.9-7.3-3.40.5
¬ Final consumption expenditure of NPISHs9.01.95.30.7-1.20.0-2.0
Final consumption expenditure of general governmen2.42.10.70.20.20.80.4
¬ Final consumption expenditure of central government3.12.30.20.20.00.70.1
¬¬¬ Central government, civilian3.12.60.30.40.00.70.3
¬¬¬ Central government, defence3.5-0.1-0.4-0.70.00.0-1.8
¬ Final consumption expenditure of local government1.62.01.30.20.40.90.7
 
Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF)-4.0-0.21.14.0-1.0-0.63.2
¬ Extraction and transport via pipelines (GFCF)-12.2-16.9-2.4-0.4-0.90.91.8
¬ Ocean transport (GFCF)..............
¬ Mainland Norway (GFCF)-0.26.12.75.2-0.9-0.52.7
¬¬ Industries (GFCF)-2.84.12.53.81.1-0.8-0.8
¬¬¬ Services activities incidential to extraction (GFCF)3.8-58.0-56.6-39.6113.0112.3-45.6
¬¬¬ Other services (GFCF)-5.15.38.13.1-2.01.15.2
¬¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GFCF)-11.98.1-4.31.68.8-11.3-12.9
¬¬¬ Production of other goods (GFCF)9.54.5-2.78.12.7-2.7-5.4
¬¬ Dwelling service (households) (GFCF)3.29.03.82.82.82.51.8
¬¬ General government (GFCF)0.25.91.910.0-7.4-3.69.0
Acquisitions less disposals of valuables-14.12.85.0-7.710.60.4-4.0
Changes in stocks and statistical discrepancies-16.837.6-9.0-24.621.732.7-10.2
Gross capital formation-5.95.0-1.0-1.52.45.20.2
 
Final domestic use of goods and services-0.12.7-0.2-0.21.02.00.6
Final demand from Mainland Norway (excl. changes in stocks)2.02.60.71.40.20.41.2
Final demand from general government2.02.80.91.9-1.30.01.9
 
Total exports4.7-1.8-1.61.31.2-0.91.0
¬ Traditional goods (export)6.9-8.2-1.5-0.3-7.36.03.0
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (export)2.14.3-2.21.32.0-0.12.3
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (export)0.045.632.87.1208.3-19.2-68.9
¬ Services (export)7.1-4.4-1.72.81.6-6.83.5
 
Total use of goods and services1.41.4-0.60.21.11.20.7
 
Total imports1.62.3-1.82.50.54.3-0.4
¬ Tradisjonelle varer (import)3.2-0.4-1.92.40.84.7-1.8
¬ Crude oil and natural gas (import)-0.1-10.2-25.616.3-25.136.331.9
¬ Ships, oil platforms and aircraft (import)-6.726.416.912.20.721.4-19.3
¬ Services (import)0.14.8-2.71.30.80.83.8
 
Gross domestic product, market values22.01.1-0.2-0.51.30.21.1
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, market values21.41.00.40.10.30.70.7
 
Petroleum activities and ocean transport34.31.8-2.9-3.56.7-2.33.7
Gross domestic product Mainland Norway, basic values1.30.70.30.10.20.60.6
¬ Mainland Norway excluding general government (GDP)0.90.20.20.00.20.60.6
¬¬ Manufacturing and mining (GDP)-4.6-4.1-1.3-1.30.40.80.3
¬¬ Production of other goods (GDP)0.92.7-1.00.50.70.90.9
¬¬ Service activities (GDP)2.00.40.80.10.10.50.6
¬ General government (GDP)2.32.30.30.40.30.70.4
Taxes and subsidies products2.32.51.3-0.20.41.01.3

Table 8 
Revised figures of final expenditure and gross domestic product. Percentage change in volume

Revised figures of final expenditure and gross domestic product. Percentage change in volume
 2 nd quarter 20163 rd quarter 20164 th quarter 20161 st quarter 2017
 Seasonally adjusted figuresUnadjusted figuresSeasonally adjusted figuresUnadjusted figuresSeasonally adjusted figuresUnadjusted figuresSeasonally adjusted figuresUnadjusted figures
 Percentage change in volume from the previous periodPercentage change in volume from the same period in the previous yearPercentage change in volume from the previous periodPercentage change in volume from the same period in the previous yearPercentage change in volume from the previous periodPercentage change in volume from the same period in the previous yearPercentage change in volume from the previous periodPercentage change in volume from the same period in the previous year
 New resultFormer resultNew resultFormer resultNew resultFormer resultNew resultFormer resultNew resultFormer resultNew resultFormer resultNew resultFormer resultNew resultFormer result
Gross domestic product (GDP)-0.20.02.62.6-0.5-0.5-0.6-0.91.31.21.61.90.20.22.52.6
GDP Mainland Norway0.40.52.22.10.10.10.90.80.30.40.91.10.70.63.03.1
Household final consumtion expenditure-0.40.22.22.70.50.01.21.30.80.71.11.20.60.62.02.1
Final consumption of general government0.70.72.22.10.20.72.42.60.20.62.22.50.80.41.92.2
Gross fixed capital formation1.11.1-2.2-1.44.02.32.72.3-1.0-0.52.11.4-0.60.53.84.0
Exports-1.6-0.60.31.31.30.6-5.1-3.31.20.1-1.8-1.0-0.90.91.02.7
Imports-1.80.13.22.62.50.64.22.90.5-1.51.4-1.64.32.88.24.5

About the statistics

The national accounts provide an overview of the state and development in the Norwegian economy. Key figures are gross national product (GDP), consumption, gross investment, exports and imports, employment and wages, profitability in industries and productivity.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

In the QNA, as in the annual NA, all aggregates are defined according to international standards. See Concepts and definitions in national accounts for definitions and explanations of concepts and variables used in the national accounts.

Standard classifications

The classifications used in the QNA are the same as in the annual NA. However, the level of detail used in the QNA is more aggregated. This means that the classifications used in the QNA, like the classifications used in the annual NA, follows the recommendations in the international standards 2008 SNA and ESA 2010:

  • The activity classification is based on the Norwegian Standard Industrial Classification (SN2007), which is an elaboration of the EU standard NACE Rev.2. This European standard is identical with ISIC Rev.4 at the aggregated level, which is the common international standard. Industries in the National Accounts
  • The product classification is based on the EU’s central product classification CPA (Statistical Classification of Products by Activity in the European Community).
  • Final consumption expenditure is classified by purpose: Consumption by households by COICOP.  Consumption expenditure groups in the National Accounts
  • Consumption by NPISHs are classified by COPNI.
  • Consumption by general government by COFOG.
  • Gross fixed capital formation is cross-classified by industry and type of capital good.

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: National accounts
Topic: National accounts and business cycles

Next release

Responsible division

Division for National Accounts

Regional level

National level.

Frequency and timeliness

The quarterly national accounts (QNA) are published about 45-50 days after the end of the given quarter. The accounts for the first quarter of the current year are published in May, together with revised figures for the previous year. Figures for the second quarter are published in August/September, together with revised figures for the first quarter and revised figures for the past two years. In this publication, the results for year t-2 are considered final. This update of previous years was earlier carried out in November. In November, the first figures for the third quarter are published together with revised figures for the first and second quarter Finally, figures for the fourth quarter are published in February the following year, together with revised figures for the first, second and third quarter.

The methods and calculating system used to calculate the QNA are also used to compile preliminary versions of the annual national accounts. The first versions of the annual accounts are compiled by simply adding up the four quarters of the ordinary QNA. In the next preliminary versions, annual statistics and other information available at the time are also utilised. The third annual version of the national accounts then remains unchanged in one year until final figures are compiled based on detailed annual statistics and methods for compilation of annual national accounts for publishing in August/September one year later.

 

 

International reporting

Published figures are reported to Eurostat, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the United Nations (UN).

Microdata

Not relevant

Background

Background and purpose

The national accounts (NA) statistics are designed to provide a consistent and comprehensive survey of the overall national economy. The national accounts give both a summarised description of the economy as a whole and a detailed description of transactions between different parts of the Norwegian economy, and between Norway and the rest of the world. The national accounts also provide information on capital stocks and employment.

Final annual national accounts figures are based on all available final economic statistics and therefore take time to produce. The purpose of the quarterly national accounts is to provide updated information about short-term developments in the Norwegian economy based on an overall, consistent accounting system.

The first Norwegian national accounts based on modern principles were published by Statistics Norway in 1952, while quarterly national accounts (QNA) were produced and released on a regular basis from 1953. Later on, the Norwegian national accounts have been extended and adapted in line with new international guidelines. A main revision of the annual national accounts implementing 1968 SNA was carried out in the 1970s. As a result, the QNA were not published at fixed intervals from the 1970s to the beginning of the 1980s. A new model for a QNA system was developed at the beginning of the 1980s and has been used since 1985, with some modifications.

National accounts are used as a tool to compare the economic situation in different countries, and therefore it is important that the national accounts in various countries are based on a common template. From time to time adaptations or changes are made to the common international recommendations for national accounts. This requires corresponding changes in the construction of the Norwegian national accounts. At different time intervals, new source statistics are produced and indicate that parts of the national accounts figures need to be revised. Since one objective of the national accounts is to provide a picture of the development over time which is as correct as possible, it is not possible to introduce such changes from one year to another. With different time intervals, it will therefore be necessary to carry out major revisions of the national accounts figures, so-called main revisions, in order to introduce adaptations due to new international recommendations or introduce new levels based on new statistical sources. As part of these main revisions the time series are also revised so that the revised national accounts can give a consistent picture of the economic development over time.

In recent decades, Statistics Norway has carried out main revisions published in 1995, 2002, 2006, 2011 and 2014. The main purpose of main revision published in November 2014, was to incorporate updated international recommendations in 2008 SNA and ESA 2010. Changes due to this main revision are described, among else, in the article Main revision 2014. Planned changes in the national accounts statistics. See About the statistics for the annual national accounts for more information about main revisions. The publication History of national accounts in Norway. From free research to statistics regulated by law also provides more information about the history of national accounts in Norway, including main revisions. In the future main revisions of the national accounts normally will be carried out every five years.

Since the QNA are completely harmonised with the annual national accounts, it is also necessary to revise the QNA figures once the annual national accounts figures have been revised.

Users and applications

The quarterly figures are mostly used for observation and analysis of the current economic cycle. The QNA figures also serve as a basis for making forecasts of the future economic development, the government’s work with the national budget and other economic planning. In addition,the QNA contribute with material for research and development. The QNA therefore have a wide group of users, from school pupils and students to public and private institutions that actively use the statistics in their analyses and investigation of economic development. Active users include the Research Department in Statistics Norway, the Ministry of Finance, Norges Bank, international organisations such as the IMF, the OECD, the World Bank, the UN and Eurostat, resident and non-resident financial sector analysts, and the media.

Equal treatment of users

No external users have access to the statistics and analyses before they are published and accessible simultaneously for all users on ssb.no at 08.00 am. Prior to this, a minimum of three months' advance notice is given in the Statistics Release Calendar. This is one of Statistics Norway’s key principles for ensuring that all users are treated equally.

Coherence with other statistics

The Norwegian Balance of Payments (BOP) is an integrated system in the Norwegian system of national accounts, and the BOP figures are fully consistent with other QNA figures. Furthermore, quarterly national accounts (QNA) figures are fully consistent and compatible with the annual NA and therefore also consistent with the institutional sector accounts. The regional national accounts, and various satellite accounts (environment, tourism, health,non-profit institutions) and are consistent with the above mentioned national accounts statistics.Previous published figures from the regional accounts and various sattellite accounts are, however, not revised as a part of main revision of the national accounts, so figures for previous years may not necessarily be compatible with updated NA time series.

Legal authority

Not relevant

EEA reference

  • Regulation (EU) No 549/2013 (ESA 2010).
  • The European Parliament and of the council of 21 May 2013 on the European system of national and regional accounts in the European Union (text with EEA relevance).

Production

Population

The coverage of the national accounts is defined by international guidelines in the 2008 System of National Accounts (2008 SNA), published by the UN, the OECD, the IMF, the World Bank, and the Commission of the European Communities, and the European System of National and Regional Accounts (ESA 2010).

The total national economy, and the distinction between the national economy and foreign countries, is defined in terms of resident units. A unit is defined as a resident unit of the country when it has a centre of economic interest in the economic territory of the country - i.e. when it is involved in economic activities on this territory for an extended period of time (one year or more).

Two basic types of information are recorded in the national accounts: flows and stocks. Flows refer to actions and effects of events that take place within a given period of time, for example the output of an industry in one year. Stocks refer to positions at a certain point of time, for example the value of capital stock or the number of employed persons.

The national accounts comprise two basic statistical units: institutional units and local kind-of-activity units (establishments). Institutional units are economic entities that are capable of owning goods and assets, of incurring liabilities and of engaging in economic activities and transactions with other units in their own right. An institutional unit contains one or more local kind-of-activity units (local KAUs). The local KAUs are classified by type of activity. An activity is characterised by an input of products, a production process and an output of products. All local KAUs engaged in the same or similar kind-of-activity constitute an industry.

The national accounts consist of two main sets of tables; supply and use tables (SUT), also described as the real accounts, and institutional sector accounts. The real accounts are based on local kind-of-activity units, while the institutional sector accounts are based on institutional units. This description of the national accounts covers the part of the national accounts that is based on the annual SUT (the real accounts).

The SUT at current and constant prices gives a structured overview of the supply and use of products (goods and services) in the economy. Information on fixed assets is also included, as well as wages, hours worked, full-time equivalent persons and employed persons by industry. The coverage of the quarterly national accounts (QNA) is the same as the annual SUT: As is the case for the annual national accounts, the QNA contain national aggregates and consist of supply and use tables at current and constant prices. In addition, the QNA system also produces tables with seasonal adjusted figures for industries' value added, household consumption for aggregated consumption groups and for central macroeconomic measures.

The accounting structure of the QNA is, however, more aggregated than in the annual SUT. While the SUT in the annual accounts consist of about 130 industry groups and  700 product groups, the SUT in the quarterly national accounts consist of about 60 industry groups and 80 product groups.

A quarterly version of the annual institutional sector accounts based on institutional units is also compiled. At the moment it only covers household units, see About the statistics for the quarterly institutional sector accounts.

Data sources and sampling

The compilation of the QNA implies the use of final annual national accounts data and comprehensive input data sets. These data series are mainly based on short-term statistics from Statistics Norway. In addition, some short-term information from other sources is used. The most central sources are:

  • Index of production for oil and gas extraction, mining and quarrying, manufacturing, electricity and gas supply
  • Production index, construction
  • Index of retail sales
  • Turnover index for accommodation and transport activities
  • Turnover index for real estate, renting and business activities
  • Financial reports from banks (used to calculate the output of banking services, including FISIM)
  • Quarterly investment statistics for manufacturing, mining and quarrying and electricity supply
  • Building statistics
  • KOSTRA (Municipality-State-Reporting)
  • Central government fiscal account, revenues and expenditures
  • Specialist health service, accounts
  • External trade in goods (volume and price indices)
  • Reporting of exports and imports of trade in services: Survey of Norwegian non-financial companies economic relations with other countries
  • Consumer price index
  • Producer price index, manufacturing
  • Producer price indices for various services: freight transport by road, sea transport, renting of automobiles, architectural activities, computer consultancy, industrial cleaning services
  • Labour Force Survey (LFS)
  • Wage statistics and wage indices
  • In addition, the system is based on various indicators such as accommodation statistics (guest nights in hotels, camping sites, etc), passenger statistics (by air, railway, the Coastal Express Liner Bergen-Kirkenes), harbour statistics, road goods transport.

Collection of data, editing and estimations

The majority of the short-term statistics produced by Statistics Norway are transferred to the QNA system by use of a direct link to the relevant databases. The information in the data sources about growth is used more or less directly in the QNA system. Some other input data series in the QNA system, however, are based more or less on calculations and estimations based on various types of information from Statistics Norway and other bodies.

The national accounts data for a specific quarter or a specific year are revised in accordance with an ordinary publication and revision cycle. The quarterly figures within a specific year t have the status final 23 months after the end of the year. In addition, periodical main revisions give revised figures.

In the process of calculating QNA figures for a specific quarter, the short-term statistics source data are critically evaluated and compared with alternative sources (for some parts of the economy). In some cases, the information in the source statistics must be adjusted in order to satisfy the requirements of the quarterly national accounts. In the process to estimate QNA data estimated QNA figures are critically evaluated and controlled in many steps.

Quarterly process

The figure below gives an overview of the Norwegian QNA estimation process. The figure shows that the QNA system is based on two main pillars: a) The SUT for the (final) annual national accounts and b) short-term statistics.

Figure. The computing system in the Norwegian QNA

knr1-en

The main principle in the QNA system is that the national accounts figures for the current quarter are computed based on the development of short-term indicators and the current-price figures from the base year. The base year (t-2) is the latest calculated final version of the annual national accounts. The method is the same for most common variables: The value in the base year is given the same growth rate (percentage change) as in the appropriate indicator, or a grouping of different relevant indicators.

The most typical and simple equation on a quarterly basis is:

knr2_en

Where footnote

T

indicates the base year

t

indicates the current accounting year

K

indicates the current accounting quarter

Variables:

X t,k

Calculated value in quarter k for year t

X T

Total value in the base year

I t,k

The indicator value in quarter k

k t,k

Variable for adjustment, when no adjustment k t,k =1

(I t,k /∑ k I T,k ) expresses the development in the indicator from the base year to the specific quarter. The level is about 1/4, because the indicator value in the quarter is related to the sum of the indicator values in the base year. The value in the base year for the variable X T is given the same percentage change as the indicator (or adjusted with the adjustment factor k t,k ) and this gives the calculated quarter value of the variable X t,k . If it is decided that there should be no adjustment after the evaluation of the results, the value of the adjustment variable will be 1.

A simple projection method, based on the development in previous periods, is used if an indicator does not cover the whole period from the base year to the current quarter.

The indicator compilations are made in the indicator process (box 2 in the figure).

However, the indicator process alone does not give a complete harmonised account at current and constant prices. To calculate values for variables that are not calculated in the indicator compilations, and to harmonise the accounts, we use an input-output model (box 3 in the figure).

The input-output model includes a commodity-flow balance, a price input-output system and a set of equations for summaries and definitions. It now comprises over 12 000 equations in total. The input-output coefficients are calculated from the SUT in the base year. The variables calculated in the indicator compilations are transferred to the input-output model as exogenous variables. To calculate balanced accounts at current prices we need price indices on all supply and use categories. These are computed in the model by weighting together product price indices with the input-output coefficients as weights. Each product gets three different price indices, one for resident output delivered to the home market (to resident users), a second for import and a third for export.

The price index for an industry’s total output is then calculated as a weighted average of the price indices for the home and export market using the input-output coefficients as weights. The price indices of intermediate consumption, final consumption expenditure and gross fixed capital formation are calculated in a similar way, using the import and home market price indices and the input-output coefficients.

The model also calculates variables which are not covered by short-term statistics or other information and therefore not calculated in the indicator process. These calculations are based on simple assumptions. For instance, intermediate consumption for most industries at constant prices (the total except FISIM) is assumed to be a fixed proportion of total output for the relevant industry. The distribution of intermediate consumption (except FISIM) on different products at constant prices is also assumed to be the same as in the base year. The industries’ use of FISIM as intermediate consumption is supposed to equal the growth in total output of FISIM services. Output in the retail and wholesale trade activities in constant prices is assumed to follow the development of the use of the various goods in constant prices, such as household consumption, intermediate consumption and gross fixed capital formation of the various specific goods (that means supposed fixed margins).

Changes in stock of separate products are (for most products) calculated as the difference between the total supply and use of the product. As in the annual NA, the changes in stock may be adjusted if that seems reasonable after an evaluation of the figures.

The results are stored in the time series database (box 4 in the figure), which, among other things, provides the basis for different sets of tables (box 6). At the moment there are two different sets of tables (with seasonal unadjusted figures), sets for internal checks and analyses of data and more aggregated sets of data for publishing.

Process 1-4 describes how the quarterly seasonally unadjusted figures are estimated. The unadjusted figures are seasonally adjusted (box 5) using a seasonal adjustment program.

The method adopted to compile the QNA is highly mechanical. This applies to the update of variables in the national accounts based on short-term statistics as well as the balancing of commodities, the computation of indirect taxes and factor incomes and the overall balancing of the GDP and main aggregates. Technically, the data systems are programmed in FAME and TROLL (the latter is used for the input-output model only).

Checks and/or the evaluation of data are performed in several steps. The input data are evaluated (from box 1b), followed by an evaluation of quarterly national accounts output data. Steps 2-6 are carried out several times before the data are published and the output data are evaluated every time. The QNA system offers a unique opportunity to compare different types of input data: The system for instance shows how supply conforms to use (in total or for certain relevant groups of products). The evaluation of the different sources is done in close contact with the relevant statistics divisions in Statistics Norway.

Annual process and alignment

The QNA system is updated with a new base year every year (i.e. the latest final version of the annual accounts). The database for the annual accounts (box 1a), as well as the base data and coefficients in the harmonisation model (box 3) are updated. At the same time, it is possible to implement new indicators, carry out changes in the input series and in the model, etc. Such changes are not carried out in an ordinary quarterly process.

The recalculation of the quarterly accounts is carried out by distributing the annual figures between the quarters using the original quarterly figures as keys. The recalculated quarterly accounts will then add up to the annual accounts at constant and current prices.

The harmonisation is based on the principle that the differences between the quarterly changes to the original and harmonised series shall be as small as possible. The quarterly accounts should add up to the figures in the annual accounts.

When the base year is updated the QNA for that year is aligned automatically.

Reference year

All figures are published at current prices and (for most sizes) constant prices (i.e. the accounts also specify volume and price changes). Constant-price estimates in the national accounts are calculated based on the previous year's prices; i.e. the base year is changed every year. Subsequently, data on volume changes are constructed in terms of growth rates and corresponding implicit data on changes in prices. In parallel, time series of volume figures are constructed by using prices from a reference year. The constant-price estimates are consistent with the data on changes in volume in the series of growth rates. Since the chaining is carried out separately for all items, the table components do, however, not necessarily add up to the totals of the same table.

The publication Quarterly national accounts gives more information about sources, methods and the processes used to calculate quaterly NA figures.

 

Seasonal adjustment

The quarterly national accounts figures may be influenced by different weather conditions, holidays, etc. The effects of conditions that are repeated at the same time every year are referred to as seasonal effects, while effects that are directly connected to changes in the calendar from one year to another are referred to as calendar effects. The increase in household consumption of goods in December is an example of a seasonal effect, while the number of working days in each quarter is a calendar effect. Incidental happenings such as a strike or a production stoppage may also affect the figures. The seasonal adjustment program is supposed to recognise and adjust the figures to seasonal effects and calendar effects, but not incidental effects. In cases where Statistics Norway has information on strikes or other incidental happenings that are assumed to have effect on the figures, these incidents are mentioned when the figures are published.

See About seasonal adjustment for more information about methods and routines used to calculate seasonal adjusted figures.

Confidentiality

§ 2-6 of the Statistics Act states that data under no circumstances shall be published in such a way that they may be traced back to the supplier. This means that the general rule is not to publish data if there are fewer than three enterprises in an industry. In practice, this means that for some detailed industry categories, figures must be aggregated up to a more aggregated industry group before they can be published.

Comparability over time and space

Consistent quarterly time series will exist back to 1978 and annual time series back to 1970. Annual NA figures for the years 1865-1970 are based on the previous standards used for the national accounts and are not compatible with the up to date figures after the latest main revision of the NA.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

Measurement and processing errors may occur when the QNA data source is produced as well as when the QNA figures based on this source are produced.

The various sources of error and uncertainty in the QNA can be divided into four main groups:

A. Missing or incomplete data sources for parts of the economy: One important source of uncertainty is missing or incomplete data series for the development of parts of the economy.  For instance there are:

  • lack of information on the development of intermediate consumption in most industries.
  • information is missing on gross fixed capital formation in machinery and equipment in all service activities except service activities produced by governments.
  • the statistical information on household consumption of various services is not up to date.

B. Relevance in relation to the use of a data source as an indicator in the QNA system. Here, relevance means that a statistical source may not be perfectly suitable as an indicator for the variable it is used for, but it is used because more appropriate indicators are lacking. The source data may for instance not cover the economic field that the QNA variable is supposed to cover; there may be differences between the source data and the QNA with regard to variable definitions, etc).

C. Uncertainty or errors in the QNA data sources: This includes sampling errors, errors connected to the determination of the population, processing errors, measurement errors, non-response errors and/or model errors in each of the statistical sources used in the QNA.

 D. Measurement errors, processing errors and/or model errors in the process of compiling the QNA data.

When it comes to expressing the overall uncertainty in the QNA with an explicit statistical variable such as variance, standard deviation or confidence interval, this is not possible. For some of the statistical sources, statistical uncertainty for some of the errors listed above (point C) may be calculated in theory. In practice, these calculations have not yet been done for most of the statistical sources.

Since the quarterly national accounts and the annual national accounts are an integrated system with balancing methods and consistency checks, there is reason to believe that annual and quarterly national accounts may reduce some of the inaccuracies in the statistical sources. On the other hand, the national accounts require the production of statistics in areas where the sources are unsatisfactory (point A and B), and the inaccuracy in such areas may therefore be significant. In addition, some measurement errors, processing errors and/or model errors may occur in the compilation process of QNA figures.

As stated earlier, the annual national accounts are one of the main pillars in the QNA. Thus, errors and uncertainty in the annual accounts figures will also affect QNA figures. The EU Commission and Eurostat have completed a quality evaluation of the annual national accounts in all EEA countries. The conclusion was that the ( annual ) Norwegian national accounts are of a high quality, soundly based on reliable and exhaustive sources, integrated in a system with a detailed product breakdown (Report on the sources and methods used in compiling GNP in Norway, Eurostat/B1/CPNB/237/EN, 9 December 1997, Luxembourg).

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) carried out an evaluation of central parts of Norwegian macroeconomic statistics in autumn 2002, including the Norwegian quarterly national accounts. In the report, (IMF, 2003), the Norwegian macroeconomic statistics, including national accounts got positive reviews: "In summary, Norway's macroeconomic statistics are of generally high quality." About the national accounts, the IMF also expressed that : "The source data for both the annual and the quarterly national accounts are generally sound and timely, and sufficiently portray reality."

In 2003, Statistics Norway carried out a project to evaluate the quality of the Norwegian QNA. The task of the project was to describe the different processes in the system, evaluate the different processes and set up a plan for further work to improve quality. A project report was released in April 2004 (in Norwegian only). The report lists a variety of measures to increase quality, such as changes in the organisation of the QNA process, technical changes in the data system, an increase and improvement of the documentation related to the QNA system etc.

Another way of measuring the general quality of the quarterly national accounts is to compare the preliminary annual figures from the first version of the annual accounts (by adding up the quarters in the QNA) with the final version. This was done in 2004. The article (in Norwegian only) looks at the growth rates of the main aggregates: GDP, GDP for mainland Norway, household consumption, government consumption, gross fixed capital formation, exports, imports and compensation of employees. For most variables, the study covers the years 1972-2002, while for some variables it covers the years 1993-2002. The study concludes that the preliminary figures generally had underestimated the growth rate in relation to the final figures, but that the overall picture did not differ too much.

Revision

The national accounts data for a specific quarter or a specific year are revised in accordance with an ordinary publication and revision cycle. The quarterly figures within a specific year t have the status final 21 months after the end of the year (previously 23 months). See Administrative information, Frequency and timeliness. In addition, periodical main revisions give revised figures. See Background and purpose.

Publication cycle for quarterly national accounts figures

Release date in:

 1st quarter year t

2nd quarter year t

3rd quarter year t

4th quarter year t

May, year t

First preliminary version

Revised 3 for year t-1

Revised 2 for year t-1

Revised 1 for year t-1

Aug/Sept., year t

Revised 1

Revised 5 for year t-1

Finally for year t-2

First preliminary version

Revised 4 for year t-1

Finally for year t-2

Revised 3 for year t-1

Finally for year t-2

Revised 2 for year t-1

Finally for year t-2

November, year t

Revised 2

Revised 1

First preliminary version

Revised 3 for year t-1

February, year t

Revised 3 for year t-1

Revised 2 for year t-1

Revised 1

First preliminary version for year t-1

About seasonal adjustment

General information on seasonal adjustment

What is seasonal adjustment?

Monthly and quarterly time series are often characterised by considerable seasonal variations, which might complicate inter-period comparability. Such time series are therefore subjected to a process of seasonal adjustment in order to remove the effects of seasonal fluctuations. Once data have been adjusted for seasonal effects by X-12-ARIMA or some other seasonal adjustment tool, a clearer picture of the time series emerge.

For more information on seasonal adjustment, please refer to Statistics Norway’s: metadata on methods: seasonal adjustment .

Why seasonally adjust these statistics?

Because of climatic conditions, public holidays and holidays in July and December, the intensity of the production varies throughout the year. The same applies to household consumption and other parts of the economy.

This makes a direct comparison of two consecutive quarters difficult. In order to adjust for these conditions, the quarterly national accounts are seasonally adjusted which makes it possible to conduct an analysis of the underlying change in economic activity between periods.

It is important to mention some factors of the seasonally adjustment of the QNA which has to be given specific attention compared to other short time economic indicators:

  • The series for the main aggregates in the QNA is a result of aggregation of many components where the properties of the components are not homogenous.
  • Statistics Norway has chosen that consistency between the components and the main aggregates also applies to the seasonally adjusted series to make it easy to identify which series contribute the most to the results.
  • In many cases it may be difficult to identify the seasonal-/calendar effects. This is a general phenomenon for quarterly series – especially when the series cover the whole country.
  • The QNA-series are often estimated through monthly economic indicators. It is important that the results of the seasonal adjustments are fairly similar.

All of these factors lead to larger flexibility and variation in the methods and routines for the seasonal adjustment of QNA-series than what is common for other statistics.

New method from the 3rd quarter of 2011.

From the 3rd quarter of 2011 QNA was published according to the new standard for industrial classification. We used this opportunity to change some routines regarding seasonal adjustment to ease the dissemination of constant price figures. In addition, there has been a significant reduction in the number of seasonally adjusted time series.

Background information

  • The QNA uses the final national accounts year as the base year for calculating “new” quarters. This means for example that when we use 2009 as the base year in November, it will be used to calculate the quarterly figures at constant prices for all quarters from the 1st quarter of 2010 to the 2nd quarter of 2012. When we calculate the 3rd quarter of 2012, the base year will be changed to 2010, and the quarters in 2011 and 2012 will be updated to the new base year.
  • For all quarters compiled on the basis of the base year, we have figures that are additive. That means that we can add together individual series in constant prices to get the correct aggregate.
  • The annual accounts always have t-1 as the base year, and this is the reference to calculate volume growth.
  • The annual growth rates estimated at t-1 prices will be kept and therefore we chain growth rates in the prices of the reference year (which is the current base year in the QNA).
  • Chaining is done on all levels and this means that additivity no longer applies. Thus, we can not add together figures for value added at constant prices and get the GDP at constant prices for quarters that are “older” than the base year.
  • The quarterly figures are always benchmarked against the annual figures. The QNA are updated with a new base year every year (i.e. the latest final version of the annual accounts). Every time we change base year (reference year), the recalculation of the quarterly accounts is carried out by distributing the annual figures between the quarters using the original quarterly figures as keys. The recalculated quarterly accounts will then add up to the annual accounts at constant and current prices. The harmonisation is based on the principle that the differences between the quarterly changes to the original and harmonised series shall be as small as possible. The quarterly accounts should add up to the figures in the annual accounts.
  • Chaining in the QNA is done every year and the further we are from the reference price year, the greater the so-called chaining effect will be.
  • To seasonally adjust the GDP (and all other aggregates) we used an indirect method. This is done in order to be able to explain the contributions to GDP-growth, and consensus is that this is the preferred method for this kind of data. Please see chapter below for more details on the direct vs. indirect approach to seasonal adjustment.
  • This method has given us some challenges related to the seasonally adjusted historical series. The reason is that series older than the base year are not additive. Longer seasonally adjusted time series have been requested by many external users and the lack of additivity has led us to change the seasonal adjustment method, see below.

Changes in method

The new method for seasonal adjustment of QNA figures address:

  • Level differences between the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted data due to chaining method when a new base year is established
  • Changes in seasonal patterns when the QNA series are benchmarked against the final annual accounts and the reference year is replaced.

We apply the indirect method on the individual series and then sum the series to its respective aggregate, but the period of revision is limited from the year before the base year to the present (where the figures are additive). For the years preceding the base year we keep the figures calculated from the direct seasonal adjustment approach. This means that the seasonal adjusted time series for QNA are kept constant from 1978 to the base year.

When a new base year is established, and the time series are updated, we use identical seasonal adjustment factors as before. This means that changes in seasonally adjusted data are only due to changes in the unadjusted data.

Note that we use information from the entire period of the time series to estimate seasonal adjustment factors, but we use this information only from the year before the base year to the present.

For certain aggregates the use of the indirect and direct approach will yield different results and thus the new time series may portray a different path than previously published figures.

The method chosen is in accordance with the ESS-Guidelines on seasonal adjustment .

Special Cases

Because of the large discrepancy between the old and the new method, some series have been specially treated. This is series for gross domestic product at market and basic prices. These series are first adjusted indirectly for the whole period 1978-2008 and afterwards the seasonal factors have been normalized so that both the unadjusted and adjusted series have the same annual level.

Seasonally adjusted series

Several hundred series are seasonally adjusted every quarter. The series are adjusted at a disaggregated level and then summed up to the main aggregates.

The series for gross value added are adjusted directly, as apposed to being calculated as the difference between production and intermediate consumption.

For final consumption expenditure of households, the series are seasonally adjusted by applying the seasonal factors that are estimated for the index of household consumption of goods (see the documentation for seasonal adjustment of the index of household consumption of goods).

The following tables give an indication of the seasonal patterns for the most important macroeconomic main aggregates. The first table shows the estimated correction factors for 2014 based on prior data by direct adjustment with X-12-ARIMA. The actual factors however will not be identical since they are estimated again when new data are available. The second table shows the means of the actual seasonal factors for the period 2007-2013 as a result of indirect adjustment of many series.

  seasonal_factors

The results show that the activity in the Norwegian economy systematically is highest in the 4th quarter. We also see that the activity is lowest in the 1st quarter for most of the main series except for total exports and gross domestic product where the lowest values are found in the 3rd quarter. Another important feature is that the tables show that the expected seasonal correction factors for 2014 match the actual seasonal factors in the previous years quite well. This implies that applying a direct or an indirect method for adjusting the main aggregates does not influence the results considerably. 

Pre-treatment

Pre-treatment routines/schemes

Pre-treatment is an adjustment for variations caused by calendar effects and outliers.

  • Running a detailed pre-treatment of some series/main series. The remaining series are treated by using standard options in the seasonal adjustment tools.

Comments : The series for final consumption expenditure are seasonally adjusted based on monthly series from the index of household consumption of goods.

Calendar adjustment

Calendar adjustment involves adjusting for the effects of working days/trading days and for moving holidays. Working days/trading days adjustments are made for both the number of working days/trading days and for the varying composition of days from one month to another.

  • It is performed calendar adjustments on all series showing significant and plausible calendar effects within a statistically robust approach, such as regression or RegARIMA (a regression model with an ARIMA structure for the residuals).

Methods for trading/working day adjustment

  • RegARIMA correction – in this case, the effect of trading days is estimated in a RegArima framework. The effect of trading days can be estimated by using a correction for the length of the month or leap year, regressing the series on the number of working days, etc. In this case, the residuals will have an ARIMA structure.

Correction for moving holidays

  • Automatic correction. If performed by X-12-ARIMA, automatic correction of raw data will be based on US holidays.

Comments : Except for final consumption expenditure for households where the Norwegian calendar is used.

National and EU/euro area calendars

  • Use of default calendars. The default in X-12-ARIMA is the US calendar.

Comments : Final consumption expenditure for households uses the Norwegian calendar.

Treatment of outliers

Outliers, or extreme values, are abnormal values of the series

  • Outliers are detected automatically by the seasonal adjustment tool. The outliers are removed before seasonal adjustment is carried out, and then reintroduced into the seasonally adjusted data.

Model selection

Pre-treatment requires choosing an ARIMA model, as well as deciding whether the data should be log-transformed or not.

  • Model selection is primarily automatic, but in some cases models are selected manually

Comments : Manual model selections take place when X-12-ARIMA rejects the five alternative models that are automatically tested. In these cases the so-called airlines model is chosen: (0, 0, 1)(0, 0, 1)

Decomposition scheme

The decomposition scheme specifies how the various components – basically trend-cycle, seasonal and irregular – combine to form the original series. The most frequently used decomposition schemes are the multiplicative, additive or log additive.

  • Manual decomposition scheme selection after graphical inspection of the series.

Comments : Additive decomposition is used for series with negative values, otherwise multiplicative decomposition is used.

Seasonal adjustment

Choice of seasonal adjustment approach

  • X-12-ARIMA

Consistency between raw and seasonally adjusted data

In some series, consistency between raw and seasonally adjusted series is imposed.

  • No constraints are applied.

Comments : Seasonally adjusted series in the QNA are not required to sum up to the annual raw figures. Nevertheless we choose to publish identical annual figures of unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series

Consistency between aggregate/definition of seasonally adjusted data

In some series, consistency between seasonally adjusted aggregates and its components is imposed. For some series there is also a special relationship between the different series, e.g. GDP which equals production minus intermediate consumption.

  • Definitions and relationships that hold for unadjusted figures also apply for seasonally adjusted figures.

Comments : The supply side equals the use side also for seasonally adjusted figures. This implies that changes in stocks/statistical discrepancies are treated as a residual in the seasonally adjusted figures (balancing item). The series for gross value added are adjusted directly (see chapter 1.3) and are not required to match the difference between seasonally adjusted series for production and intermediate consumption (thus, vertical – not horizontal – consistency is imposed).

Direct versus indirect approach

Direct seasonal adjustment is performed if all time series, including aggregates, are seasonally adjusted on an individual basis. Indirect seasonal adjustment is performed if the seasonally adjusted estimate for a time series is derived by combining the estimates for two or more directly adjusted series.

  • Mixed indirect approach where the seasonal adjustment of components possibly occur using different approaches and software.

Comments : QNA uses aggregation routines outside X-12-ARIMA.

Horizon for estimating the model and the correction factors

When performing seasonal adjustment of a time series, it is possible to choose the period to be used in estimating the model and the correction factors. Correction factors are the factors used in the pre-treatment and seasonal adjustment of the series.

  • The whole time series is used to estimate the model and the correction factors
  • The whole time series is used to estimate the correction factors. Only part of the time series is used to estimate the model.

Comments : For most series the whole time series is used for estimating the model and correction factors, but for some series only part of the time series is used to estimate the model.

Audit procedures

General revision policy

Seasonally adjusted data may change due to a revision of the unadjusted (raw) data or the addition of new data. Such changes are called revisions, and there are several ways to deal with the problem of revisions when publishing the seasonally adjusted statistics.

  • Seasonally adjusted data are revised in accordance with a well-defined and publicly available revision policy and release calendar.

The following table gives an indication of the expected growth rate revisions from the previous period when we compare the initial and final published data. This only applies to revisions caused by seasonal adjustment routines where revisions of raw data are not considered.

The figures for gross domestic product for Mainland Norway show that the seasonally adjusted growth rate from the previous period is exposed to a revision of 0.2 percentage points when new observations are added. It turns out that figures for the 1st quarter are subject to the least revisions. The table shows that gross fixed capital formation, exports and imports are most likely to be revised.

revisions

Concurrent versus current adjustment

  • The model, filters, outliers and regression parameters are re-identified and re-estimated continuously as new or revised data become available.

Horizon for published revisions

  • The individual series will be revised when seasonal factors are re-estimated. Concerning the main aggregates the period of revisions is limited from the base year to the present. This means that seasonally adjusted data for quarterly national accounts are held constant from 1978 to the base year.

Comments : This applies as long as the unadjusted figures before the base year remains unchanged. When a new base year is established, and the time series are updated, we use identical seasonal adjustment factors as before. This means that changes in seasonally adjusted data are only due to changes in the unadjusted data.

Quality of seasonal adjustment

Evaluation of seasonally adjustment data

  • Continuous/periodical evaluation using standard measures proposed by different seasonal adjustment tools.

Quality measures for seasonal adjustment

  • For most of the series, a selected set of diagnostics and graphical facilities for bulk treatment of data is used.

Table of quality measurement for this statistics:

For more information on the quality indicators in the table please refer to: metadata on methods: seasonal adjustment .

Comments to the table of qualitative indicators

All series were adjusted with the multiplicative method. The results of main aggregates’ are calculated via a direct adjustment with X-12-ARIMA. Although these series in practice are indirectly adjusted, we may claim that the results are still valid (see chapter 1.3)

X-12-ARIMA chooses automatically the most appropriate model for the individual series, apart from the series for gross fixed capital formation in extraction and transport via pipelines , gross domestic product for Mainland Norway, gross value added for production of other goods and gross value added for service activities, where the model is chosen manually.

Most aggregates do not show any trading day effects. Nevertheless, the location of the Easter holidays are significant for half part of the aggregates.

ANOVA shows that the rates of change for the original series are primarily due to seasonal effects. The contribution from trend and the irregular component is particularly relevant for final consumption expenditure of general government, gross fixed capital formation in extraction and transport via pipelines and exports. For GDP almost 87 per cent of the change in the raw data is explained by season. The rest is mostly explained by trading days and trend.

ASA and ACH were calculated for the period 2011-2013. The results show that revisions of the growth rates from the previous quarter ranged from 0.2 percentage points for GDP to 1.4 percentage points for export crude oil and natural gas .

M- and Q-values for the main aggregates indicate that some of the series (household final consumption expenditure, final domestic use of goods and services and GDP) are adjusted with satisfactory results. Nevertheless both levels and rates of change for the latest periods are exposed to revisions. The series may have some irregular fluctuations.

The remaining series are adjusted with questionable results. Levels and rates of change may have a great deal of variation in the most recent figures. The results should be interpreted with caution.

Special cases

Seasonal adjustment of short time series

  • All series are sufficiently long to perform an optimal seasonal adjustment.

Treatment of problematic series

  • For some series only recent years of the series are used to seasonally adjust the series, because deleting earlier data makes it possible to find a model/adjustment of reasonable quality.

Comments : Some problematic series are aggregated before they are seasonally adjusted. An example of such a series is gross value added for refined petroleum products which fluctuates between positive and negative levels. In order to avoid influencing GDP in an inappropriate way, this series is put together with gross value added for other chemical products, and the sum of the two industries are seasonally adjusted.

Posting procedures

Data availability

  • Both unadjusted (raw) and seasonally adjusted data are available.

Comments : However, not all seasonally adjusted figures are published.

Press releases

  • In addition to raw data, at least one of the following series is released: pre-treated, seasonally adjusted, seasonally plus working day adjusted trend-cycle series.
  • Both levels and growth rates are presented.
  • Empirical values are presented to evaluate revisions of data in earlier press releases.

References

Contact