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283772
One in ten work on Sundays
statistikk
2017-02-20T08:00:00.000Z
Labour market and earnings
en
akutidord, Patterns of working time, Labour force survey, working time, shift work, rotas, night work, evening work, saturday work, sunday workEmployment , Labour market and earnings
true

Patterns of working time, Labour force survey

As from 2018 the statistics is published with Labour force survey.

Updated

Next update

Not yet determined

Key figures

32.4 %

of the employees work outside regularly outside ordinary hours

Employees (15-74 years), by pattern of working time in the main job. Per cent
2013201420152016
1Regularly work outside Monday to Friday from 6 am to 6 pm.
Both sexes
Employees, total100.0100.0100.0100.0
Ordinary hours66.867.766.867.6
Outside ordinary hours133.232.333.232.4
 
Males
Employees, total100.0100.0100.0100.0
Ordinary hours69.571.269.670.3
Outside ordinary hours130.528.830.429.7
 
Females
Employees, total100.0100.0100.0100.0
Ordinary hours63.964.063.864.7
Outside ordinary hours136.136.036.235.3

See more tables on this subject

Table 1 
Employees (15-74 years), by patterns of working time, sex and age. In the main job. 1 000 and per cent

Employees (15-74 years), by patterns of working time, sex and age. In the main job. 1 000 and per cent
2016
1 000Per cent
15-74 years15-24 years25-54 years55-74 years15-74 years15-24 years25-54 years55-74 years
1Since the questions on work hours are only directed to a part of the LFS sample, a different weight is used, and the total number of employees differ somewhat from figures published earlier.
2Regularly work outside Monday to Friday from 6 am to 6 pm.
Both sexes
Employees, total12 4633181 667478100.0100.0100.0100.0
Ordinary hours1 6651481 16735067.646.670.073.3
Outside ordinary hours279817050112732.453.430.026.7
Shift work5801053799523.533.022.720.0
Not shift work21865121328.920.37.36.7
 
Males
Employees, total11 268160856252100.0100.0100.0100.0
Ordinary hours8928661119470.353.971.477.1
Outside ordinary hours2377742455829.746.128.622.9
Shift work265461794120.928.520.916.1
Not shift work1112866178.817.67.76.8
 
Females
Employees, total11 195158811226100.0100.0100.0100.0
Ordinary hours7736255515664.739.268.569.1
Outside ordinary hours2421962567035.360.831.530.9
Shift work314592005526.337.624.724.3
Not shift work1073656159.023.16.96.6

Table 2 
Employees (15-74 years), by patterns of working time, working time schedules, sex and working hours. In the main job. Per cent

Employees (15-74 years), by patterns of working time, working time schedules, sex and working hours. In the main job. Per cent
2016
TotalWorking hours
Full-timePart-time
1Regularly work outside Monday to Friday from 6 am to 6 pm.
2Either shift work or at least one regularly working time schedule outside ordinary hours.
Both sexes
Total100.0100.0100.0
Ordinary hours67.673.250.4
Outside ordinary hours132.426.849.6
Shift work23.520.134.3
Not shift work8.96.715.3
 
Combinations of working time schedules outside ordinary hours2
Total32.426.849.6
Working the combination of Saturday, Sunday, evening and night9.79.69.8
Working the combination of Saturday, Sunday and evening8.66.116.3
Working the combination of Saturday, evening and night0.90.71.5
Working the combination of Saturday and evening4.02.48.9
Working the combination of evening and night0.91.00.6
Working the combination of Saturday and Sunday1.41.12.1
Working other combinations including night work1.10.92.0
Working other combinations not including night work4.63.87.4
Unspecified1.21.31.2
 
Males
Total100.0100.0100.0
Ordinary hours70.373.351.6
Outside ordinary hours129.726.748.4
Shift work20.919.530.0
Not shift work8.87.218.4
 
Combinations of working time schedules outside ordinary hours2
Total29.726.748.4
Working the combination of Saturday, Sunday, evening and night10.610.611.0
Working the combination of Saturday, Sunday and evening5.94.713.0
Working the combination of Saturday, evening and night1.10.82.8
Working the combination of Saturday and evening2.82.07.7
Working the combination of evening and night1.41.50.8
Working the combination of Saturday and Sunday1.31.22.3
Working other combinations including night work1.21.11.8
Working other combinations not including night work4.33.87.9
Unspecified1.11.11.2
 
Females
Total100.0100.0100.0
Ordinary hours64.773.049.9
Outside ordinary hours135.327.050.1
Shift work26.321.036.1
Not shift work9.06.014.0
 
Combinations of working time schedules outside ordinary hours2
Total35.327.050.1
Working the combination of Saturday, Sunday, evening and night8.68.39.4
Working the combination of Saturday, Sunday and evening11.68.217.6
Working the combination of Saturday, evening and night0.70.50.9
Working the combination of Saturday and evening5.22.99.4
Working the combination of evening and night0.40.40.5
Working the combination of Saturday and Sunday1.41.12.0
Working other combinations including night work1.00.52.0
Working other combinations not including night work5.03.77.2
Unspecified1.41.51.2

Table 3 
Employees (15-74 years), by patterns of working time, conditions of appointment and sex. In the main job. Per cent

Employees (15-74 years), by patterns of working time, conditions of appointment and sex. In the main job. Per cent
2016
TotalConditions of appointment
Permanent positionTemporary position
1Regularly work outside Monday to Friday from 6 am to 6 pm.
Both sexes
Total100.0100.0100.0
Ordinary hours67.667.864.8
Outside ordinary hours132.432.235.2
Shift work23.523.723.0
Not shift work8.98.512.2
 
Males
Total100.0100.0100.0
Ordinary hours70.370.566.5
Outside ordinary hours129.729.533.5
Shift work20.921.021.7
Not shift work8.88.411.8
 
Females
Total100.0100.0100.0
Ordinary hours64.764.863.5
Outside ordinary hours135.335.236.5
Shift work26.326.724.0
Not shift work9.08.512.5

Table 4 
Employees (15-74 years), by patterns of working time and industry. In the main job. Per cent

Employees (15-74 years), by patterns of working time and industry. In the main job. Per cent
2016
Employees, totalOrdinary hoursOutside ordinary hours1
Shift workNot shift work
1Regularly work outside Monday to Friday from 6 am to 6 pm.
All industries100.067.623.58.9
Primary industry, manufacturing and quarrying100.071.124.14.8
Electricity, water supply, sewerage, waste management100.086.78.15.2
Construction100.088.96.44.7
Wholesale and retail trade: repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles100.053.427.019.5
Transportation and storage100.043.445.611.0
Accommodation and food service activities100.027.545.127.3
Information and communication100.083.89.56.7
Financial, insurance, adm. and support service act100.083.39.27.5
Public adm., defence, soc. security100.082.113.44.6
Education100.090.72.27.1
Human health and social work activities100.051.744.43.9
Other service activities100.058.419.022.6

Table 5 
Employees (15-74 years) working outside ordinary hours (Monday-Friday 6 am to 6 pm) in their main job, by working schedule, regularity, sex and age. 1 000

Employees (15-74 years) working outside ordinary hours (Monday-Friday 6 am to 6 pm) in their main job, by working schedule, regularity, sex and age. 1 0001
2016
SaturdaySundayEveningNight
TotalRegularlySometimesTotalRegularlySometimesTotalRegularlySometimesTotalRegularlySometimes
1An individual may have multiple working schedules.
Both sexes
Total84538645362124737087731555135697255
15-24 years162109529656391568767491434
25-29 years11159528537471134468501336
30-39 years1727398127458118758126802158
40-54 years2569316120271129270791881213188
55-74 years1445389112377415147102561837
 
Males
Total41119121630913417344415628021757158
15-24 years70472242251768382926817
25-29 years52282441202157243429820
30-39 years883849662639993166501237
40-54 years131527810442611414396781859
55-74 years702742562134782254351025
 
Females
Total4341952373121131984341592711384197
15-24 years92623054322288493823617
25-29 years59312843172656203521516
30-39 years84354961194288286030921
40-54 years12541839729681293691431330
55-74 years74264756163973254721813

About the statistics

The statistics on patterns of working time from the Labour force survey shows the number of employees working outside ordinary hours, either as shift work or not shift work. Work outside ordinary hours is work on Saturdays, Sundays, evenings and nights.

Definitions

Definitions of the main concepts and variables

Concepts and definitions are in accordance with recommendations given by the International Labour Organization (ILO) and EU/Eurostat.

According to the international recommendations persons above a specified age should be classified by their attachment to the labour market in a specified, short period, either a day or a week. In the Norwegian LFS the reference period is one week, and the sample of persons are classified in relation to their situation in that reference week.

Employed persons are persons aged 15-74 who performed work for pay or profit for at least one hour in the reference week, or who were temporarily absent from work because of illness, holidays etc. Conscripts are classified as employed persons. Persons engaged by government measures to promote employment are also included if they receive wages.

Unemployed persons are persons who were not employed in the reference week, but who had been seeking work during the preceding four weeks, and were available for work in the reference week or within the next two weeks (in 1996-2005 one should be available within two weeks following the time of interview, and until 1996 one should be able to start working in the reference week).

Persons in the labour force are either employed or unemployed. The remaining group of persons is labelled not in the labour force . Man-hours worked include all actual working hours, i.e. including overtime and excluding absence from work.

Settled/usual working hours refer to the weekly number of working hours determined by the working contract. Absence from work because of illness, holidays etc. is not subtracted, and overtime is not included. Employees, whose settled working hours vary from week to week, give information on both the actual reference week as well as the average of their settled working hours per week (in the tables published the average numbers are normally used). For employees without contract on working hours, for self-employed and for unpaid family workers, data on their usual weekly working hours are used (as an average of their actual working hours during the last 4 weeks).

Full-time/part-time distinction is based on the settled/usual working hours. Part-time: 1-36 hours, with exception of persons with 32-36 hours who classify themselves as full-time employed.

Full-time: 37 hours and over, and the cases mentioned above. For persons with more jobs, the working hours in the main and the second job are summarized.

Overtime

Overtime is defined as working hours which exceed the contractual working hours for full-time employees, conducted during a specified reference week. The overtime may be compensated by payment or by time off, or be without any compensation. Up to 2006 these questions were included in the survey only during the 2nd quarter each year. As from 2006 onwards they are included each quarter. 

A major revision of the LFS in 2006 led to a significant break in the time-series for overtime, i.e. lower estimates than published earlier. This was mostly due to changes in the questionnaire concerning working time.

Statistics on overtime include employees working full-time only. For persons with more jobs, the working hours in the main and the second job are summarized in order to classify them as either part- or full-time workers, as in LFS statistics generally.

For those with more jobs, overtime hours in the main job only are included. By calculating the overtime hours as a share of the total number of man-hours worked among full-time employees, the working hours in the second job are, however, included in the denominator. Persons temporarily absent from work are included in the denominator while calculating the share of employees working overtime, mainly to avoid seasonal variations.

Employees who just had an occasional job in the reference week, and on-call workers, are not asked about overtime, but they are included in the denominator if they were full-time employed in the reference week.

As from 2007 imputation is used concerning the overtime variables in case of proxy interviews and partial non-response.

Involuntary part-time employment comprises part-time employed persons seeking longer settled/usual working hours by registering at the Employment Offices, advertising, contacting present employer etc., and who were able to start with increased working hours within a month.

Permanence of the job

The employees are asked whether they have a permanent job (a work contract of unlimited duration) or a temporary job (a work contract of limited duration). If the person has more than one job, only the main job is classified by permanence.

There are two kinds of working arrangements/working hours outside ordinary daytime (Monday to Friday from 6 am to 6 pm).

  • Shift work is usually understood as working time outside normally working hours. What counts in the survey as shift work is based on the evaluation of the respondent. For respondents who have not answered the question on shift work, the value is imputed based on the answers they have given with regard to evening, night, Saturday and Sunday work.
  • Working hour arrangements , not shift work. This refers to work on evenings, nights, Saturdays and Sundays which is not shift work. Evening work is defined as work between 6 pm and 10 pm. Night work is between 10 pm and 6 am. Respondents who report that they work on one or more of these working time schedules outside ordinary hours are also asked about the frequency of this kind of work during a four week period. This is done for each of the working time schedule separately. Based on this, the work outside regularly hours is divided into the categories "regularly" or "sometimes". For evening and night work, the respondent must have this kind of work on at least half of their working days in the four week period to be defined as having regularly evening work and/or regularly night work. For work on weekends, they must work 2-4 Saturdays and/or 2-4 Sundays during the four week period to be defined as having regularly Saturday and/or Sunday work. The respondents who have these kinds of working schedules, but more seldom than indicated above, are defined as sometimes having this kind of work.

Working hour arrangements outside ordinary daytime are based on the contract for the employees, and on usual working time pattern for the self-employed. Up to 2006 these questions were included in the survey only during the 2nd quarter each year. As from 2006 onwards they are included each quarter, but only for ¼ of the sample, and the results are published once a year: Labour force survey. Patterns of working time.

Course participation refers to job related courses which the respondent was paid to attend. Only courses received during a period of four weeks are included. Up to 2006 these questions were asked only during the 2nd quarter each year. As from 2006 onwards they are included each quarter to the whole sample. Labour force survey. Education and training.

As from 2006 the definition of age was changed from completed years at the end of the year to completed years at the time of the reference week.

The persons are classified by marital status as unmarried, married and previously married according to information given by the respondents. Previously married includes widows, widowers, separated and divorced persons. In the tables married women include cohabitants.

Standard classifications

The industrial classification is in accordance with the Standard Industrial Classification (NOS D 383), which is based on the EU-standard of NACE Rev. 2.

The occupational classification is in accordance with Standard Classification of Occupations (NOS C521), which is based on ISCO 88 (COM).

The educational classification is in accordance with the Norwegian Standard Classification of Education (NOS C617).

Administrative information

Name and topic

Name: Patterns of working time, Labour force survey
Topic: Labour market and earnings

Responsible division

Division for Labour Market Statistics

Regional level

County and the whole country.

Frequency and timeliness

Quarterly and annual, but monthly publishing of some key figures seasonally adjusted (averages of the last 3 months). Quarterly figures are normally published 5 weeks after the end of the quarter.

International reporting

The quarterly data files are sent to Eurostat. Tables are sent each month/quarter/year to Eurostat, OECD, ILO and IMF, as well as to the Nordic Yearbook.

Microdata

The basic material (survey results from the interviewers) as well as the statistical files (on the basis of revision and estimation procedures) are stored.

Background

Background and purpose

The main purpose of the survey is to provide data on employment and unemployment, and data on the labour force participation in different sections of the population. The Norwegian LFS started in 1972. For information about the history of the survey, and about breaks in the time-series, please cf. Labour Force Survey 2001 (NOS C748).

Users and applications

The surveys give information to the Labour Market Authorities and other users about the situation on the labour market, and provide data for labour force research and forecasts, as well as for international organizations and mass media.

Equal treatment of users

Not relevant

Coherence with other statistics

The results from the LFS are used in the National Accounts Statistics.

For statistics at regional levels (counties and municipalities), the Registerbased Employment Statistics are recommended. These statistics also give figures on employees who are immigrants.

Statistics Norway also produces statistics on selected industries based on data from the establishments, containing figures on employment, compensation of employees, value of production and capital formation etc. These statistics contain more detailed information about each industry than it is possible to give from the LFS and the National Accounts Statistics.

Statistics on unemployed persons at the Employment Offices and government measures to promote employment are compiled by the Directorate of Labour on the basis of registers of unemployed persons and applicants for work.

The figures on unemployment based on the LFS differ from the figures on unemployed persons registered at the Employment Offices. The LFS-figures also include unemployed persons not registered at the Employment Offices, some of the participants in government measures to promote employment and some of the disabled persons. On the other hand, some of the registered unemployed are not classified as unemployed in the LFS, on the basis of the information given on seeking and availability for work. The results from the LFS are used in the National Accounts Statistics. For statistics at regional levels (counties and municipalities), the Registerbased Employment Statistics are recommended. These statistics also give figures on employees who are immigrants. Statistics Norway also produces statistics on selected industries based on data from the establishments, containing figures on employment, compensation of employees, value of production and capital formation etc. These statistics contain more detailed information about each industry than it is possible to give from the LFS and the National Accounts Statistics. Statistics on unemployed persons at the Employment Offices and government measures to promote employment are compiled by the Directorate of Labour on the basis of registers of unemployed persons and applicants for work. The figures on unemployment based on the LFS differ from the figures on unemployed persons registered at the Employment Offices. The LFS-figures also include unemployed persons not registered at the Employment Offices, some of the participants in government measures to promote employment and some of the disabled persons. On the other hand, some of the registered unemployed are not classified as unemployed in the LFS, on the basis of the information given on seeking and availability for work. As from 2006 persons on lay-off (until 3 months) are no longer classified as unemployed, but as employed persons (temporarily absent from work) in the LFS, while they still are classified as unemployed in the registerbased statistics. However, if the period of lay-off exceeds 3 months, they are classified as unemployed in the LFS as well.

The Population and Housing Censuses (each 10th year) give statistics on employment during the last 12 months, in addition to the situation in a specified reference week. As from 2001 onwards employment data based on administrative registers are used. Statistics on labour conflicts and working days lost are compiled by Statistics Norway on the basis of information supplied mostly by the labour and employers's organizations. The Surveys of Level of Living (by Statistics Norway) give information on physical working environment as well as organizational working conditions.

The Population and Housing Censuses (each 10 th year) give statistics on employment during the last 12 months, in addition to the situation in a specified reference week. As from 2001 onwards employment data based on administrative registers are used. Statistics on labour conflicts and working days lost are compiled by Statistics Norway on the basis of information supplied mostly by the labour and employers's organizations. The Surveys of Level of Living (by Statistics Norway) give information on physical working environment as well as organizational working conditions.

Legal authority

The Statistics Act §§ 2-2 and 2-3.

EEA reference

Council Regulation (EC) nos 577/98, 1991/2002 and 2257/2003, and Commission Regulation nos 1575/2000, 1897/2000, 2104/2002, 430/2005 and 377/2008.

Production

Population

The total population aged 15-74 is covered by the LFS. Up to 2006 the group was 16-74, and age defined as completed years at the end of the year. As from 2006 age is defined as completed years at the time of the reference week. Observation unit: person.

Data sources and sampling

The main source for the LFS is quarterly, representative sample surveys based on interview by telephone.

Inhabitants in all municipalities are randomly selected, on the basis of a register of family units. The sample consists of about 12 000 family units (24 000 persons) each quarter. Each family member aged 15-74 participates in the survey, answering questions about their situation during a specified reference week. As from 1996 each family participates in the survey 8 times during a period of 8 quarters (before 1996: 4 times during 6 quarters). Up to 1996 a two stage sampling procedure was applied. For more information, please cf. Labour Force Survey 2001 (NOS C748).

Collection of data, editing and estimations

Interview by telephone. Information from previous interviews are used while asking about any changes in the situation, instead of the same, comprehensive data collection every time. For the coding of industry, information from some registers is also used. Demographic data are collected from the Central Population Register, and data on education are based on a register of individual data collected by Statistics Norway from the educational institutions (but questions are also asked to get more updated information).

The respondent is usually the same person as the observation unit (but proxy interviews are done if it is not possible to get in contact with the observation unit; 14-15 per cent of the interviews are done by asking near family members). Data are collected weekly, i.e. the LFS is a continuous survey (all weeks are covered). Up to 1st quarter 1996 (from 2nd quarter 1988) the survey was based on one reference week each month, and in previous years on one week each quarter. Participation in the survey is compulsory, but compulsory fines are not used.

As the data collection is made by use of computer-assisted interviews, some procedures for electronic control of the registration of answers are included in the questionnaire, for example concerning the number of working hours during the reference week. In some cases the interviewers become a "warning" by recording an answer, in other cases maximum or minimum values have been set beforehand.

Person is the unit for analysis.

The absolute figures from the LFS are presented as estimated figures for the total population aged 15-74. The accurate number of persons in the population being represented by one person in the sample, the inflation factor, varies, with 170 on an average for quarterly figures. The estimation is done by a poststratification method using information from the Central Population Register, the Register of Employees and the Tax Register. Seasonally adjusted data are calculated by using the X12ARIMA method. For more information see Seasonal adjustment of LFS.

Seasonal adjustment

Not relevant

Confidentiality

Not relevant

Comparability over time and space

Most of the time-series from the LFS are comparable over time. Breaks in the series up to 2001 are described in the publication Labour Force Survey 2001 (NOS C748).

The concepts in LFS are defined in accordance with international recommendations, cf item 4.1, to ensure comparability among the countries.

As from 2006 the LFS was revised, mainly to be in accordance with the EU-requirements based on new ILO recommendations. Some definitions and parts of the questionnaire were changed, and some new variables were added. As from 2006 age is defined as completed years at the time of the reference week, instead of completed years at the end of the year, as earlier. Moreover the lower age limit to be covered by the survey was lowered from 16 to 15, in accordance with the surveys in other countries.

These changes from 2006 led to breaks in the time-series for the LFS estimates. The revised survey gives some lower estimates for unemployment (1 000 persons as an annual average for 2006) and some higher estimates for employment (8 000 in 2006). A break in the time series also occured for the estimates of actual working hours per week and man-hours worked. For more information, please cf. http://www.ssb.no/aku_en/. Quarterly data for 2006 are published according to both the revised and the unrevised LFS, in order to improve the comparability for the figures between 2006 and 2005. The breaks in the time-series were most significant for figures divided by age groups.

Accuracy and reliability

Sources of error and uncertainty

In all surveys errors may occur in connection with both the collection and the processing of data. The use of proxy interviews (asking near family members instead of the observation unit) often increase the problems of measurement. As an average the employment is underestimated because of proxy interviews.

The response rate is about 85 per cent. Correction for total non-response is done in the estimating procedure. Partial non-response is adjusted for some variables.

Variance

The estimates from the LFS are based on a sample of family units. Somewhat different results might have been obtained if a different sample or if a complete census had been taken using the same questionnaires, interviewers, processing, etc. as those actually used in the LFS. The uncertainty introduced by sampling is called the sampling error or standard deviation of the estimates.

If the reader wants an indication of the size of the standard deviation for quarterly figures and annual averages, see the table below. Changes between two surveys will usually have the same absolute uncertainty as the two figures which are compared.

 

Size of the standard deviation

 
 

Quarterly figures

 

Annual averages

 

Absolute figures

As per cent of estimated value

Absolute figures

As per cent of estimated value

 
           

5 000

800

16,0

500

10,0

 

7 000

900

12,9

600

8,6

 

10 000

1 100

11,0

700

7,0

 

20 000

1 600

8,0

1 100

5,5

 

30 000

1 900

6,3

1 300

4,3

 

40 000

2 200

5,5

1 500

3,8

 

50 000

2 500

5,0

1 700

3,4

 

60 000

2 700

4,5

1 800

3,0

 

70 000

2 900

4,1

1 900

2,7

 

100 000

3 500

3,5

2 300

2,3

 

200 000

4 800

2,4

3 200

1,6

 

300 000

5 800

1,9

3 900

1,3

 

400 000

6 600

1,7

4 400

1,1

 

500 000

7 200

1,4

4 800

1,0

 

1 000 000

9 100

0,9

6 100

0,6

 

1 700 000

9 600

0,6

6 400

0,4

 

2 000 000

9 100

0,5

6 100

0,3

 

Revision

Not relevant

Contact